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To get started with this blank [[TiddlyWiki]], you'll need to modify the following tiddlers:
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* [[MainMenu]]: The menu (usually on the left)
* [[DefaultTiddlers]]: Contains the names of the tiddlers that you want to appear when the TiddlyWiki is opened
You'll also need to enter your username for signing your edits: <<option txtUserName>>
These [[InterfaceOptions]] for customising [[TiddlyWiki]] are saved in your browser

Your username for signing your edits. Write it as a [[WikiWord]] (eg [[JoeBloggs]])

<<option txtUserName>>
<<option chkSaveBackups>> [[SaveBackups]]
<<option chkAutoSave>> [[AutoSave]]
<<option chkRegExpSearch>> [[RegExpSearch]]
<<option chkCaseSensitiveSearch>> [[CaseSensitiveSearch]]
<<option chkAnimate>> [[EnableAnimations]]

----
Also see [[AdvancedOptions]]
<<importTiddlers>>
{{twocolumns{
A coordination action on graphene will be funded by the European Commission to develop plans for a 10-year, 1,000 million euro FET flagship. This is ''an ambitious, large-scale visionary research initiative, aiming at a breakthrough for technological innovation and economic exploitation based on graphene and related two-dimensional materials''.

Graphene, a single layer of carbon atoms, may be the most amazing and versatile substance available to mankind. Stronger than diamond, yet lightweight and flexible, graphene enables electrons to flow much faster than silicon. It is also a transparent conductor, combining electrical and optical functionalities in an exceptional way.

Graphene can trigger a smart and sustainable [[carbon revolution|Graphene and the Carbon Revolution]], with profound impact in information and communication technology (ICT) and everyday life. Its unique properties will spawn innovation on an unprecedented scale and scope for high speed, transparent and flexible consumer electronics; novel information processing devices; biosensors; supercapacitors as alternatives to batteries; mechanical components; lightweight composites for cars and planes.

The groundbreaking experiments on graphene in 2004 by European scientists Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov were awarded the [[2010 Nobel Prize in Physics|Nobel "for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene"]]. Their work has sparked a scientific explosion, best illustrated by the exponential growth of publications and patent applications related to graphene. Huge amounts of human resources and capital are being invested into graphene research and applications in the US, Japan, Korea, Singapore and elsewhere. The first products are expected to enter the market by 2014, according to estimates by Samsung.

The research effort of individual European research groups pioneered graphene science and technology, but a coordinated European level approach is needed to secure a major role for EU in this ongoing technological revolution.

The graphene flagship aims to bring together a large, focused, interdisciplinary European research community, acting as a sustainable incubator of new branches of ICT applications, ensuring that European industries will have a major role in this radical technology shift over the next 10 years. An effective transfer of knowledge and technology to industries will enable product development and production.

The graphene flagship already includes over 130 research groups, representing 80 academic and industrial partners in 21 European countries. The coordination action is lead by a consortium of nine partners who pioneered graphene research, innovation, and networking activities. Coordinated by [[Chalmers University of Technology|http://www.chalmers.se/en/about-chalmers/Pages/default.aspx]] in Sweden, it includes the Universities of Manchester, Lancaster, and Cambridge in the UK, the [[Catalan Institute of Nanotechnology|http://www.nanocat.org/aboutICN.php#]] in Spain, the [[Italian National Research Council|http://www.cnr.it/sitocnr/Englishversion/Englishversion.html]], the [[European Science Foundation|http://www.esf.org/about-esf.html]], [[AMO GmbH|http://www.amo.de/aboutus.0.html?&L=11]] in Germany, and the [[Nokia corporation|Nanotechnologies for future mobile devices]]. The advisory council includes Nobel Laureates [[Andre Geim|Awarded for the discovery of graphene]] (University of Manchester), Konstantin Novoselov (University of Manchester), [[Albert Fert|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Fert]] (THALES) and [[Klaus von Klitzing|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Klaus_von_Klitzing]] (Max-Planck Institute), the leading graphene theoretician [[Francisco Guinea|http://www.icmm.csic.es/PacoGuinea/webpage.htm]] (CSIC, Spain), as well as [[Luigi Colombo|http://www.techconnectworld.com/Nanotech2011/bio.html?id=39]] (Texas Instruments, USA) and Byung Hee Hong (SKK University, Korea), both pioneers of graphene mass production and graphene-based product development.

The pilot phase coordination action started on May 1. Its main task is to pave the way for the full, 10 year, 1,000 million euro flagship both in terms of the organizational framework and a scientific and technological roadmap for research and innovation. The action plan for the FET Flagship will be submitted in 2012 to the European Commission, aiming for GRAPHENE to be one of the two flagships launched in 2013.

"We are convinced that exploiting the full potential of graphene will have huge impacts on society at large, and thrilled that the EU Commission shares our view and believes in our focused and open approach to moving forward", says Prof. Jari Kinaret, Chalmers University of Technology, the project leader of [[GRAPHENE-CA|http://www.graphene-flagship.eu/GF/index.php]] (GRAPHENE-Coordinated Action). Source: [[GRAPHENE-CA appointed an EU Future Emerging Technology Flagship Pilot|http://www.graphene-flagship.eu/GFprelease/PR_GRAPHENE-CA_final.pdf]]

''Related news'' list by date, most recent first: <<matchTags popup sort:-created graphene>><<matchTags popup sort:-created [[national initiatives]]>>
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}}}
The ubiquity of tiny particles of minerals -mineral nanoparticles- in oceans and rivers, atmosphere and soils, and in living cells are providing scientists with new ways of understanding Earth's workings. ''Our planet's physical, chemical, and biological processes are influenced or driven by the properties of these minerals''.

So states a team of researchers from seven universities in a paper published in the journal Science: [["Nanominerals, Mineral Nanoparticles, and Earth Systems."|http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/319/5870/1631]] "This is an excellent summary of the relevance of natural nanoparticles in the Earth system," said Enriqueta Barrera, program director in NSF's Division of Earth Sciences. "It shows that there is much to be learned about the role of nanominerals, and points to the need for future research."

Minerals have an enormous range of physical and chemical properties due to a wide range of composition and structure, including particle size. Each mineral has a set of specific physical and chemical properties. ''Nanominerals'', however, ''have one critical difference: a range of physical and chemical properties, depending on their size and shape''.

"This difference changes our view of the diversity and complexity of minerals, and how they influence Earth systems," said [[Michael Hochella|http://www.vt.edu/spotlight/achievement/2008-03-03_hochella/2008-03-03_hochella.html]] of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in Blacksburg, Va.

''The role of nanominerals is far-reaching'', said Hochella. ''Nanominerals are widely distributed throughout the atmosphere, oceans, surface and underground waters, and soils, and in most living organisms, even within proteins''.

Nanoparticles play an important role in the lives of ocean-dwelling phytoplankton, for example, which remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Phytoplankton growth is limited by iron availability. Iron in the ocean is composed of nanocolloids, nanominerals, and mineral nanoparticles, supplied by rivers, glaciers and deposition from the atmosphere. Nanoscale reactions resulting in the formation of phytoplankton biominerals, such as calcium carbonate, are important influences on oceanic and global carbon cycling.

On land, nanometer-scale hematite catalyzes the oxidation of manganese, resulting in the rapid formation of minerals that absorb heavy metals in water and soils. The rate of oxidation is increased when nanoparticles are present.

Conversely, harmful heavy metals may disperse widely, courtesy of nanominerals. In research at the Clark Fork River Superfund Complex in Montana, Hochella discovered a nanomineral involved in the movement of lead, arsenic, copper, and zinc through hundred of miles of Clark River drainage basin.

Nanominerals can also move radioactive substances. Research at one of the most contaminated nuclear sites in the world, a nuclear waste reprocessing plant in Mayak, Russian, has shown that plutonium travels in local groundwater, carried by mineral nanoparticles.

In the atmosphere, mineral nanoparticles impact heating and cooling. Such particles act as water droplet growth centers, which lead to cloud formation. The size and density of droplets influences solar radiation and cloud longevity, which in turn influence average global temperatures.

''"The biogeochemical and ecological impact of natural and synthetic nanomaterials is one of the fastest growing areas of research, with not only vital scientific, but also large environmental, economic, and political consequences,"'' the authors conclude.

In addition to Hochella, authors of the paper are Steven Lower of Ohio State University, and Patricia Maurice of the University of Notre Dame; along with R. Lee Penn of the University of Minnesota; Nita Sahai of the University of ~Wisconsin-Madison; Donald Sparks of the University of Delaware; and Benjamin Twining of the University of South Carolina.

Source: [["Nanominerals" Influence Earth Systems from Ocean to Atmosphere to Biosphere|http://www.nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=111279&org=NSF&from=news]]. See also [[Nanoscience will change the way we think about the world|http://www.vtnews.vt.edu/story.php?relyear=2008&itemno=177&head=Nanoscience%20will%20change%20the%20way%20we%20think%20about%20the%20world]]
{{twocolumns{
"Recently, a study from Australia reported that daily sunscreen use reduces the risk of melanoma by 50%, and reduces the risk of squamous cell carcinoma, another type of skin cancer, by 39%. Therefore, the importance of sun protection is unquestionable. Although more research is needed to solidify the environmental and occupational risks, the Nanodermatology Society believes that nano-based sunscreens do not pose serious health risks to consumers and agrees with regulatory agencies like the Environmental Working Group, which states: “Zinc and titanium-based formulations are among the safest, most effective, sunscreens on the market”. This statement is based on the current evidence showing:
•	Consumers using zinc and titanium sunscreen products are exposed to 20% less UVA radiation than those using sunscreens without these products.
•	Nano-titanium and zinc do not penetrate the outer layer of human skin, even through hair follicles. 
•	Nano-titanium and zinc do not reach living cells, and therefore pose no risk of toxicity.

As the summer months approach, we encourage all individuals to protect themselves from the damaging effects of the sun. In concurrence with the American Academy of Dermatology (AAD) we suggest:
•	Wear protective clothing including a wide-brimmed hat and sunglasses 
•	For areas that are exposed, apply a water-resistant sunscreen with a Sun Protection Factor (SPF) of
30 or above that provides both UVA and UVB protection. 
•	Reapply sunscreen every 2 hours, regardless of activity (swimming, sweating) 
•	Seek shade, especially when the sun’s rays are strongest between 10am and 4pm." Source: From ''[[Nanodermatology Society Sunscreen Guidelines|http://www.nanodermsociety.org/documents/press/Nanodermatology_Society_Sunscreen_Guidelines_.pdf]]''. The 2011 Nanodermatology Society Position Statement on Sunscreens

"The [[Nanodermatology Society (NDS)|http://www.nanodermsociety.org/]] was established in 2010 to promote a greater understanding of the scientific and medical aspects of nanotechnology in skin health and disease. The Society is composed of physicians, dermatologists, physicists, chemists, policy makers, regulators, nanotechnology scientists, and students involved in nanotechnology specifically related to dermatology from teaching, to education, to scientific research. The Nanodermatology Society is supported by generous donations from Merck, Schering-Plough, Johnson & Johnson, Horiba Scientific, P&G, BASF". The [[1st International Conference of the Nanodermatology Society|http://www.nanomedjournal.org/content/nanodermatologysociety]] was held February 4th, 2011
			
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<html><img style="float:left; margin-right:10px" src="img/nanotechnology_engines_on.jpg" title="x" class="photo"  width="50%"/></html>//"Controlling climate change, abandoning dependency on fossil fuels, and creating the conditions for sustainable development will require as great a transformation as our ancestors accomplished over tens of thousands of years in moving from agrarian to urban societies". ''A new book about how Nanotechnology is contributing to solve this vital challenges''.

"Merging and blending some thoughts on recent news on energy that appeared in on our Nanowiki 2010 on the question of the unknown potential benefits to human health and environmental risks of nanotechnology. The responsible implementation of Nanotechnology should be a balance between the risks and benefits to society, as analyzed by a broad spectrum of stakeholders. Our intention is to promote the debate on the evolution of this young discipline, nanotechnology, to ensure its safe and responsible development. "

Download: [[Nanotechnology:Engines On|http://www.archive.org/details/NanotechnologyEnginesOn]]
Read online: [[Nanotechnology: Engines On]]//
Rather than infer that nanotechnology is safe, members of the public who learn about this novel science tend to become sharply polarized along cultural lines, according to a study conducted by the [[Cultural Cognition Project|http://www.culturalcognition.net/]] at Yale Law School in collaboration with the [[Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies|http://www.nanotechproject.org/]]. These findings have important implications for garnering support of the new technology, say the researchers.

According to Kahan and other experts, the findings of the experiment highlight the need for public education strategies that consider citizens' predispositions. "There is still plenty of time to develop risk-communication strategies that make it possible for persons of diverse values to understand the best evidence scientists develop on nanotechnology's risks," added Kahan. "The only mistake would be to assume that such strategies aren't necessary."

''"The message matters,"'' said David Rejeski, director of the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies. ''"How information about nanotechnology is presented to the vast majority of the public who still know little about it can either make or break this technology''. Scientists, the government, and industry generally take a simplistic, 'just the facts' approach to communicating with the public about a new technology. But, this research shows that diverse audiences and groups react to the same information very differently."

Source: [[Nanotechnology 'culture war' possible, says Yale study|http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2008-12/yu-nw120508.php]]

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Using lasers, Korean researchers have crafted a microscopic version of Rodin's famed sculpture "The Thinker" just about twice the size of a red blood cell at 20 millionths of a meter high. For more than a decade, researchers worldwide have experimented with lasers to fabricate elaborate 3-D creations.

[img[the thinker|img/thinker.jpg]] 
<html><a href="http://scitation.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal&id=APPLAB000090000007079903000001&idtype=cvips&gifs=yes">Ultraprecise microreproduction of a three-dimensional artistic sculpture by multipath scanning method in two-photon photopolymerization</a> [Appl. Phys. Lett 90, 013113 (2007)] by Dong-Yol Yang, Sang Hu Park, Tae Woo Lim, Hong-Jin Kong, Shin Wook Yi, Hyun Kwan Yang and Kwang-Sup Lee</html>
Nanotechnologists have discovered that ''the photosynthesis system of bacteria can be used to transport light over relatively long distances. They have developed a type of 'molecular glass fibre''', a thousand times thinner than a human hair.

All plants and some bacteria use photosynthesis to store energy from the sun. Researchers from the [[MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology]] of the University of Twente have now discovered how parts of the photosynthesis system of bacteria can be used to transport light. In their experiments the researchers used isolated proteins from the so-called Light Harvesting Complex (LHC). These proteins transport the sunlight in the cells of plants and bacteria to a place in the cell where the solar energy is stored. The researchers built a type of 'molecular glass fibre' from the LHC proteins that is a thousand times thinner than a human hair.

In the experiment the researchers fastened the proteins onto a fixed background. They positioned them in a line, and in this way formed a thread. They then shone laser light to one point in the thread, and observed where the light went to. The line with the LHC proteins did not only transport the light, but transported it over much longer distances than the researchers had initially expected. Distances of around 50 nanometres are normally bridged in the bacteria from which the LHC proteins were isolated. In the researchers' experiments the light covered distances at least thirty times greater.

According to Cees Otto, one of the researchers involved, we can learn a lot from nature in experiments such as this. "The LHC proteins are the building blocks that nature gives us, and using then ''we can learn more about natural processes such as the transport of light in photosynthesis''. When we understand how nature works, we can then imitate it. In time we will be able to use this principle in, for example, solar panels." 

The research was carried out in partnership with the University of Sheffield, and fully financed by [[NanoNed|http://www.nanoned.nl/]]. Source: [[MESA+/University of Twente nanotechnologists create ‘molecular glass fibres’|http://www.mesaplus.utwente.nl/news/otto.doc/]]. This work is detailed in the paper [[Long-Range Energy Propagation in Nanometre Arrays of Light Harvesting Antenna Complexes|http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/nl1003569]] by Maryana Escalante, Aufried Lenferink, Yiping Zhao, Niels Tas, Jurriaan Huskens, Neil Hunter, Vinod Subramaniam and Cees Otto. "Here we report the first observation of long-range transport of excitation energy within a biomimetic molecular nanoarray constructed from LH2 antenna complexes from Rhodobacter sphaeroides."

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Research by Indiana University environmental scientists shows that air-pollution-removal technology used in "self-cleaning" paints and building surfaces may actually cause more problems than they solve.

The study finds that ''titanium dioxide coatings, seen as promising for their role in breaking down airborne pollutants on contact, are likely in real-world conditions to convert abundant ammonia to nitrogen oxide, the key precursor of harmful ozone pollution''.

"As air quality standards become more stringent, people are going to be thinking about other technologies that can reduce pollution," said [[Jonathan D. Raff|http://www.indiana.edu/~rafflab/]], assistant professor in the School of Public and Environmental Affairs at IU Bloomington and an author of the study. "Our research suggests that this may not be one of them."

The researchers calculate that, in areas where the titanium dioxide technology is used, ammonia degradation could account for up to 13 percent of the nitrogen oxides in the immediate vicinity. This suggests that widespread use of the technology could contribute significantly to ozone formation.

The findings are timely because the Environmental Protection Agency is developing stricter regulations for ground-level ozone, a primary component in photochemical smog. The pollution is linked to serious health problems, including breathing difficulties and heart and lung disease.

Ozone is produced by reactions involving nitrogen oxides (NOx), which come primarily from motor vehicle emissions, and volatile organic compounds resulting from industrial processes. Equipping cars with catalytic converters has been effective at reducing ozone in urban areas. But different technologies may be needed to meet tighter air-quality standards of the future.

The need has sparked interest in titanium dioxide, a common mineral that is used as a whitening agent in paints and surface coatings. The compound acts as a photocatalyst, breaking down nitrogen oxides, ammonia and other pollutants in the presence of sunlight. "Self-cleaning" surfaces coated with titanium dioxide can break down chemical grime that will otherwise adhere to urban buildings. News stories have celebrated "smog-eating" tiles and concrete surfaces coated with the compound.

But Raff and his colleagues show that, in normal environmental conditions, titanium dioxide also catalyzes the incomplete breakdown of ammonia into nitrogen oxides. Ammonia is an abundant constituent in motor vehicle emissions, and its conversion to nitrogen oxides could result in increases in harmful ozone concentrations.

"We show that uptake of atmospheric NH3 (ammonia) onto surfaces containing TiO2 (titanium dioxide) is not a permanent removal process, as previously thought, but rather a photochemical route for generating reactive oxides of nitrogen that play a role in air pollution and are associated with significant health effects," the authors write.

Raff, who is also an adjunct professor of chemistry in the IU College of Arts and Sciences, said other studies missed the effect on ammonia because they investigated reactions that occur with high levels of emissions under industrial conditions, not the low levels and actual humidity levels typically present in urban environments.

The findings also call into question other suggestions for using titanium dioxide for environmental remediation -- for example, to remove odor-causing organic compounds from emissions produced by confined livestock feeding operations. Titanium dioxide has also been suggested as a geo-engineering substance that could be injected into the upper atmosphere to reflect sunlight away from the Earth and combat global warming.

Further studies in Raff's lab are aimed at producing better understanding of the molecular processes involved when titanium dioxide catalyzes the breakdown of ammonia. The results could suggest approaches for developing more effective pollution-control equipment as well as improvements in industrial processes involving ammonia. Source: From [['Self-cleaning' pollution-control technology could do more harm than good, study suggests|http://newsinfo.iu.edu/news/page/normal/24329.html]]. This work is detailed in the paper ''[["Photooxidation of Ammonia on TiO2 as a Source of NO and NO2 under Atmospheric Conditions"|http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ja401846x]]'' by Mulu A. Kebede, Mychel E. Varner, Nicole K. Scharko, R. Benny Gerber, and Jonathan D. Raff .

''Related news'' list by date, most recent first: <<matchTags popup sort:-created air>><<matchTags popup sort:-created nanotoxicology>><<matchTags popup sort:-created [[titanium dioxide]]>>

<<tiddler Twitter>>
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^^Permalink of this post: http://nanowiki.info/#%5B%5B%27Self-cleaning%27%20pollution-control%20technology%20could%20do%20more%20harm%20than%20good%5D%5D^^
^^Short link: http://goo.gl/uR544^^
<<tiddler [[random suggestion]]>>
{{twocolumns{
''The project ‘i, scientist’ is designed to get students to actually carry out scientific research themselves.'' The kids received some support from [[Beau Lotto|http://www.lottolab.org/]], a neuroscientist at UCL, and David Strudwick, Blackawton’s head teacher. As the children write, “This experiment is important, because no one in history (including adults) has done this experiment before.” From [[Eight-year-old children publish bee study in Royal Society journal|http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/notrocketscience/2010/12/21/eight-year-old-children-publish-bee-study-in-royal-society-journal/]]

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[<img[DNA cassette | http://www.nyu.edu/public.affairs/images/photos/uploads/Seeman-Proofs-12.jpg]]  New York University chemistry professor Nadrian C. Seeman and his graduate student Baoquan Ding have developed a DNA cassette through which a nanomechanical device can be inserted and function within a DNA array, allowing for the motion of a nanorobotic arm. The results, reported in the latest issue of the journal Science, mark the first time scientists have been able to employ a functional nanotechnology device within a DNA array.

"It is crucial for nanorobotics to be able to insert controllable devices into a particular site within an array, thereby leading to a diversity of structural states," explained Seeman. "Here we have demonstrated that a single device has been inserted and converted at a specific site." He added that the results pave the way for creating nanoscale "assembly lines" in which more complex maneuvers could be executed... http://www.nyu.edu/public.affairs/releases/detail/1355
Scientists at Rice University and Baylor College of Medicine have discovered a new way to use Rice's famed buckyball nanoparticles as passkeys that allows drugs to enter cancer cells.

The passkeys that Barron and colleagues developed contain a molecule called Bucky amino acid that was created in Barron's lab. Bucky amino acid, or Baa, is based on pheylalanine, one of the 20 essential amino acids that are strung together like beads on a necklace to build all proteins.

Barron's graduate student, Jianzhong Yang, developed several different Baa-containing peptides, or slivers of protein containing about a dozen or so amino acids. In their natural form, with pheylalanine as a link in their chain, these peptides did not pass through the cell walls.

Barron's group collaborated with Yang's brother, Baylor College of Medicine assistant professor Jianhua Yang at Texas Children’s Cancer Center, and found the Baa-containing peptides could mimick viral proteins and pass through the walls of cancer cells. The peptides were found effective at penetrating the defenses of both liver cancer cells and neuroblastoma cells.

http://media.rice.edu/media/NewsBot.asp?MODE=VIEW&ID=9213&SnID=1476741455

<<matchTags popup sort:-created nanomedicine>><<matchTags popup sort:-created [[drug delivery]]>>
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-SPIE Optics + Photonics"> <a class="url" href="http://spie.org/optics-photonics.xml"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20100801">August 1th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20100805">5th, 2010</abbr> <span class="summary">SPIE Optics + Photonics</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">San Diego, California, USA</span> </a> <div class="description">For the Latest Research in Solar, Nano, Optical, and Photonics Technologies and Applications</div>
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-Graphene 2012"> <a class="url" href="http://www.grapheneconf.com"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20120410">April 10th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20120413"> 13th, 2012</abbr> <span class="summary">Graphene 2012</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Brussels, Belgium</span></a>
<div class="description">Graphene 2012 International Conference will be <b>the largest European Event in Graphene</b>. A Plenary session with internationally renowned speakers, extensive thematic workshops in parallel, an important industrial exhibition carried out with the latest Graphene nanotrends for the future will be some of the features of this event.</div>
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-US-EU bridging nanoEHS research efforts"> <a class="url" href="http://www.nano.gov/html/meetings/us-eu/index.html"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20110310">March 10th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20110311">11th, 2011</abbr> <span class="summary">US-EU bridging nanoEHS research efforts</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Washington, DC, USA</span></a><div class="description">To contribute to the dialogue that will lead to more effective collaboration between US and EU: Engage in an active discussion about Environmental Health and Safety questions for nano-enabled products, Encourage joint programs of work that would leverage resources, Establish communities of practice, including identification of key points of contact / interest groups / themes between key US and EU researchers and key US and EU funding sources for near-term and future collaborations
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-25th Anniversary of Buckminsterfullerene Discovery"> <a class="url" href="http://buckyball.smalley.rice.edu/"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20101010">October 10th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20101013">13th, 2010</abbr> <span class="summary">25th Anniversary of Buckminsterfullerene Discovery</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Rice University, Houston, Texas, USA</span> </a> <div class="description">Rice University is celebrating the Buckyball's 25th Birthday with a commemorative celebration and conference.  The pivotal discovery of the buckyball marks the birth of nanoscience and nanotechnology on Rice's Campus. This celebration and conference will reunite the members of the research team in a special symposium. Here they ''will reminsce about the discovery and provide insight into the future of carbon nanotechnology''. </div>
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-TNT2012"> <a class="url" href="http://www.tntconf.org/2012/index.php?conf=12"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20120910">September 10th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20120914">14th, 2012</abbr> <span class="summary">Trends in Nanotechnology International Conference (TNT2012)</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Madrid , Spain</span></a>
<div class="description">This high-level scientific meeting series aims to present a broad range of current research in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology as well as related policies (European Commission, etc.) or other kind of initiatives (iNANO, nanoGUNE, MANA, GDR-I, etc.)</div></html>
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-NanoDYF 2012"> <a class="url" href="http://www.ifuap.buap.mx/nanopuebla2012/nanodyf12/Simposio_NANODYF.html"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20120611">June 11th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20120620"> 13th, 2012</abbr> <span class="summary">NanoDYF 2012</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Puebla, Mexico</span></a>
<div class="description">NanoDYF 2012 1er. Simposio Iberoamericano de Divulgación y Formación en Nanotecnología </div>
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<<tiddler [[Feynman Anniversary Symposium]]>>
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-ICNS4"> <a class="url" href="http://icns4.nanosharif.ir/page.asp?id=1"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20120312">March 12th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20120314"> 14th, 2012</abbr> <span class="summary">ICNS4</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Kish Island, Iran</span></a>
<div class="description">ICNS4, <b>the 4th International Conference on Nanostructures</b>. Nanostructures have been at the heart of nanoscience and nanotechnology. They play an important role and make significant contributions to the big challenges of energy, environment, health and sustainability. </div>
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<html><img style="float:left; margin-right:10px" src="img/nanosilver.jpg" title="TEM image of silver nanoparticles in the algicide Algaedyn used for swimming pools" class="photo"  width="50%"/></html>Nanosilver is not a new discovery by nanotechnologists – it has been used in various products for over a hundred years, as is shown by a new Empa study. The antimicrobial effects of minute silver particles, which were then known as “colloidal silver”, were known from the earliest days of its use.

Numerous nanomaterials are currently at the focus of public attention. In particular silver nanoparticles are being investigated in detail, both by scientists as well as by the regulatory authorities. The assumption behind this interest is that they are dealing with a completely new substance. However, Empa researchers Bernd Nowack and Harald Krug, together with Murray Heights of the company HeiQ have shown in a paper recently published in the journal «Environmental Science & Technology» that ''nanosilver is by no means the discovery of the 21st century''. Silver particles with diameters of seven to nine nm were mentioned as early as 1889. They were used in medications or as biocides to prevent the growth of bacteria on surfaces, for example in antibacterial water filters or in algaecides for swimming pools.

''The material has always been the same''
The nanoparticles were known as “colloidal silver” in those days, but what was meant was the same then as now – extremely small particles of silver. The only new aspect is the use today of the prefix "nano". "However," according to Bernd Nowack, "nano does not mean something new, and nor does it mean something that is harmful." When "colloidal silver" became available on the market in large quantities in the 1920s it was the topic of numerous studies and subject to appropriate regulation by the authorities. Even in those days the significance of the discovery of nanoparticles and how they worked was realized. "That is not to say that the possible side-effects of nanoparticles on humans and the environment should be played down or ignored," adds Nowack. It is important to characterize in exact detail the material properties of nanosilver and not just to believe unquestioningly the doubts and reservations surrounding the product.

''Nanosilver has different effects than silver''
The term nanoparticle is understood to refer to particles whose dimensions are less than 100 nm. Because of their minute size nanoparticles have different properties than those of larger particles of the same material. For example, for a given volume nanoparticles have a much greater surface area, so they are frequently much more reactive than the bulk material. In addition, even in small quantities nanosilver produces more silver ions than solid silver. These silver ions are toxic to bacteria. Whether or not nanosilver represents a risk to humans and the environment is currently the subject of a great deal of investigation.

''Nanosilver in wastewater treatment plants''
Currently there are hundreds of products in circulation which contain silver nanoparticles. Examples include cosmetics, food packaging materials, disinfectants, cleaning agents and – not least – antibacterial socks and underwear. Every year some 320 tonnes of nanosilver are used worldwide, some of which is released into wastewater, thus finding its way into natural water recirculation systems. What effects solar particles have on rivers, soil and the organisms that live in them has not yet been clarified in detail. [[A commentary by Bernd Nowack|http://www.sciencemag.org/content/330/6007/1054.summary]] in the scientific journal "Science" discusses the implications of the newest studies on nanosilver in sewage treatment plants. More than 90% remains bound in the sewage sludge in the form of silver sulfide, a substance which is extremely insoluble and orders of magnitude less poisonous than free silver ions. It apparently does not matter what the original form of the silver in the wastewater was, whether as metallic nanoparticles, as silver ions in solution or as precipitated insoluble silver salts. "As far as the environmental effects are concerned, it seems that nanosilver in consumer goods is no different than other forms of silver and represents only a minor problem for eco-systems," says Nowack. What is still to be clarified, however, is in what form the unbound silver is present in the treated water released from sewage works, and what happens to the silver sulfide in natural waters. Is this stable and unreactive or is it transformed into other forms of silver? Source: From ''[[At work against microbes for over a century. Nanosilver: a new name – well known effects|http://www.empa.ch/plugin/template/empa/3/103123/---/l=2]]''. This work was detailed in the paper [[“120 Years of Nanosilver History: Implications for Policy Makers”|http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es103316q]] by Bernd Nowack, Harald F. Krug, Murray Height<<slider chkSldr [[120 Years of Nanosilver History: Implications for Policy Makers]]  [[Abstract»]] [[read abstract of the paper]]>>

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<br>//Nanosilver is one nanomaterial that is currently under a lot of scrutiny. Much of the discussion is based on the assumption that nanosilver is something new that has not been seen until recently and that the advances in nanotechnology opened completely new application areas for silver. However, we show in this analysis that nanosilver in the form of colloidal silver has been used for more than 100 years and has been registered as a biocidal material in the United States since 1954. Fifty-three percent of the EPA-registered biocidal silver products likely contain nanosilver. Most of these nanosilver applications are silver-impregnated water filters, algicides, and antimicrobial additives that do not claim to contain nanoparticles. Many human health standards for silver are based on an analysis of argyria occurrence (discoloration of the skin, a cosmetic condition) from the 1930s and include studies that considered nanosilver materials. The environmental standards on the other hand are based on ionic silver and may need to be re-evaluated based on recent findings that most silver in the environment, regardless of the original silver form, is present in the form of small clusters or nanoparticles. The implications of this analysis for policy of nanosilver is that it would be a mistake for regulators to ignore the accumulated knowledge of our scientific and regulatory heritage in a bid to declare nanosilver materials as new chemicals, with unknown properties and automatically harmful simply on the basis of a change in nomenclature to the term “nano”.//
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-nanoPT 2013"> <a class="url" href="http://www.nanopt.org"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20130213">February 13th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20130215">15th, 2012</abbr> <span class="summary">nanoPT 2013</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Porto, Portugal</span></a>
<div class="description">This first edition will be held with the purpose of strengthen ties nationally and internationally on Nanotechnology and, pretends to be a reference in Portugal in the upcoming years. This conference will encourage industry and universities working on the Nanotechnology field to know each other and to present their research, allowing new collaborations between nearby countries such as Spain and France.</div></html>
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-BioNanoMed 2013"> <a class="url" href="http://www.bionanomed.at/"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20130313">March 13th, 2013</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20130315">15th, 2012</abbr> <span class="summary">BioNanoMed 2013</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Krems, Austria</span></a>
<div class="description">BioNanoMed 2013 – 4th International Congress
– the exclusive Know-How-Transfer meeting for scientists, researchers, engineers and practitioners from Natural Science, Medical Science and Engineering Subjects throughout the world. </div></html>
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-SME Nanomanufacturing Conference"> <a class="url" href="http://www.sme.org/cgi-bin/get-event.pl?--001875-000007-nhome--SME-"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20100414">April 14th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20100415">15th, 2010</abbr> <span class="summary">SME Nanomanufacturing Conference</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Mesa, Arizona</span> </a> <div class="description">Looking to understand what nanotechnology means for you? Need to understand how and why nanotechnology can improve your products, process and may even cut costs? Interested in learning about the latest applications and trends in top-down fabrication and bottom-up assembly techniques? This conference will highlight the current, near-term, and future applications of nanotechnology and how they are transforming the way we manufacture products. Peer networking, information sharing, and technology exchange among the world's nanomanufacturing leaders will be a key feature of the event.</div>
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-DNA Computing and Molecular Programming (DNA16)"> <a class="url" href="http://dna16.ust.hk"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20100614">June 14th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20100617">17th, 2010</abbr> <span class="summary">DNA Computing and Molecular Programming (DNA16)</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Hong Kong, China</span> </a> <div class="description">Biomolecular computing has emerged as an interdisciplinary field that draws together chemistry, computer science, mathematics, molecular biology, and physics. Our knowledge of DNA nanotechnology and biomolecular computing increases dramatically with every passing year. The international meeting on DNA Computing has been a forum where scientists with different backgrounds, yet sharing a common interest in biomolecular computing, meet and present their latest results. Continuing this tradition, the 14th International Meeting on DNA Computing, under the auspices of the International Society for Nanoscale Science, Computation and Engineering (ISNSCE), will focus on the current theoretical and experimental results with the greatest impact. This annual conference focuses on topics that merge mathematics, computation, biology, and nanotechnology. Some examples are modeling of bionanoscale systems, using DNA oligonucleotides to guide the assembly of nanostructures, and implementing DNA-based computational devices for medical and other applications.</div>
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-IEEE Nano 2011"> <a class="url" href="http://ieeenano2011.org/"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20110815">August 15th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20110818">18th, 2011</abbr> <span class="summary">IEEE Nano 2011</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Portland, Oregon, USA</span></a><div class="description">NANO is the flagship IEEE conference in Nanotechnology, which makes it a must for students, educators, researchers, scientists and engineers alike, working at the interface of nanotechnology and the many fields of electronic materials, photonics, bio-and medical devices, alternative energy, environmental protection, and multiple areas of current and future electrical and electronic applications. In each of these areas, NANO is the conference where practitioners will see nanotechnologies at work in both their own and related fields, from basic research and theory to industrial applications.
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-ICIDN 2012"> <a class="url" href="http://www.medmicronepal.org/"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20121215">December 15th, 2012</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20121218">18th, 2010</abbr> <span class="summary">First International Conference on Infectious Diseases and Nanomedicine</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Kathmandu, Nepal</span></a>
<div class="description">Interdisciplinary Collaborative Research for Innovation in Biomedical Sciences. This conference is aimed to strengthen network of scientists and young researchers from South Asian Countries to rest of the world. The objective of this International Conference is to provide rigorous discussion forum for the clinicians, microbiologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, biologists, chemists, pharmacists, natural polymer scientists, biomaterial scientists, nanotechnologists on pathogenesis of human infectious diseases, spectrum of antimicrobial resistance and recent advancement for the diagnosis and treatment with emphasis on service performance of the different drugs using nanotechnology.</div></html>
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-nano tech 2012"> <a class="url" href="http://www.nanotechexpo.jp/en/"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20120215">February 15th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20120209">17th, 2012</abbr> <span class="summary">nano tech 2012</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Tokyo, Japan</span></a>
<div class="description">nano tech International Nanotechnology Exhibition & Conference is <b>the world’s largest nanotechnology fair</b> and an essential event for state-of the-art manufacturing.

With the evolution of nanotechnology, application fields have broadened. Recently, nanotechnology based products and technologies became a key factor for the solution of important issues such as IT & electronics field, medical & health care, biotechnology, environment & energy problems.</div>
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-NanoBio-Europe 2010"> <a class="url" href="http://www.nanobio-europe.com/"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20100615">June 15th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20100617">17th, 2010</abbr> <span class="summary">NanoBio-Europe 2010</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Münster, Germany</span> </a> <div class="description">Nanobiotechnology as one of todays most fascinating and challenging field of research is a multidisciplinary and fast developing research area with revolutionary innovations in almost any field of science and engineering. The NanoBio-Europe Congress is going to present the most recent international developments in the field of nanobiotechnology and is providing a platform for interdisciplinary communication, new cooperations and projects to participants from science and industry. The major focus of the NanoBio-Europe Congress is set on medical applications of nanobio technology, in particular the characterization of cellular processes, machinery and interaction to control, manipulate or manufacture molecules or supramolecular assemblies to improve human health.</div>
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-CI webinar: Nanotechnology and food safety"> <a class="url" href="http://www.consumersinternational.org/news-and-media/events/2012/11/nanotech-webinar"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20121115">November 15th, 2012</abbr> <span class="summary">Consumers International webinar: Nanotechnology and food safety</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">London, UK</span></a>
<div class="description">Nanotechnology and food safety: should consumers be worried? Join us to find out more about this new but rapidly developing field.  Learn about the latest developments in the nanotechnology of food and food contact materials, and implications for consumers.</div></html>
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''Food & nanotechnology news'' published in NanoWiki, listed by date, most recent first: <<matchTags popup sort:-created food>>
''Context:'' [[Is Nanofood Approaching the Table?|http://www.cnbss.eu/index.php/editorial/item/7-is-nanofood-approaching-the-table?]] by Centre for NanoBioSafety and Sustainability
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-Nanotech 2011"> <a class="url" href="http://www.nanotechexpo.jp/en/index.html"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20110216">February 16th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20110218">18th, 2011</abbr> <span class="summary">nano tech 2011</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Tokyo, Japan</span></a><div class="description">At nano tech 2011, visitors will see the whole range of cutting-edge technologies and products that are essential today for modern manufacturing: nano materials, nano fabrication technology, evaluation & measurement, applied nanotech for IT & electronics, biotechnology, and the automotive field. nano tech 2011 will be held together with eight concurrent exhibitions.</div>
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Siemens Foundation announced winners of the Siemens Competition in Math, Science & Technology, "revealing the brightest high school minds in contention for the nation’s most coveted teen science prize." The Siemens Competition in Math, Science & Technology recognizes remarkable talent early on, fostering individual growth for high school students who are willing to challenge themselves through science research. Through this competition, students have an opportunity to achieve national recognition for science research projects that they complete in high school. 

<html><img style="float:left; margin-right:10px; margin-bottom:10px" src="img/angela_zhang.jpg" title="Angela Zhang. 17-year-old wins 100k for creating cancer-killing nanoparticle" class="photo"  width="50%"/></html>//Design of Image-guided, Photo-thermal Controlled Drug Releasing Multifunctional Nanosystem for the Treatment of Cancer Stem Cells - Biochemistry//

MENTOR:  [[Dr. Zhen Cheng|http://med.stanford.edu/profiles/radiology/researcher/Zhen_Cheng/]], Stanford University

//“I was surprised by the survival rate of patients who had undergone current cancer therapy.”//

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for initiating and driving tumor growth yet are often resistant to current cancer therapies.  In her research, Angela Zhang aimed to design a CSC-targeted, gold and iron oxide-based nanoparticle with a potential to eradicate these cells through a controlled delivery of the drug salinomycin to the site of the tumor.  The multifunctional nanoparticle combines therapy and imaging into a single platform, with the gold and iron-oxide components allowing for both MRI and Photoacoustic imaging.  This nanosystem could potentially help overcome cancer resistance, minimize undesirable side effects, and allow for real-time monitoring of treatment efficacy.

Angela, a senior, is interested in nanomedicine and molecular imaging because they allow her “to transform my interests in physics, chemistry, and biology into solutions for current health problems.”  She won the Intel International Science & Engineering Fair (ISEF) 2011 Grand Award and the ISEF 2010 Grand Award (both for medicine and health science), and a trip to attend the Taiwan International Science Fair awarded by the National Taiwan Science Education Center.  Angela planned and executed a fundraiser that raised over $5,000 a year for the Monta Vista Interact International Night and has participated in the Jade Ribbon Youth Council to raise awareness about Hepatitis B.  She plays golf and the piano and would like to major in chemical or biomedical engineering or physics.  She was a 2010 Siemens Competition Regional Finalist who put in 1,000 hours on her current project.  Angela hopes to become a research professor. Source: From [[2011 Siemens Competition in Math, Science & Technology|http://www.siemens-foundation.org/en/competition/2011_winners.htm#1]]

''Related news'' list by date, most recent first: <<matchTags popup sort:-created nanoparticles>><<matchTags popup sort:-created nanomedicine>><<matchTags popup sort:-created nano-oncology>><<matchTags popup sort:-created educational>>
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-EuroScience-Open-Forum-ESOF-2008"> <a class="url" href="http://www.euroscience.org/ESOF/esof2008.htm"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20080718">July 18th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20080723">22th, 2008</abbr> <span class="summary">EuroScience Open Forum ESOF 2008</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Barcelona</span> </a> <div class="description">Euroscience Open Forum is a biennial event which seeks to showcase European achievements right across the scientific spectrum and serves as an open forum for debates on science-related issues and also as a showcase for European and International research. Through ESOF, researchers and scientists, as well as the general public, are provided with an adequate platform for exchanging views and discussing the challenges and consequences of scientific developments around the world. Barcelona has been selected to host ESOF in 2008 and, thus, deserves the tribute as Europe’s “City of Science” for that year. </div>
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-NanoBio - Europe"> <a class="url" href="http://nanobio-europe-2012.jrc.ec.europa.eu/"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20120618">June 18th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20120620"> 20th, 2012</abbr> <span class="summary">NanoBio - Europe</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Varese, Italy</span></a>
<div class="description"><br>The 8th NanoBio-Europe conference will showcase the <b>latest international developments in nanobiotechnology</b>, and providing a platform to facilitate interdisciplinary communications, new collaborations for delegates from academic, industrial and clinical backgrounds.</div>
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-EuroNanoForum 2013"> <a class="url" href="http://www.euronanoforum2013.eu/"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20110618">June 18th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20110620">June 20th, 2011</abbr> <span class="summary">EuroNanoForum 2013</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Dublin, Ireland</span></a><div class="description">EuroNanoForum is a biannual event supported by the European Commission and organised within the framework of the Presidency of the European Union.</div></html>
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<img src="http://gestion.pacifico-meetings.com/www/iutox2010/imgs/logo.jpg"  width="10%"/><img src="http://gestion.pacifico-meetings.com/www/iutox2010/imgs/cabezote.jpg"  width="50%"/>
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-IUTOX-2010"> <a class="url" href="http://gestion.pacifico-meetings.com/www/iutox2010/"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20100719">July 19th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20100723">23th, 2010</abbr> <span class="summary">IUTOX-2010, the XII International Congress of Toxicology</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Barcelona, Catalunya, España</span> </a> <div class="description">The Spanish Association of Toxicology (AETOX) and EUROTOX in the name of the International Union of Toxicology (IUTOX), invite you to participate in IUTOX-2010. The Congress will encourage the interaction between Academia, Industry, Regulators, Expert in Human (clinical and epidemiology) and Environmental Toxicology. Chemical Safety is increasingly requiring integrated and translational approaches to get successful possibilities of innovative application of the results of research and development based on added values with safety to human health and the environment. </div>
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<div class="vevent"i d="hcalendar-Nanotech 2012 Conference and Expo">  <a class="url" href="http://www.techconnectworld.com/Nanotech2012/"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20120618">June 18th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20120621">June 21th, 2012</abbr> <span class="summary">Nanotech 2012 Conference and Expo</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Santa Clara, California</span></a><div class="description">"The world’s largest nanotechnology event, Nanotech 2012, delivers application-focused research from the top international academic, government and private industry labs. Thousands of leading researchers, scientists, engineers and technology developers participate in Nanotech to identify new technology trends, development tools, product opportunities, R&D collaborations, and commercialization partners. Join the global community that has been working together for over 15 years to integrate nanotechnology into industry with a focus on scale, safety and cost-effectiveness."
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-BCNano'11"> <a class="url" href="http://www.ccit.ub.edu/w3/wcat/hom/hom_0000.htm"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20110919">September 19th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20110923">September 23th, 2011</abbr> <span class="summary">BCNano'11</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Barcelona, Spain</span></a><div class="description">BCNano11 goal is two-fold: first of all, we want this meeting to be the right spot to learn about nanotechnology, both from the university and industry point of view. Second, and thanks to debate forums, hands-on practical demos and poster sessions, we intend BCNano11 to be a generator of scientific relationships between researchers and also between industry and academia. Because the future of Nanotechnology relies on both of them. 
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-IEEE INEC 2013"> <a class="url" href="http://www.inec2013.org/index.html"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20130102">January 2th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20130104">4th, 2013</abbr> <span class="summary">2013 IEEE International Nanoelectronics Conference</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Singapore</span></a>
<div class="description">The theme of the conference will be SUSTAINABLE NANOELECTRONICS, aiming in nanoelectronics for the future. This conference also aims to identify the paths between fundamental research and potential electronics, photonics and nano-science applications.</div></html>
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-BioNanoMed 2010"> <a class="url" href="http://www.bionanomed.at/"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20101102">November 2th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20101103">3th, 2010</abbr> <span class="summary">BioNanoMed 2010</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Krems, Austria</span> </a> <div class="description">Nanotechnology: New frontiers in Medicine & Biology. The aim of BioNanoMed 2010, 2nd International Congress, is to bring together clinical physicians, nanoscientists with a background of physics, biology, pharmacology, engineering or material science, industry experts as well as technology transfer and education institutions, governmental and non-governmental institutions in the field of life science to discuss current, emerging and future trends of the converging fields of Nanotechnology, Biotechnology and Medicine. </div>
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-IEEE Nano 2012"> <a class="url" href="http://www.ieee.org/conferences_events/conferences/conferencedetails/index.html?Conf_ID=19746"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20120820">August 20th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20120823">23th, 2012</abbr> <span class="summary">IEEE Nano 2012, 12th International Conference on Nanotechnology</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Birmingham, UK</span></a>
<div class="description">IEEE NANO is the top IEEE annual conference in nanotechnology, and one of the biggest nanotechnology conferences in the world. The conference brings together leading scientists and engineers in nanotechnology to exchange information on their latest research progress.</div></html>
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-ICONSAT-2012"> <a class="url" href="http://www.iconsat2012.com/"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20120120">January 20th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20120124">24th, 2012</abbr> <span class="summary">ICONSAT-2012</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Hyderabad, India</span></a>
<div class="description">The International Conference On NanoScience And Technology (ICONSAT) was conducted every alternate year since 2003, primarily motivated by the desire <b>to promote scientific exchange between experts in India and abroad</b> in the area of nanoscience and technology. ICONSAT - 2012 is the fifth in the above series of international conferences and comes at a time when nanoscience and technology is on the upswing and the varied Nano Mission initiatives are beginning to bear fruit.</div>
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-NanoAgri 2010"> <a class="url" href="http://www.nanoagri2010.com/"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20100620">June 20th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20100625">25th, 2010</abbr> <span class="summary">NanoAgri 2010</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">São Pedro, SP, Brazil</span> </a> <div class="description">I International Conference on Food and Agriculture Applications of Nanotechnologies. New and emerging applications of nanotechnologies in food and agriculture and issues related to their use will be the focus of this Conference. In addition to exploring relevant scientific and technological advances, the Conference will also seek to highlight areas of research with the greatest potential to benefit society.</div>
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Nanotechnology in Cosmetics!

These days we are debating if nanoparticles in sunblock and toothpaste are safe. The ancient Greeks and Romans didn't know about such things - but they already used nanotechnology in their cosmetics. An ancient dyeing process for blacking hair is a remarkable illustration of synthetic nanoscale biomineralization.... http://www.newswiretoday.com/news/8233/

<<matchTags popup sort:-created concerns>><<matchTags popup sort:-created [[nano before nanotech]]>>
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We cordially invite you to attend the closing ceremony of the 2011 UCLA Sci|Art NanoLab “Imagine the Impossible” summer program and see the efforts of these bright young minds come to fruition. The event will begin promptly at 10 am PST in the CNSI auditorium. If you are unable to attend in person, please feel free to view the event online by visiting the following link:

''Video stream at 10:00 am, Friday, July 1st
http://cnsi.ctrl.ucla.edu/streaming/art-sci-live''

The Sci|Art NanoLab is a highly competitive summer program for high school juniors and seniors interested in collaborating with diverse and notable minds to challenge traditional, polarized perspectives of the arts and sciences. Sponsored by UCLA's ART|SCI Center, Department of Design | Media Arts and the California NanoSystems Institute (CNSI) , the Sci|Art  NanoLab focuses on multi-disciplinary collaborations exploring the possibilities and implications of scientific and technological innovation. Throughout the 2-week intensive program, students have made connections between cutting edge scientific research, popular culture and contemporary arts. Lab visits, workshops, hands-on experiments, and meetings with world renowned scientists are balanced with visits to museums, daily movie screenings and meetings with famous contemporary artists who collaborate with scientists. As part of the program curriculum, students have be asked to develop an original concept for a collaborative project under the general guidelines of ‘Imagine the Impossible’.  With the assistance skill workshops and the knowledge base of the Sci|Art Team, groups of students will deliver their final multimedia presentations during the closing ceremony on July 1st.

For more information on the program, please visit: http://artsci.ucla.edu/summer

''Related news'' list by date, most recent first: <<matchTags popup sort:-created art >>
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Via [[Roger Malina]]
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-Nanotech 2010"> <a class="url" href="http://www.techconnectworld.com/Nanotech2010/"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20100621">June 21th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20100625">25th, 2010</abbr> <span class="summary">Nanotech 2010</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Anaheim, California</span> </a> <div class="description">Uniting innovators to bring nanotechnology from laboratory to marketplace. Nanotech 2010 brings together over 5,000 technology and business leaders and experts from academia, government, startups and Fortune 1,000 companies. </div>
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-NanoBio Europe 2011"> <a class="url" href="http://www.nisenet.org/nanodays/"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20110621">June 21th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20110623">June 23th, 2011</abbr> <span class="summary">7th NanoBio Europe conference</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Cork, Ireland</span></a><div class="description">Nanobiotechnology is one of the most fascinating and challenging fields of research and development. It is highly multidisciplinary, involving research from all scientific and engineering disciplines, together with relevant clinical expertise as applicable. As such, nanobiotechnology provides great opportunities for innovation through converging of knowledge in materials, photonics, electronics, biology and medicine, with technology-driven and application-driven approaches combining. The major focus of the NanoBio-Europe Congress is on medical applications of nanobiotechnology, in which nanotechnology enabled devices and systems which should provide the basis for better, more accessible healthcare with improved outcomes for patients.
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-National  Chemistry Week"> <a class="url" href="http://portal.acs.org/portal/acs/corg/content?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=PP_MULTICOLUMN_T2_50&node_id=1033&use_sec=false&sec_url_var=region1&__uuid=077f07b1-eb80-4f99-92e2-c1b4f9147178"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20121021">October 21th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20121027">27th, 2012</abbr> <span class="summary">National Chemistry Week (NCW)</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">United States</span></a>
<div class="description">Nanotechnology: The Smallest BIG Idea in Science</div></html>
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar- Inaugural Conference of the American Society for Nanomedicine"> <a class="url" href="http://www.amsocnanomed.org/conference_info.php"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20091022">October 22th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20091025">25th, 2009</abbr> <span class="summary">Inaugural Conference of the American Society for Nanomedicine</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Potomac, Maryland, USA</span> </a> <div class="description">The areas of emphasis are clinical applications of nanotechnology enabling successful vaccine development, effective cancer therapy and novel treatment for neurological disorders. In addition, issues such as ethics, safety and toxicity, patent law, intellectual property, and commercialization will be addressed. </div>
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-ImagineNano 2013"> <a class="url" href="http://www.imaginenano.com/GENERAL/index.php"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20130423">April 23th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20130226">26th, 2012</abbr> <span class="summary">ImagineNano 2013</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Bilbao, Spain</span></a>
<div class="description">The 2nd edition of the largest European Event in Nanoscience & Nanotechnology. The 2013 edition will keep the same structure using high-level infrastructure. Under the same roof several international conferences will be held (Graphene, NanoSpain, nanoBio&Med, Photonics/Plasmonics/Magneto-Optics (PPM), TNA Energy and nanoSD “Security&Defense”), as well as a vast exhibition showcasing cutting-edge advances in nanotechnology research and development, an Industrial Forum and a brokerage event (one-to-one meetings).</div></html>

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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-NanoSpain 2010"> <a class="url" href="http://www.nanospainconf.org/2010/index.php?conf=10"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20100323">March 23th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20100326">26th, 2010</abbr> <span class="summary">NanoSpain 2010</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Malaga</span> </a> <div class="description">In 2008, Spain, Portugal and France (through their respective networks NanoSpain, PortugalNano and C'Nano GSO) decided to join efforts in order that NanoSpain events facilitate the dissemination of knowledge and promote interdisciplinary discussions not only in Spain but among the different groups from Southern Europe. Other objectives will also be to enhance industrial participation and permit considering the situation of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology in the south of Europe. The NanoSpain2010 edition will be organised in Malaga (Spain) - to emphasise the importance at the Spanish and European level of the launch of the Centre for Research in Nanomedicine and Biotechnology, Bionand.</div>
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-4th European-Conference for Clinical Nanomedicine (CLINAM 2011)"> <a class="url" href="http://www.clinam.org/conference.html"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20110523">May 23th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20110525">25th, 2011</abbr> <span class="summary">4th European-Conference for Clinical Nanomedicine (CLINAM 2011)</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Basel, Switzerland</span></a><div class="description">The Great Strides towards the Medicine of the Future. The European Joint Conference for Nanomedicine CLINAM 2011 reveals the limits and horizon of the promises of nanomedical tools, techniques, and materials in the context of prevalent and unsolved medical problems. The conference starts with the clinicians, reporting unsolved problems in a variety of medical disciplines. Based on these reports nanoscience-based technologies for solving these problems will be discussed.
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-Graphene Week 2011"> <a class="url" href="http://www.esf.org/activities/esf-conferences/details/2011/confdetail350.html"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20110424">April 24th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20110429">29th, 2011</abbr> <span class="summary">Graphene Week 2011</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Innsbruck, Austria</span></a>
<div class="description">The Graphene Week 2011 conference will be devoted to the science and technology of graphene, advances in its growth and chemical processing, manufacturing graphene-based devices and studies of electronic transport, investigation of physical properties using ARPES, STM and AFM, emerging applications of this new material. It will also address studies of optical properties of graphene and their applications in optoelectronics, graphene manufacturing by mechanical and chemical exfoliation, synthesis on SiC, and growth on metals and semiconductors.
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-Third International NanoBio Conference 2010"> <a class="url" href="http://www.nanobio.ethz.ch/"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20100824">August 24th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20100827">27th, 2010</abbr> <span class="summary">Third International NanoBio Conference 2010</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Zurich, Switzerland</span> </a> <div class="description">Nanobiotechnology is the discipline of the future that is taking over the role of being the motor of economic growth from information technology. Biology is inherently nano. Just think of a cell, which is a warehouse of structures and functional units that are finely harmonized on the nanometer scale. The new tools of nanotechnology allow us to address biological and medical problems with unprecedented accuracy and sensitivity because now it has become possible to interact with the bio-world at the length scale at which it operates. New intelligent drug delivery vehicles, novel nanobiosensors, nanomedical imaging tools and other nanobio-devices, and new nanostructured biomaterials are expected to speed up quantitative biological and medical research, boost our diagnostic capabilities, and increase the length and quality of our lives. At the same time nanostructures inspired by nature or created using biological processes are expected to reduce the production costs of new nanodevices making them accessible for the public.</div>
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<div class="vevent"i d="hcalendar-NanoDays 2012">  <a class="url" href="http://www.nisenet.org/nanodays/"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20120324">March 24th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20120401">April 1th, 2012</abbr> <span class="summary">NanoDays 2012</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">U.S.A.</span></a><div class="description">NanoDays is part of	 a nationwide festival of educational programs about nanoscale science and engineering. NanoDays is organized by the Nanoscale Informal Science Education Network (NISE Net). This community event is the largest public outreach effort in nanoscale informal science education and involves science museums, research centers, and universities from Puerto Rico to Alaska.
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-NanoGagliato Conference 2013"> <a class="url" href="http://www.nanogagliatoconference.org/"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20130725">July 25th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20130730">July 30th, 2011</abbr> <span class="summary">NanoGagliato Conference 2013</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Dublin, Ireland</span></a><div class="description">The 2013 theme is The Progeny of Nanomedicine. Scientists, clinicians and entrepreneurs discussed the most exciting advances in nanomedicine over the last year, exploring how they have affected current thinking in the field and will alter the path of medicine in the future. In parallel with the NanoGagliato Conference proceedings, the Piccola Accademia of Gagliato of NanoSciences will hold the Second International Conference on the NanoSciences. </div></html>
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-First International Workshop on Nanomedicine"> <a class="url" href="http://www.etp-nanomedicine.eu/public/news-events/news/first-international-workshop-on-nanomedicine"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20100426">April 26th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20100427">27th, 2010</abbr> <span class="summary">First International Workshop on Nanomedicine</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Canary Wharf, London</span> </a> <div class="description">The workshop is intended to be a platform involving scientists, regulators (European Commission, US Food and Drug Administration, Health Canada, Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare) and pharmaceutical industry active in application of nanotechnologies to pharmaceuticals. The objective is to have a discussion on identified issues and emerging science aspects, which may provide directions for future developments and regulatory considerations for nanomedicines.</div>
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-Nanosafety Congress-Turkey"> <a class="url" href="http://www.nanolinenturkey.org/v1/"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20120426">April 26th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20120428"> 28th, 2012</abbr> <span class="summary">Nanosafety Congress-Turkey</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Kemer-Antalya, Turkey</span></a>
<div class="description">Nanosafety Congress-Turkey<b> Workshop on the Safety Assessment of Nanomaterials: New Paradigms and Workshop on Genotoxicity Tests to Assess Human Toxicity</b>. The congress will be organized by NanoLINEN with contribution of two of the largest FP7 projects on nanosafety field, MARINA and NanoValid </div>
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<img src="http://www.nisenet.org/sites/default/files/nd_logo_3.full%20right%20sidebar.jpg"/><div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-NanoDays"> <a class="url" href="http://www.nisenet.org/nanodays/"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20110326">March 26th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20110403">April 3th, 2011</abbr> <span class="summary">NanoDays</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">U.S.A.</span></a><div class="description">NanoDays is our nationwide festival of educational programs about nanoscale science and engineering and its potential impact on the future. NanoDays events are organized by participants in the Nanoscale Informal Science Education Network, and take place at over 200 science museums, research centers, and universities across the country
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-NanoIsrael 2012"> <a class="url" href="http://www2.kenes.com/nano/pages/home.aspx"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20120326">March 26th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20120327"> 27th, 2012</abbr> <span class="summary">NanoIsrael 2012</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Tel Aviv, Israel</span></a>
<div class="description">Israel is renowned for its achievements in innovation. Join us to meet the top people on the scientific and business fronts from Israel and abroad presenting cutting-edge technologies, leading scientific achievements and unique business opportunities </div>
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-The International GENNESYS Congress on Nanotechnology and Research Infrastructures"> <a class="url" href="http://www.gennesys2010.eu/"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20100426">May 26th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20100427">28th, 2010</abbr> <span class="summary">The International GENNESYS Congress on Nanotechnology and Research Infrastructures</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Barcelona</span> </a> <div class="description">The GENNESYS Congress will also make key recommendations on how to structure and organize nanomaterials development in Europe and to promote a new culture in the world of nanomaterials in which research-discoveries will smoothly be transferred into industrial innovations by human-resource networks around modern research infrastructure platforms.</div>
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-Foundations of Nanoscience 2010"> <a class="url" href="http://www.cs.duke.edu/~reif/FNANO/"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20100427">April 27th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20100430">30th, 2010</abbr> <span class="summary">Foundations of Nanoscience (FNANO10)</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Snowbird, Utah</span> </a> <div class="description">Foundations of Nanoscience is a yearly conference on foundations of nanoscience, maintaining the highest scientific standards. Self-assembly is the central theme of the conference. Topics include self-assembled architectures and devices, at scales ranging from nano-scale to meso-scale. Methodologies include both experimental as well as theoretical approaches.  The conference spans traditional disciplines including chemistry, biochemistry, physics, computer science, mathematics, and various engineering disciplines including MEMS. Also a Co-located NSF Workshop on DNA Origami is being organized for April 26, 2010</div>
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-NanoSpain 2012"> <a class="url" href="http://www.nanospainconf.org/2012/index.php?conf=12"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20120227">February 27th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20120301"> March 1th, 2012</abbr> <span class="summary">NanoSpain 2012</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Santander, Spain</span></a>
<div class="description">In 2008, Spain, Portugal and France (through their respective networks NanoSpain, PortugalNano and C'Nano GSO) decided to join efforts in order that <b>NanoSpain events facilitate the dissemination of knowledge and promote interdisciplinary discussions not only in Spain but among the different groups from Southern Europe</b>.

Other objectives will also be to enhance industrial participation and permit considering the situation of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology in the south of Europe.</div>
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-Open Day on Nanotechnologies"> <a class="url" href="http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/sectors/ict/key_technologies/openday-nanotech_en.htm"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20101027">October 27th</abbr> &mdash;<span class="summary">Open Day on Nanotechnologies</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Brussels, Belgium, EU</span> </a> <div class="description">EU Commission Open Day on Nanotechnologies. “The development of nanotechnologies in and from Europe for more societal benefits” is the topic of an open workshop organized by the EU Commission High Level Group on Key Enabling Technologies.</div>
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-SENN2012"> <a class="url" href="http://www.ttl.fi/en/international/conferences/senn2012/Pages/default.aspx"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20121028">October 28th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20121031">31th, 2012</abbr> <span class="summary">SENN2012 International Congress on Safety of Engineered Nanoparticles and Nanotechnologies</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Helsinki, Finland</span></a>
<div class="description">The goal of the Congress is to examine and discuss safe practices in handling nanomaterials; to promote nanosafety at work with an emphasis on detection methods, tools, and safer production processes and to improve the understanding of the biological basis of nanosafety.</div></html>
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-Nanotech Europe 2009"> <a class="url" href="http://www.nanotech.net"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20090928">September 28th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20090930">30th, 2009</abbr> <span class="summary">Nanotech Europe 2009</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Berlin</span> </a> <div class="description">Europe's largest annual nanotechnology conference and exhibition, Nanotech Europe takes place on 28th - 30th September 2009 in Berlin, Germany. Nanotech Europe is an event for nanotechnology professionals, with an interest in research or taking that research to market. The fifth Nanotech Europe offers a broad, interdisciplinary overview of nanotechnology, and the opportunity to meet and discuss with others in the nanotechnology community.</div>
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-Open Science Summit 2010"> <a class="url" href="http://opensciencesummit.com/"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20100729">July 29th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20100731">31th, 2010</abbr> <span class="summary">Open Science Summit 2010</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Berkeley, California, USA</span> </a> <div class="description">Renowned physicist Freeman Dyson identifies  two kinds of scientific revolutions, those driven by new concepts (theoretical), and those driven by new tools (technological). To this classification of scientific revolutions, we can now add a third kind, an Organizational Revolution, the advent of a truly “Open Science,” which will profoundly affect the pace and character of subsequent theory and tool-driven paradigm shifts. The 21st century is off to a rocky start, and as economic and ecological crises converge, there is no shortage of dire predictions. On the other hand, politicians and pundits point to the expectation that Science and Technology will let humanity invent its way out of the problems we’ve created. This rosy outlook ignores a deep crisis that has been brewing and could hamstring our innovative capacity when we most urgently need it.</div>
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-MINM 2010"> <a class="url" href="http://www.cmrdi.sci.eg/minm2010"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20101129">November 29th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20101202">December 2th, 2010</abbr> <span class="summary">Materials imperatives in the new millenium</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Cairo, Egypt</span> </a> <div class="description">Materials are essential for the economic growth of any country. They provide support to the down-stream industries and the entire industrial development of the nation. Maximization of the use of materials would result in an increase of the added value as new products could be obtained from the materials and its processing intermediates. During the last two decades, new technologies have been developed in the areas of material processing which allow its utilization in advanced applications. However, the intermediates require further purification to produce advanced materials for advanced industrial applications. Scientific collaboration among scientists from a variety of disciplines can help in better understanding of the material processing and utilization. R&D should focus on developing cost effective techniques to develop and utilize materials for solving the problems facing the world during the new millennium such as energy, environment, climate change, food and water supply. On the regional level, Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI) being a base of the Arab Association of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, will arrange during the conference a regional meeting of the association to identify areas of the mutual cooperation between members and non-member countries, consequently the conference will be a good forum for coordination of joint efforts.</div>
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-Conference on Nanosciences & Nanotechnologies"> <a class="url" href="http://www.nanotexnology.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=48&Itemid=60"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20120703">July 3th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20120706">6th, 2012</abbr> <span class="summary">9th International Conference on Nanosciences & Nanotechnologies</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Thessaloniki, Greece</span></a>
<div class="description">The NN is the Internationally established world-class event in Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies (N&N) that focuses on the latest advances on N&N and promotes profound scientific discussions between scientists and researchers from different disciplines.</div></html>
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In his project, “High Efficient 3-Dimensional Nanotube Solar Cell for Visible and UV Light,” William Yuan (12-year-old) invented ''a novel solar panel that enables [[light absorption from visible to ultraviolet light|Nanoantennas: the next generation of solar energy collectors]]''.  He designed carbon nanotubes to overcome the barriers of electron movement, doubling the light-electricity conversion efficiency. William also developed a model for solar towers and a computer program to simulate and optimize the tower parameters. //His optimized design provides 500 times more light absorption than commercially-available solar cells and nine times more than the cutting-edge, three-dimensional solar cell//.

Since 2005, William has been involved in the [[First Lego League|nano quest]] ([[FLL|nanoquest competition lego 2006]]), which led him to research renewable energy and nanotechnology. During his research and community outreach, William //realized the importance of renewable energy for future generations and began to focus his research on solar cells//.

Source: [[2008 Davidson Fellow Laureates|http://presskit.ditd.org/2008_Davidson_Fellows_Press_Kit/2008_DF_William_Yuan.pdf]]. "Davidson Fellows scholarships recognize young people under the age of 18 for completing a significant piece of work that has the potential to make a positive contribution to society in one of the following areas: science, technology, mathematics, music, literature, philosophy, or any other graduate-level work considered outside the box. [[The Davidson Institute|http://www.davidsongifted.org/]] mission is to recognize, nurture and support profoundly intelligent young people and to provide opportunities for them to develop their talents to make a positive difference."
A new X-ray microscope can look at nanomaterials in three dimensions.
<html><a href="http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Nanotechnology/Electron_microscopy#Transmission_electron_microscopy_.28TEM.29">
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)</a></html> has traditionally been used to study nanomaterials, but because electrons do not penetrate far into materials, the sample preparation procedure is usually complicated and destructive. Furthermore, TEM only gives two-dimensional images.

The new method shines a powerful X-ray source onto a nanoparticle and collects the X-rays scattered from the sample. Then computers construct a three-dimensional image from that data. The microscope can resolve details down to 17 nanometers, or a few atoms across.

<<matchTags popup sort:-created microscope>><<matchTags popup sort:-created images>>
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-nano tech 2013"> <a class="url" href="http://www.nanotechexpo.jp/en/index.html"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20130130">January 30th, 2013</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20130201">February 1th, 2012</abbr> <span class="summary">nano tech 2013</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Tokyo, Japan</span></a>
<div class="description">The12th International Nanotechnology Exhibition & Conference, the world largest. </div></html>
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-EuroNanoForum 2011"> <a class="url" href="http://www.euronanoforum2011.eu/"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20110530">May 30th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20110601">June 1th, 2011</abbr> <span class="summary">EuroNanoForum 2011</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Budapest, Hungary</span></a><div class="description">EuroNanoForum is a biannual event supported by the European Commission and organised within the framework of the Presidency of the European Union. For the first time, EuroNanoForum is joining forces with another leading European nanotechnology event, <a href="http://www.nanotech.net/">Nanotech Europe</a>, to provide a single meeting point for the whole nanotechnology community. The event will cover the whole life cycle of nanotechnology, from basic research to nanotechnology-enabled products. In addition to a full conference programme, a matchmaking programme and exhibition will maximize opportunities for networking.
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3D printing can now be used to print lithium-ion microbatteries the size of a grain of sand. The printed microbatteries could supply electricity to tiny devices in fields from medicine to communications, including many that have lingered on lab benches for lack of a battery small enough to fit the device, yet provide enough stored energy to power them.

To make the microbatteries, a team based at Harvard University and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign printed precisely interlaced stacks of tiny battery electrodes, each less than the width of a human hair.

"Not only did we demonstrate for the first time that we can 3D-print a battery, we demonstrated it in the most rigorous way,"said Jennifer Lewis, Ph.D., senior author of the study. Lewis led the project in her prior position at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, in collaboration with co-author Shen Dillon, an Assistant Professor of Materials Science and Engineering there.

In recent years engineers have invented many miniaturized devices, including medical implants, flying insect-like robots, and tiny cameras and microphones that fit on a pair of glasses. But often the batteries that power them are as large or larger than the devices themselves -- which defeats the purpose of building small.

To get around this problem, manufacturers have traditionally deposited thin films of solid materials to build the electrodes. However, due to their ultrathin design, these solid-state micro-batteries do not pack sufficient energy to power tomorrow's miniaturized devices.

The scientists realized they could pack more energy if they could create stacks of tightly interlaced, ultrathin electrodes that were built out of plane. For this they turned to 3D printing. 3D printers follow instructions from three-dimensional computer drawings, depositing successive layers of material -- inks -- to build a physical object from the ground up, much like stacking a deck of cards one at a time. The technique is used in a range of fields, from producing crowns in dental labs to rapid prototyping of aerospace, automotive, and consumer goods. Lewis' group has greatly expanded the capabilities of 3D printing. They have designed a broad range of functional inks -- inks with useful chemical and electrical properties. And they have used those inks with their custom-built 3D printers to create precise structures with the electronic, optical, mechanical, or biologically relevant properties they want.

To print 3D electrodes, Lewis' group first created and tested several specialized inks. Unlike the ink in an office inkjet printer, which comes out as droplets of liquid that wet the page, the inks developed for extrusion-based 3D printing must fulfill two difficult requirements. They must exit fine nozzles like toothpaste from a tube, and they must immediately harden into their final form.

<html><img style="float:left; margin-bottom:10px" src="img/lewis-battery.jpg" title="To create the microbattery, a custom-built 3D printer extrudes special inks through a nozzle narrower than a human hair. Those inks solidify to create the battery's anode (red) and cathode (purple), layer by layer. A case (green) then encloses the electrodes and the electrolyte solution added to create a working microbattery. Credit: Ke Sun, Bok Yeop Ahn, Jennifer Lewis, Shen J. Dillon" class="photo"  width="100%"/></html>In this case, the inks also had to function as electrochemically active materials to create working anodes and cathodes, and they had to harden into layers that are as narrow as those produced by thin-film manufacturing methods. To accomplish these goals, the researchers created an ink for the anode with nanoparticles of one lithium metal oxide compound, and an ink for the cathode from nanoparticles of another. The printer deposited the inks onto the teeth of two gold combs, creating a tightly interlaced stack of anodes and cathodes. Then the researchers packaged the electrodes into a tiny container and filled it with an electrolyte solution to complete the battery.

"Jennifer's innovative microbattery ink designs dramatically expand the practical uses of 3D printing, and simultaneously open up entirely new possibilities for miniaturization of all types of devices, both medical and non-medical. It's tremendously exciting," said Wyss Founding Director Donald Ingber, M.D., Ph.D. Source: From [[Printing Tiny Batteries|http://wyss.harvard.edu/viewpressrelease/114/]]. This work is detailed in the paper ''[["3D Printing of Interdigitated Li-Ion Microbattery Architectures"|http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/adma.201301036/abstract]]'' by Ke Sun, Teng-Sing Wei, Bok Yeop Ahn, Jung Yoon Seo, Shen J. Dillon, Jennifer A. Lewis.

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Printing three dimensional objects with incredibly fine details is now possible using “two-photon lithography”. With this technology, ''tiny structures on a nanometer scale can be fabricated''. Researchers at the Vienna University of Technology (TU Vienna) have now made a major breakthrough in speeding up this printing technique: The high-precision-3D-printer at TU Vienna is orders of magnitude faster than similar devices (see video). This opens up completely new areas of application, such as in medicine.  

<html><img style="float:left; margin-bottom:10px" src="img/3dPrinterInLab.jpg" title="Jan Torgersen (l) and Peter Gruber (r) with 3D printer in lab" class="photo"  width="100%"/></html>''The 3D printer uses a liquid resin, which is hardened at precisely the correct spots by a focused laser beam''. The focal point of the laser beam is guided through the resin by movable mirrors and leaves behind a polymerized line of solid polymer, just a few hundred nanometers wide. This high resolution enables the creation of intricately structured sculptures as tiny as a grain of sand. “Until now, this technique used to be quite slow”, says Professor Jürgen Stampfl from the Institute of Materials Science and Technology at the TU Vienna. “The printing speed used to be measured in millimeters per second – our device can do five meters in one second.” In two-photon lithography, this is a world record.

This amazing progress was made possible by combining several new ideas. “It was crucial to improve the control mechanism of the mirrors”, says Jan Torgersen (TU Vienna). The mirrors are continuously in motion during the printing process. The acceleration and deceleration-periods have to be tuned very precisely to achieve high-resolution results at a record-breaking speed.

3D-printing is not all about mechanics – chemists had a crucial role to play in this project too. “The resin contains molecules, which are activated by the laser light. They induce a chain reaction in other components of the resin, so-called monomers, and turn them into a solid”, says Jan Torgersen. These initiator molecules are only activated if they absorb two photons of the laser beam at once – and this only happens in the very center of the laser beam, where the intensity is highest. In contrast to conventional 3D-printing techniques, solid material can be created anywhere within the liquid resin rather than on top of the previously created layer only. Therefore, the working surface does not have to be specially prepared before the next layer can be produced (see Video), which saves a lot of time. A team of chemists led by Professor Robert Liska (TU Vienna) developed the suitable initiators for this special resin.

''Researchers all over the world are working on 3D printers today'' – at universities as well as in industry. “Our competitive edge here at the Vienna University of Technology comes from the fact that we have experts from very different fields, working on different parts of the problem, at one single university”, Jürgen Stampfl emphasizes. In materials science, process engineering or the optimization of light sources, there are experts working together and coming up with mutually stimulating ideas.

Because of the dramatically increased speed, much larger objects can now be created in a given period of time. This makes two-photon-lithography an interesting technique for industry. At the TU Vienna, scientists are now developing bio-compatible resins for medical applications. They can be used to create [[scaffolds|First synthetic organ transplant]] to which living cells can attach themselves facilitating the systematic creation of biological tissues. The 3d printer could also be used to create tailor made construction parts for biomedical technology or nanotechnology. Source: From [[3D-Printer with Nano-Precision|http://www.tuwien.ac.at/en/news/news_detail/article/7444/]]. Ultra-high-resolution 3D Printer Breaks Speed-Records at Vienna University of Technology.

''Context:''
March 10, 2012. ''[[The future of U.S. manufacturing: Nanotech, 3D printing, and self-aware factories|http://wp.me/p1re2-1Gu1]]''. Vivek Wadhwa, WashingtonPost.com.
January 29, 2012. ''[[Will 3D printers lead toward nanofactories?|http://www.foresight.org/nanodot/?p=4946]]''. Foresight Institute, James Lewis.
December, 2010. ''[[Factory@Home|http://web.mae.cornell.edu/lipson/FactoryAtHome.pdf]]'' by Hod Lipson and Melba Kurman. The Emerging Economy of Personal Manufacturing. A report commissioned by the US Office of Science and Technology Policy

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A device that can instantly identify unknown liquids based on their surface tension has been selected to receive the 2013 [[R&D 100 Award|http://www.rd100awards.com/]] —known as “the Oscar of Innovation”—from R&D Magazine.

Invented in 2011 by a team of materials scientists and applied physicists at the Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) and the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard, ''the “Watermark Ink” (W-INK) device offers a cheap, fast, and portable way to perform quality control tests and detect liquid contaminants.'' W-INK fits in the palm of a hand and requires no power source. It exploits the chemical and optical properties of precisely nanostructured materials to distinguish liquids by their surface tension.

<html><img style="float:left; margin-bottom:10px" src="img/Watermark_Ink.jpg" title="(A) In this W-INK prototype, the chip appears blank in the air. When dipped in varying concentrations of ethanol, however, it reveals new markings. (B) Because all liquids exhibit a surface tension, this indicator has the potential to be used to differentiate between liquids of any type. Credit: Image courtesy of Ian Burgess" class="photo"  width="100%"/></html>''"Visual colorimetric indicators, such as pH paper or pregnancy tests, have enjoyed wide commercial success because they are inexpensive and exceptionally easy to use,”'' says [[Joanna Aizenberg|https://www.seas.harvard.edu/directory/jaiz]], who is the Amy Smith Berylson Professor of Materials Science at Harvard SEAS and a Core Faculty member of the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University. “Our W-INK technology greatly expands upon this concept because it can detect any liquids through cleverly designed, chemically encoded opals that reveal easy-to-recognize, macroscopically distinct structural color patterns upon liquid wicking.” 

Aizenberg says she envisions a broad range of industrial and consumer applications—for example, detecting toxins in a chemical spill; testing alcohol levels or the quality of gasoline, sugar or caffeine; or the creation of simple teaching sets and toys. 

The project was a collaboration between Aizenberg and [[Marko Lončar|https://www.seas.harvard.edu/directory/loncar]], Tiantsai Lin Professor of Electrical Engineering at SEAS.

“These R&D 100 Awards are a testament to the role of bold scientific thinking and applied research in solving everyday challenges—in the case of W-INK, improving quality control and security,” says [[Cherry A. Murray|https://www.seas.harvard.edu/directory/camurray]], Dean of Harvard SEAS, John A. and Elizabeth S. Armstrong Professor of Engineering and Applied Sciences, and Professor of Physics. “The W-INK technology draws on insights from chemistry, materials science, optics, self-assembly, and nanotechnology to create a deceptively simple chip with the potential to make a really big impact.”

The W-INK concept relies on a precisely fabricated material called an inverse opal, a layered glass structure with an internal network of ordered, interconnected air pores. Akin to the litmus paper used in chemistry labs around the world to detect the pH of a liquid, the W-INK device changes color when it encounters a liquid with a particular surface tension. A single chip can react differently to a wide range of substances; it is also sensitive enough to distinguish between two very closely related liquids.

Selectively treating parts of the inverse opal with vaporized chemicals and oxygen plasma creates variations in the reactive properties of the pores and channels, allowing one liquid to pass through while excluding others. When the correct liquid enters a pore, the chip reflects light differently, producing a telltale change in color.

“It is fantastic to see Joanna and her team acknowledged yet again for their mastery of bioinspired design,” says Wyss Founding Director [[Donald Ingber|https://www.seas.harvard.edu/directory/ingber]], who is also a Professor of Bioengineering at Harvard SEAS. “The iridescent light effects of inverse opals are found throughout nature, from butterfly wings to oyster shells—and W-INK harnesses these design principles in an entirely new, innovative way with immediate relevance to society.”

Aizenberg and Lončar were joined in the initial research by Ian B. Burgess (who was a Ph.D. student at Harvard SEAS at the time and now a postdoctoral fellow at the Wyss Institute), Lidiya Mishchenko (a graduate student at SEAS), Matthias Kolle (a postdoctoral researcher at SEAS), and Benjamin D. Hatton (a research appointee at SEAS and a technology development fellow at the Wyss Institute). Source: From [["Watermark Ink" device wins R&D 100 Award|https://www.seas.harvard.edu/news/2013/07/watermark-ink-device-wins-rd-100-award/]]. Recognized as one of the top 100 technologies introduced this year, 3D-nanostructured chip instantly identifies unknown liquids.

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An invisible ink displaying multiple levels of encryption - When swabbed with water, the two chips display the decoy message "omega, delta, pi - 507". The true message, "Mat Sci" (Materials Science) is displyed when the upper chip is swabbed with 77% Ethanol (23% water) and the lower chip is swabbed with 100% ethanol.
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-Bionanotechnology III"> <a class="url" href="http://www.biochemistry.org/tabid/379/MeetingNo/SA121/view/Conference/default.aspx"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20120104">January 4th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20120106">6th, 2012</abbr> <span class="summary">Bionanotechnology III</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Cambridge, United Kingdom</span></a>
<div class="description">Bionanotechnology III: from biomolecular assembly to applications. This meeting, the third in the series, brings together an international set of speakers who will discuss a broad range of topics in bionanotechnology from different perspectives and with different technical approaches.<br><br>Topics: Large natural and designed assemblies, Single-molecule studies, Nanomaterials and devices in vitro, Nanomaterials and devices in vivo, Biomolecular self-assembly
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<div class="vevent"i d="hcalendar-Graphene Week 2012">  <a class="url" href="http://www.graphene-week.eu/"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20120604">June 4th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20120408">June 8th, 2012</abbr> <span class="summary">Graphene Week 2012</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Delft, The Netherlands</span></a><div class="description">Sixth International Conference on the Fundamental Science of Graphene and Applications of Graphene-Based Devices. The sixth Graphene Week Conference will be devoted to the science and technology of graphene (atomically thin graphitic films – monolayers, bilayers, trilayers), investigation of its physical properties, advances in its growth and chemical processing, manufacturing graphene-based devices, and emerging applications of this new material. 
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-The 6th International Conference on Nanotoxicology"> <a class="url" href="http://english.nanoctr.cas.cn/nanotoxicology2012/"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20120904">September 4th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20120907">7th, 2012</abbr> <span class="summary">Nanotoxicology 2012 The 6th International Conference on Nanotoxicology</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Beijing, China</span></a>
<div class="description">With the rapid development of nanotechnology applications, the safety assessment of nano-products has become important than ever before. The conference will hence provide a timely international forum for presentation and discussion of current and emerging sciences of all-round</div></html>

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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-Nanofair 2010"> <a class="url" href="http://www.nanofair.com/"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20100706">July 6th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20100707">7th, 2010</abbr> <span class="summary">Nanofair 2010 - 8th International Nanotechnology Symposium</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Dresden, Germany</span> </a> <div class="description">Nanofair is, since 2002, the most established conference on nanotechnology in Europe and will provide a forum for presenting current research results and for the exchange of ideas and information between researchers, scientists and engineers from industry, research laboratories and universities. The focus for this year’s conference will be on all kinds of material aspects, for instance functional nanocomposites, nanomaterials for energy applications or nanoanalytica methods.</div>
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-VI Jornada AIN"> <a class="url" href="http://ainjornadas.es/"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20120607">June 7th</abbr> <span class="summary">VI Jornada AIN</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Barcelona</span></a>
<div class="description">VI Conference on Industrial Applications of Nanotechnology (AIN), aimed at business executives, R & D managers, researchers in the fields of nanotechnology, and marketing agents and technology transfer in order to strengthen partnerships between the industrial sector, universities, research centers and technology. The event, in which companies from different sectors unveil their products or processes related to nanotechnology, is organized by NANOARACAT and Technology Centre LEITAT annually since 2007</div>
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-NanoMED 2012"> <a class="url" href="http://www.nanomed.uk.com/index.html"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20121107">November 7th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20121109">9th, 2012</abbr> <span class="summary">NanoMED 2012 International Conference on Nanotechnology in Medicine</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">University College London, UK</span></a><div class="description">NanoMED will provide a unique platform for discussing key aspects of nanotechnology and its applications in medicine.<br></div></html> 
UCL Centre for Nanotechnology & Regenerative Medicine developed [[the world’s first synthetic trachea implanted in patients using nanomaterials|First synthetic organ transplant]] to generate surface topography in 3D scaffold.

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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-TNT2009 Trends in NanoTechnology"> <a class="url" href="http://www.tntconf.org/2009/index.php?conf=09"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20090907">September 7th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20090911">11th, 2009</abbr> <span class="summary">TNT2009 Trends in NanoTechnology</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Barcelona</span> </a> <div class="description">The TNT2009 edition (September 07-11, 2009) will take place in Barcelona in particular to emphasise the importance at the Spanish and European level of the Nanoscience and Nanotechnology activity of the Catalonian region.This high-level scientific meeting series aims to present a broad range of current research in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology as well as related policies (European Commission, etc.) or other kind of initiatives (nanoGUNE, FinNano, GDR-I, etc.). </div>
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-Magnetic Nanostructures"> <a class="url" href="http://www.nanobio.ethz.ch/"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20100808">August 8th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20100813">13th, 2010</abbr> <span class="summary">Magnetic Nanostructures</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Bates College, 
Lewiston, Maine, USA</span> </a> <div class="description">This conference will be a forum for discussion of spin-dependent and magnetic phenomena in condensed matter systems with nanoscale dimensions. The field of magnetic nanostructures encompasses a wide variety of topics. Spintronics continues to be a prominent area of interest, but many other areas of nanomagnetism will also be included. Previous conferences have included presentations on molecular magnets, biomagnetism, new routes to high density magnetic recording media and magnetic logic devices, spin torque induced dynamics, the manipulation of magnetism by electrical fields, multiferroic materials, spin injection into semiconductors, the spin Hall effect, magnetic nanoparticles and nanowires, magnetostrictive devices, ultrafast magnetization dynamics, domain wall motion, spin wave excitations, optical and scanning probe spin manipulation, and nanoscale magnetic imaging.</div>
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-National Nanotechnology Innovation Summit"> <a class="url" href="http://www.nsti.org/events/NNI/"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20101208">December 8th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20101210">10th, 2010</abbr> <span class="summary">National Nanotechnology Innovation Summit</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Washington, USA</span> </a> <div class="description">The National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) will celebrate its tenth anniversary with the National Nanotechnology Innovation Summit. "Don't miss this once in a decade gathering of the nation’s top Funding Agencies, Innovators and Investors at the National Nanotechnology Innovation Summit. Join the Nation’s top nanotech leaders showcasing their successes and discussing strategic insights into Nanotechnology challenges and opportunities."</div>
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<div class="vevent" id="hcalendar-BfR-Conference on Nanosilver"> <a class="url" href="http://www.bfr.bund.de/en/event/bfr_conference_on_nanosilver-128143.html"> <abbr class="dtstart" title="20120208">February 8th</abbr> &mdash; <abbr class="dtend" title="20120209">9th, 2012</abbr> <span class="summary">BfR-Conference on Nanosilver</span>&mdash; at <span class="location">Germany</span></a>
<div class="description">The Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) is holding <b>a scientific conference on the health risk assessment of nanosilver</b>. The aim of the conference is to provide an overview of the current scientific state regarding the production and application of nanosilver in consumer products and food. </div>
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The ability to move single atoms, one of the smallest particles of any element in the universe, is crucial to IBM's research in the field of atomic-scale memory. In 2012, IBM scientists announced <html><a href="http://www-03.ibm.com/press/us/en/pressrelease/36473.wss" title="Research Determines Atomic Limits of Magnetic Memory">the creation of the world's smallest magnetic memory bit</a></html>, made of just 12 atoms. This breakthrough could transform computing by providing the world with devices that have access to unprecedented levels of data storage. But even nanophysicists need to have a little fun. In that spirit, the scientists moved atoms by using their scanning tunneling microscope to make … a movie, which has been verified by Guinness World Records™ as The World’s Smallest Stop-Motion Film. Source: From [[A Boy And His Atom: The World's Smallest Movie|http://www.research.ibm.com/articles/madewithatoms.shtml]].

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How did IBM researchers move all those atoms to make the world's smallest movie? This short behind-the-scenes documentary takes you inside the lab.
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Imagine a computer chip that can assemble itself. According to [[Eric M. Furst|http://udapps.nss.udel.edu/experts/327266293-Eric_M_Furst]], professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering at the University of Delaware, engineers and scientists are closer to making this and other scalable forms of nanotechnology a reality as a result of ''new milestones in using nanoparticles as building blocks in functional materials''.

Furst and his postdoctoral researchers, James Swan and Paula Vasquez, along with colleagues at NASA, the European Space Agency, Zin Technologies and Lehigh University, reported the finding in an article entitled “Multi-scale kinetics of a field-directed colloidal phase transition,” the article details how the research team’s exploration of colloids, microscopic particles that are mere hundredths the diameter of a human hair, to better understand ''how nano-“building blocks” can be directed to “self-assemble” into specific structures''.

The research team studied paramagnetic colloids while periodically applying an external magnetic field at different intervals. With just the right frequency and field strength, the team was able to watch the particles transition from a random, solid like material into highly organized crystalline structures or lattices.

According to Furst, a professor in UD’s Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, no one before has ever witnessed this guided “phase separation” of particles. 

“This development is exciting because it provides insight into how researchers can build organized structures, crystals of particles, using directing fields and it may prompt new discoveries into how we can get materials to organize themselves,” Furst said.

Because gravity plays a role in how the particles assemble or disassemble, the research team studied the suspensions aboard the International Space Station (ISS) through collaborative efforts with NASA scientists and astronauts. One interesting observation, Furst reported, was how the structure formed by the particles slowly coarsened, then rapidly grew and separated – similar to the way oil and water separate when combined – before realigning into a crystalline structure.

Already, Furst’s lab has created novel nanomaterials for use in optical communications materials and thermal barrier coatings. This new detail, along with other recorded data about the process, will now enable scientists to discover other paths to manipulate and create new nanomaterials from nanoparticle building blocks.

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''“Now, when we have a particle that responds to an electric field, we can use these principles to guide that assembly into structures with useful properties, such as in photonics,”'' Furst added.

The work could potentially prove important in manufacturing, where the ability to pre-program and direct the self-assembly of functional materials is highly desired.

“This is the first time we've presented the relationship between an initially disordered structure and a highly organized one and at least one of the paths between the two. We’re excited because we believe the concept of directed self-assembly will enable a scalable form of nanotechnology,” he said. Source: From ''[[Out of this world|http://www.udel.edu/udaily/2013/sep/furst-self-assembly-091812.html]]'' by Karen B. Roberts. This work is detailed in the paper [["Multi-scale kinetics of a field-directed colloidal phase transition"|http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1206915109]] by J. W. Swan, P. A. Vasquez, P. A. Whitson, E. M. Fincke, K. Wakata, S. H. Magnus, F. D. Winne, M. R. Barratt, J. H. Agui, R. D. Green, N. R. Hall, D. Y. Bohman, C. T. Bunnell, A. P. Gast, E. M. Furst.

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Researchers demonstrate a new solar cell technology: ''How To Make a Solar Cell with Donuts and Tea''.

"It turns out these delicious little things contain everything we need to make a simple solar cell," said [[Blake Farrow|http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2009/03/donutsolar/]], a Canadian scientist who filmed the video while visiting [[Prashant Kamat’s lab|http://www.nd.edu/~pkamat/]] at the University of Notre Dame.

Notre Dame’s YouTube Channel

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<html><img style="float:left; margin-right:10px" src="http://newscenter.lbl.gov/wp-content/uploads/nanorope.jpg" title="Berkeley Lab scientists have developed a nanoscale rope that braids itself, as seen in this atomic force microscopy image of the structure at a resolution of one-millionth of a meter" class="photo"  width="50%"/></html> ''Scientists have coaxed polymers to braid themselves into wispy nanoscale ropes that approach the structural complexity of biological materials.''

Their work is the latest development in the push to develop self-assembling nanoscale materials that mimic the intricacy and functionality of nature’s handiwork, but which are rugged enough to withstand harsh conditions such as heat and dryness.

Although still early in the development stage, their research could lead to new applications that combine the best of both worlds. Perhaps they’ll be used as scaffolds to guide the construction of nanoscale wires and other structures. Or perhaps they’ll be used to develop drug-delivery vehicles that target disease at the molecular scale, or to develop molecular sensors and sieve-like devices that separate molecules from one another.

Specifically, the scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) created the conditions for synthetic polymers called polypeptoids to assemble themselves into ever more complicated structures: first into sheets, then into stacks of sheets, which in turn roll up into double helices that resemble a rope measuring only 600 nanometers in diameter (a nanometer is a billionth of a meter).

“This hierarchichal self assembly is the hallmark of biological materials such as collagen, but designing synthetic structures that do this has been a major challenge,” says Ron Zuckermann, who is the Facility Director of the Biological Nanostructures Facility in Berkeley Lab’s Molecular Foundry.

In addition, unlike normal polymers, the scientists can control the atom-by-atom makeup of the ropy structures. They can also engineer helices of specific lengths and sequences. This “tunability” opens the door for the development of synthetic structures that mimic biological materials’ ability to carry out incredible feats of precision, such as homing in on specific molecules.

“Nature uses exact length and sequence to develop highly functional structures. An antibody can recognize one form of a protein over another, and we’re trying to mimic this,” adds Zuckermann.

Zuckermann and colleagues conducted the research at The Molecular Foundry, which is one of the five DOE Nanoscale Science Research Centers premier national user facilities for interdisciplinary research at the nanoscale.

The scientists worked with chains of bioinspired polymers called a peptoids. Peptoids are structures that mimic peptides, which nature uses to form proteins, the workhorses of biology. Instead of using peptides to build proteins, however, the scientists are striving to use peptoids to build synthetic structures that behave like proteins.

The team started with a block copolymer, which is a polymer composed of two or more different monomers.

“Simple block copolymers self assemble into nanoscale structures, but we wanted to see how the detailed sequence and functionality of bioinspired units could be used to make more complicated structures,” says Rachel Segalman, a faculty scientist at Berkeley Lab and professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at University of California, Berkeley.

With this in mind, the peptoid pieces were robotically synthesized, processed, and then added to a solution that fosters self assembly.

''The result was a variety of self-made shapes and structures, with the braided helices being the most intriguing.'' The hierarchical structure of the helix, and its ability to be manipulated atom-by-atom, means that it could be used as a template for mineralizing complex structures on a nanometer scale.

“The idea is to assemble structurally complex structures at the nanometer scale with minimal input,” says Hannah Murnen. She adds that the scientists next hope is to capitalize on the fact that they have minute control over the structure’s sequence, and explore how very small chemical changes alter the helical structure.

Says Zuckermann, “These braided helices are one of the first forays into making atomically defined block copolymers. The idea is to take something we normally think of as plastic, and enable it to adopt structures that are more complex and capable of higher function, such as molecular recognition, which is what proteins do really well.” Source: [[A Nanoscale Rope, and Another Step Toward Complex Nanomaterials That Assemble Themselves|http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2011/01/18/nanoscale-rope/]]. This work was detailed in the paper [[“Hierarchical Self-Assembly of a Biomimetic Diblock Copolypeptoid into Homochiral Superhelices”|http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ja106340f]] by Hannah K. Murnen, Adrianne M. Rosales, Jonathan N. Jaworski, Rachel A. Segalman, and Ronald N. Zuckermann <<slider chkSldr [[Hierarchical Self-Assembly of a Biomimetic Diblock Copolypeptoid into Homochiral Superhelices]]  [[Abstract»]] [[read abstract of the paper]]>>

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Access on the web at no charge in 2007

The inaugural issue of ACS Nano was released online August 14, 2007. During 2007, the journal is available on the web at no charge. Go to the web site now: http://www.acsnano.org

The first issue of ACS Nano features articles presenting the latest findings from the research groups of Drs. David Allara, Hongjie Dai, and Prashant Kamat, along with a conversation with Nobel Laureate Heinrich Rohrer and a special editorial by ~Editor-in-Chief Paul S.
Weiss.

ACS Nano is a new international forum for the communication of comprehensive articles on nanoscience and nanotechnology research at the interfaces of chemistry, biology, materials science, physics, and engineering. Moreover, the journal helps facilitate communication among scientists from all these research communities in developing new research opportunities, advancing the field through new discoveries, and reaching out to scientists at all levels.

In addition to comprehensive, original research articles, ACS Nano offers reviews, perspectives on cutting-edge research, conversations with nanoscience and nanotechnology thought leaders, and discussions of topics that are important for the entire community.

ACS Nano complements Nano Letters, the leading forum for rapid communication of nanoscale research, ranked #1 in nanoscience & nanotechnology with a 9.960 impact factor.

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[<img[This figure illustrates the comparison of a synapse with the NOMFET. (Image: Dr. Vuillaume, IEMN-CNRS)|http://www.iemn.univ-lille1.fr/uploads/pics/SynT.jpg]]For the first time, French researchers at CNRS and CEA have developed a transistor that can mimic the main functionalities of a synapse. This organic transistor, based on pentacene and gold nanoparticles and known as a NOMFET (Nanoparticle Organic Memory Field-Effect Transistor), has opened the way to new generations of neuro-inspired computers, capable of responding in a manner similar to the nervous system.

In the development of new information processing strategies, one approach consists in mimicking the way biological systems such as neuron networks operate to produce electronic circuits with new features. In the nervous system, a synapse is the junction between two neurons, enabling the transmission of electric messages from one neuron to another and the adaptation of the message as a function of the nature of the incoming signal (plasticity). For example, if the synapse receives very closely packed pulses of incoming signals, it will transmit a more intense action potential. Conversely, if the pulses are spaced farther apart, the action potential will be weaker. It is this plasticity that the researchers have succeeding in mimicking with the NOMFET.

A transistor, the basic building block of an electronic circuit, can be used as a simple switch - it can then transmit, or not, a signal - or instead offer numerous functionalities (amplification, modulation, encoding, etc.).

The innovation of the NOMFET resides in the original combination of an organic transistor and gold nanoparticles. These encapsulated nanoparticles, fixed in the channel of the transistor and coated with [[pentacene|The Chemical Structure of a Molecule Resolved by Atomic Force Microscopy]], have a memory effect that allows them to mimic the way a synapse works during the transmission of action potentials between two neurons. This property therefore makes the electronic component capable of evolving as a function of the system in which it is placed. Its performance is comparable to the seven CMOS transistors (at least) that have been needed until now to mimic this plasticity.

The devices produced have been optimized to nanometric sizes in order to be able to integrate them on a large scale. Neuro-inspired computers produced using this technology are capable of functions comparable to those of the human brain. Unlike silicon computers, widely used in high performance computing, neuro-inspired computers can resolve much more complex problems, such as visual recognition. Source: ''[[An organic transistor paves the way for new generations of neuro-inspired computers|http://www.alphagalileo.org/ViewItem.aspx?ItemId=66617&CultureCode=en]]''. This work is detailed in the paper [[An Organic Nanoparticle Transistor Behaving as a Biological Spiking Synapse|http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/123215199/abstract]] by Fabien Alibart, Stéphane Pleutin, David Guérin, Christophe Novembre, Stéphane Lenfant, Kamal Lmimouni, Christian Gamrat and [[Dominique Vuillaume|http://iemn.univ-lille1.fr/sites_perso/vuillaume/DVu.html]].

[[Related quotes|http://topics.treehugger.com/search/quotes?q=NOMFET]]

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Inflammation is the body's natural defense mechanism against invading organisms and tissue injury. In acute inflammation, the pathogen or inflammatory mediators are cleared away and homeostasis is reached, however in chronic inflammatory states, this resolving response is impaired, leading to chronic inflammation and tissue damage. It is now widely believed that an impaired resolution of inflammation is a major contributing factor to the progression of a number of devastating diseases such as atherosclerosis, arthritis, and neurodegenerative diseases, in addition to cancer. Since the level of inflammation in these diseases is very high—targeted therapeutic solutions are required to help keep inflammation contained.

A new study from researchers at Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH), Columbia University Medical Center, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology presents the development of tiny nanomedicines in the sub 100 nm range (100,000 times smaller than the diameter of a human hair strand) that are capable of encapsulating and releasing an inflammation-resolving peptide drug. The authors showed that these nanoparticles are potent pro-resolving nanomedicines, capable of selectively homing to sites of tissue injury in mice, and releasing their therapeutic payload in a controlled manner over time. Uniquely, these nanoparticles are designed to target the extracellular microenvironment of inflamed tissues. The particles then slowly release their potent inflammation-resolving payload such that it can diffuse through the inflamed tissue. There the drug binds to receptors on the plasma membrane of activated white blood cells and causes them to become more quiescent.

<html><img style="float:left; margin-right:10px; margin-bottom:10px" src="img/collagen_IV.jpg" title="Collagen IV-targeted polymeric nanoparticles (shown in pink) are home to injured tissue, post-injection, in the blood. Credit: Farokhzad Lab" class="photo"  width="50%"/></html>"The beauty of this approach is that it takes advantage of nature's own design for preventing inflammation-induced damage, which, unlike many other anti-inflammatory strategies, does not compromise host defense and promotes tissue repair," said [[Ira Tabas|http://www.tabaslab.com/]], MD, PhD, physician-scientist at Columbia University Medical Center and co-senior author of this study.

"The development of self-assembled targeted nanoparticles which are capable of resolving inflammation has broad application in medicine including the treatment of atherosclerosis," said [[Omid Farokhzad|http://farokhzad.bwh.harvard.edu/]], MD, physician-scientist at BWH, and a co-senior author of this study.

Polymers consisting of three chains attached end-to-end were developed as building blocks for the engineering of self-assembled targeted nanoparticles; one chain enabled the entrapment and controlled release of the therapeutic payload, in this case a peptide which mimics the pro-resolving properties of the Annexin A1 protein. Another chain conferred stealth properties to the nanoparticles, enabling their long-circulation after systemic administration. Yet a third chain gave homing capability to the nanoparticles to target the collagen IV protein to the vascular wall. As such these nanoparticles are capable of selectively sticking to injured vasculature allowing their therapeutic anti-inflammatory cargo to be released where it is needed to effectively promote inflammation resolution in a deliberate and targeted manner.

"These targeted polymeric nanoparticles are capable of stopping neutrophils, which are the most abundant form of white blood cells, from infiltrating sites of disease or injury at very small doses. This action stops the neutrophils from secreting further signaling molecules which can lead to a constant hyper-inflammatory state and further disease complications," said Nazila Kamaly, PhD, a postdoctoral fellow at BWH and co-lead author of this study.

"Nanoparticles that selectively bind to injured vasculature could have a profound impact in prevalent diseases, such as atherosclerosis, where damaged or comprised vasculature underlie the pathology. ''This work offers a novel targeted nanomedicine to the burgeoning field of inflammation-resolution'', a field previously pioneered by BWH's Dr. Charles Serhan," said Gabrielle Fredman, PhD, a post-doctoral fellow at Columbia University Medical Center and co-lead author of this study.

These new developments have led the researchers to start investigating the potential of these pro-resolving nanomedicines for their effects on shrinking atherosclerotic plaques, and these studies are currently underway. The authors have filed a patent for targeted polymeric inflammation-resolving nanoparticles to treat a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis, autoimmune disease, type 2 diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease. Source: From [[Clearing up inflammation with pro-resolving nanomedicines|http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2013-03/bawh-cui031313.php]]. This work is detailed in the paper ''"Development and in vivo efficacy of targeted polymeric inflammation-resolving nanoparticles"'' by Ira Tabas, Omid Farokhzad, Gabrielle Fredman, Manikandan Subramanian, Suresh Gadde, Aleksandar Pesic, Louis Cheung, Zahi Adel Fayad, and Robert Langer.

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 EPFL scientists have discovered how optical signal transmission can be controlled, paving the way for the integration of plasmonics with conventional electronic circuits.

When light hits a metal under certain circumstances, it generates a density wave of the electrons on its surface, like throwing a stone in water. This wave is called a plasmon, and it is small and rapid, occurring at optical frequencies. Plasmonics, the study of plasmons, has gained tremendous interest worldwide as it might offer a way to bridge electronic and optical circuits in technologies like computers, creating superfast processors. However, integrating plasmonics with regular electronic circuits requires the ability to control the plasmons. In an exciting paper publication, EPFL scientists collaborating with the Max Plank Institute have found how plasmons can be controlled in terms of energy and space. Source: From [[A breakthrough in plasmonics|http://actu.epfl.ch/news/a-breakthrough-in-plasmonics/]]. This work is detailed in the paper ''[["Molecular Orbital Gates for Plasmon Excitation"|http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/nl401177b]]'' by Theresa Lutz, Christoph Große, Christian Dette, Alexander Kabakchiev, Frank Schramm, Mario Ruben, Rico Gutzler, Klaus Kuhnke, Uta Schlickum, and Klaus Kern.

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Amid concerns about possible terrorist attacks with nuclear materials, and fresh memories of environmental contamination from the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in Japan, scientists described development of ''a capsule that can be dropped into water, milk, fruit juices and other foods to remove more than a dozen radioactive substances''.

In a presentation at the 243rd National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society (ACS), the world's largest scientific society, they said the technology could be used on a large scale by food processors or packaged into a small capsule that consumers at the home-kitchen level could pop into beverage containers to make them safe for consumption.

"We repurposed and repackaged for radioactive decontamination of water and beverages a tried-and-true process that originally was developed to mine the oceans for uranium and remove uranium and heavy metals from heavily contaminated water," said Allen Apblett, Ph.D., who led the research team. "The accident at the Fukushima nuclear plant in Japan and ongoing concerns about possible terrorist use of nuclear materials that may contaminate food and water led us to shift the focus of this technology."

''The technology also can remove arsenic, lead, cadmium and other heavy metals'' from water and fruit juices, Apblett said, adding that higher-than-expected levels of some of those metals have been reported in the past in certain juices. He is with Oklahoma State University in Stillwater.

''Nanoparticles composed of metal oxides, various metals combined with oxygen, are the key ingredients in the process''. The particles, so small that hundreds would fit on the period at the end of this sentence, react with radioactive materials and other unwanted substances and pull them out of solution. The particles can absorb all 15 of the so-called "actinide" chemical elements on the periodic table of the elements, as well as non-actinide radioactive metals (e.g., strontium), lead, arsenic and other non-radioactive elements.

The actinides all are radioactive metals, and they include some of the most dangerous substances associated with nuclear weapons and commercial nuclear power plant accidents like Fukushima. Among them are plutonium, actinium, curium and uranium.

In the simplest packaging of the technology, the metal-oxide nanoparticles would be packed inside a capsule similar to a medicine capsule, and then stirred around in a container of contaminated water or fruit juice. Radioactive metals would exit the liquid and concentrate inside the capsule. The capsule would be removed, leaving the beverage safe for consumption. In laboratory tests, it reduced the concentrations of these metals to levels that could not be detected, Apblett noted.

The technology is moving toward commercialization, with the first uses probably in purifying calcium dietary supplements to remove any traces of lead, cadmium and radiostrontium. Apblett said the capsule version could have appeal beyond protection against terrorist attacks or nuclear accidents, among consumers in areas with heavy metals in their water or food supplies, for instance. Source: From ''[[A capsule for removing radioactive contamination from milk, fruit juices, other beverages|http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2012-03/acs-acf030712.php]]''. 

''Context:''
December 2011. ''[[Environmental Remediation with Nanoparticles|http://www.cnbss.eu/editorial_post3.php#]]''

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Wonder material graphene has been touted as the next silicon, with one major problem – it is too conductive to be used in computer chips. Now scientists have given its prospects a new lifeline. A Manchester team lead by [[Nobel laureates Professor Andre Geim and Professor Konstantin Novoselov|Nobel "for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene"]] has literally opened a third dimension in graphene research. Their research shows ''a transistor that may prove the missing link for graphene to become the next silicon''.

Graphene – one atomic plane of carbon – is a remarkable material with endless unique properties, from electronic to chemical and from optical to mechanical. One of many potential applications of graphene is its use as the basic material for computer chips instead of silicon. This potential has alerted the attention of major chip manufactures. Individual transistors with very high frequencies (up to 300 GHz) have already been demonstrated by several groups worldwide. Unfortunately, those transistors cannot be packed densely in a computer chip because they leak too much current, even in the most insulating state of graphene. This electric current would cause chips to melt within a fraction of a second. This problem has been around since 2004 when the Manchester researchers reported their Nobel-winning graphene findings and, despite a huge worldwide effort to solve it since then, no real solution has so far been offered.

<html><img style="float:left; margin-bottom:10px" src="img/vertical_transistor.jpg" title="Tunnelling transistor based on vertical graphene heterostructures. Tunnelling current between two graphene layers can be controlled by gating. Credit: Condensed Matter Physics Group, The University of Manchester" class="photo"  width="100%"/></html>The University of Manchester scientists now suggest ''using graphene not laterally (in plane) – as all the previous studies did – but in the vertical direction. They used graphene as an electrode from which electrons tunnelled through a dielectric into another metal. This is called a tunnelling diode''. Then they exploited a truly unique feature of graphene – that an external voltage can strongly change the energy of tunnelling electrons. As a result they got a new type of a device – vertical field-effect tunnelling transistor in which graphene is a critical ingredient.

Dr Leonid Ponomarenko, who spearheaded the experimental effort, said:  “We have proved a conceptually new approach to graphene electronics.  Our transistors already work pretty well. I believe they can be improved much further, scaled down to nanometre sizes and work at sub-THz frequencies.” Professor Novoselov adds “It is a new vista for graphene research and chances for graphene-based electronics never looked better than they are now.”

''Graphene alone would not be enough to make the breakthrough. Fortunately, [[there are many other materials, which are only one atom or one molecule thick|Nanosheet breakthrough]], and they were used for help''. The Manchester team made the transistors by combining graphene together with atomic planes of boron nitride and molybdenum disulfide. The transistors were assembled layer by layer in a desired sequence, like a layer cake but on an atomic scale.

''Such layer-cake superstructures do not exist in nature. It is an entirely new concept'' introduced in the report by the Manchester researchers. The atomic-scale assembly offers many new degrees of functionality, without some of which the tunnelling transistor would be impossible. “The demonstrated transistor is important but the concept of atomic layer assembly is probably even more important,” explains Professor Geim. Source: From ''[[Graphene electronics moves into a third dimension|http://www.manchester.ac.uk/aboutus/news/display/?id=7915]]''. This work is detailed in the paper [["Field-effect tunneling transistor based on vertical graphene heterostructures"|http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nchem.1012]] by L. Britnel, R. Gorbache, R. Jalil, B. Bell, F. Schedin, A. Mishchenko, T. Georgiou, M. Katsnelson, L. Eaves, S. Morozov, N. Peres, J. Leist, A. Geim, K. Novoselov, and L. Ponomarenko.

''Context:''
February, 2012. [[Graphene: The Ultimate Switch|http://spectrum.ieee.org/semiconductors/materials/graphene-the-ultimate-switch]] by Chun-Yung Sung, Ji Ung Lee, IEEE Spectrum. Graphene could replace the transistor with switches that steer electrons just like beams of light

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In the past decade numerous projects on the risks associated with nanomaterials have been initiated and carried out. In general, they dealt with the subject of how nanomaterials could be used without representing a danger to the environment and human health. However a lack of specialists is preventing further urgently needed studies in the field of nano(eco)toxicology from being undertaken. In addition there are numerous gaps – some quite large –.in our knowledge of this subject. These are the conclusions drawn in two reports recently made public, in both of which Empa nanotoxicologist [[Harald Krug|http://www.empa.ch/plugin/template/empa/357/*/---/uacc=krh030/l=2]] was significantly involved.

There are hundreds of products based on nanotechnological manufacturing processes available on the market today, ranging from sun cream and pigments all the way to clothing. Right from the early days these developments were accompanied by research into the safety aspects of nanoproducts. Harald Krug, a toxicologist at Empa has, ''after a decade of research in the field of nanosafety, come to the following (provisional) conclusion: "To date no specific risks are known to exist in association with the use of nanoproducts – or rather free nanoparticles."'' But even if there are no concrete indications of serious problems with synthetic nanoparticles, Hug says that this is not a general "all clear". Companies wishing to market a new nanoproduct should carefully consider its entire life-cycle, from manufacture through use of the item all the way to its final disposal or possible recycling.

“Because in recent years in Europe a large number of environmental toxicological institutes have been closed down ''there are now not enough experts and specialists in the field of the environmental nanotoxicology''.” Consequently, in countless scientific publications in the field the rules of toxicology are not being followed, usually through lack of knowledge. "And as a result there are these horror stories which create a great deal of uncertainty and unease."

<html><img style="float:left; margin-right:10px; margin-bottom:5px" src="img/nanosafety_report.jpg" title="10 Jahre Forschung zu Risikobewertung, Human- und Ökotoxikologie von Nanomaterialien" class="photo"  width="50%"/></html>A 60 page report recently published by the German Society for Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology (DECHEMA) and the Chemical Industry Association (VCI), [["10 Jahre Forschung zu Risikobewertung, Human- und Ökotoxikologie von Nanomaterialien"|http://www.dechema.de/dechema_media/Downloads/Positionspapiere/RisikobewertungNano_2011.pdf]] offers an overview of research projects conducted during the last decade on the subject of nanosafety. It covers six Swiss, 40 German, one US and 25 EU projects.

In another report, [["Impact of engineered nanomaterials on health: considerations for benefit-risk assessment"|http://ihcp.jrc.ec.europa.eu/our_activities/nanotechnology/joint-jrc-easac-report-impact-of-engineered-nanomaterials-on-health]], the European Academies Science Advisory Council (EASAC) drew attention to the gaps in our scientific knowledge in this field and indicated very clearly the topics which need to be researched in the coming years in order that nanomaterials can be directly utilized without risks to our environment or to human health. "Looking at these results, I really wish that in future we would invest more in education and training in environmental toxicology. Only then is it possible to undertake responsible research in this field, and only then can we guarantee the sustainable development of these new technologies," says Krug. Source: From [[A decade of research on nanotechnology risks. Ten years of research on nano materials|http://www.empa.ch/plugin/template/empa/3/114948/---/l=2]].

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San Jose, Calif. - 28 Sep 2009:  On this day in 1989, IBM Fellow [[Don Eigler|The Kitty Hawk of nanotechnology]] became the first person in history to move and control an individual atom.  Shortly thereafter, on November 11 of that year, [[Eigler|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donald_Eigler]] and his team used a custom-built microscope to spell out the letters IBM with 35 xenon atoms. ''This unprecedented ability to manipulate individual atoms signaled a quantum leap forward in nanoscience experimentation and heralded in the age of nanotechnology''. “Don Eigler’s accomplishment remains, to this day, one of the most important breakthroughs in nanoscience and technology,” said T.C, Chen, IBM Fellow and vice president, Science & Technology, IBM Research. “At the time, the implications of this achievement were so far-reaching they almost seemed like science fiction. But now, twenty years later, it’s clear that this was a defining moment that has spawned the kind of research that will eventually bring us beyond CMOS and Moore’s Law, to advance computing to handle the massive volumes of data in the world while using less energy resources. ” From [[IBM Celebrates 20th Anniversary of Moving Atoms|http://www-03.ibm.com/press/us/en/pressrelease/28488.wss]]. Twenty years ago, IBM Fellow Don Eigler changed the course of nanotechnology research. More: [[IBM Research: Major Nanoscale Breakthroughs|http://www.ibm.com/press/attachments/28488.pdf]]

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Addictlab and IMEC are launching a new call for ideas and visions on future applications of emerging technologies in the field of art, design, architecture, fashion, communication, environments, health and well-being. After a first successful collaboration researching visual, conceptual and more practical ways of communicating about nanotechnology, a new call will take it one step further into the world of emerging technologies and their applications, with a focus on the emerging invisible (a-material) production, where benefits are perceptions centred. ''The Addict & IMEC partnership is also aimed at creating a brand new international platform for creative views on nanotechnology applications and ideas''. An international jury will select a winner for each application domain and announce it during a public event in 2009.

It all started a year ago. IMEC, Europe's leading independent nanoelectronics and nanotechnology research centre is driven by a dream: opening up the horizon of emerging technologies research, not only by widening the fields of scientific studies, but involving and informing as many people as possible. Science is for all, not only an educational topic, but also as a mean of increasing creativity and creating a true dialogue on science, technology, possible applications and implications. ''By crossing the borders between science and technology and art and design industry, research institutes, academia and policy leaders can enter into a dialogue with the broad public''.

In this aim, IMEC came to Ad!dict Creative Lab for a first project that resulted in a publication: [[#27 Nanotechnology|http://www.addictlab.com/labfiles/?page=project&project=52]]. This Inspiration Book generated workshops and exhibitions during 2007, and it’s still adopted at IMEC as a communication tool to explain that science and creativity have no limits. The present project needs to be considered as a step further: ''emerging technologies are becoming privileged media in art and design''. Even if still delimited to a niche category (e.g. bio-art, interactive- or experience design, etc.) we all know that in an optic of sustainable development, this might be the future.

The Addict Inspiration Book [[#29 “in.tangible.scape.s”|http://www.modobruxellae.be/Doc/annonces/080212_addictlab.pdf]] will go through that entire invisible domain that is ''moving the creativity world from the object predominance to the experiencing sphere of perceptions and the benefits of a more and more invisible (a-material) production''. This call reaches out to designers, artists, students, architects, engineers, researchers and dreamers worldwide. This second step will lead Addict with its labmembers and IMEC to the promotion of a new global approach of science and high-tech applied to arts and design in the wider sense.

Source: [[A joint initiative to bring science and technology to life through art and design|http://www.imec.be/wwwinter/mediacenter/en/Addict_2008.shtml]]
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When we catch a cold, the immune system steps in to defend us. This is a well-known biological fact, but is difficult to observe directly. Processes at a molecular level are not only miniscule, they are often extremely fast, and therefore difficult to capture in action. Scientists at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie ([[HZB|http://www.helmholtz-berlin.de/]]) and the Technische Universität Berlin ([[TUB|http://www.tu-berlin.de/]]) now present a method that takes us a good step towards producing a “molecular movie”. They can record two pictures at such a short time interval that it will soon be possible to observe molecules and nanostructures in real time.

''A “molecular movie” that shows how a molecule behaves at the crucial moment of a chemical reaction would help us better understand fundamental processes in the natural sciences''. Such processes are often only a few femtoseconds long. A femtosecond is a millionth of a billionth of a second. While it is possible to record a single femtosecond picture using an ultra-short flash of light, it has never been possible to take a sequence of pictures in such rapid succession. On a detector that captures the image, the pictures would overlap and “wash out”. An attempt to swap or refresh the detector between two images would simply take too long, even if it could be done at speed of light.

In spite of these difficulties, members of the joint research group “Functional Nanomaterials” of HZB and the Technische Universität Berlin have now managed to take ultrafast image sequences of objects mere micrometres in size using pulses from the X-ray laser FLASH in Hamburg, Germany. Furthermore, they chart out a path how their approach can be scaled to nanometer resolution in the future. Together with colleagues from [[DESY|http://hasylab.desy.de/]] and the University of Münster, they have published their results.

The researchers came up with an elegant way to descramble the information superimposed by the two subsequent x-ray pulses. They encoded both images simultaneously in a single X-ray hologram. It takes several steps to obtain the final image sequence: First, the scientists split the X-ray laser beam into two separate beams. Using multiple mirrors, they force one beam to take a short detour, which causes the two pulses to reach the object under study at ever so slightly different times – the two pulses arrive only 0.00000000000005 seconds apart. Due to a specific geometric arrangement of the sample, the pulses generate a “double-hologram”. This hologram encodes the structure of the object at the two times at which the x-ray pulses hit. Using a mathematical reconstruction procedure, the researchers can then simply associate the images with the respective x-ray pulses and thus determine the  image sequence in correct temporal order.

''“The long-term goal is to be able to follow the movements of molecules and nanostructures in real time,”'' says project head Prof. Dr. Stefan Eisebitt. The extremely high temporal resolution in conjunction with the possibility to see the tiniest objects was the motivation to develop the new technique. A picture may be worth a thousand words, but a movie made up of several pictures can tell you about an object’s dynamics. Source: [[Fastest movie in the world recorded|http://www.helmholtz-berlin.de/pubbin/news_seite?nid=13213&sprache=en&typoid=1]]. This work was detailed in the paper ''[[“Sequential femtosecond X-ray imaging”|http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2010/12/20/1010013108.abstract]]'' by C. M. Günther, B. Pfau, R. Mitzner, B. Siemer, S. Roling, H. Zacharias, O. Kutz, I. Rudolph, D. Schondelmaier, R. Treusch & [[S. Eisebitt|http://www.adlershof.de/newsview/?no_cache=1&L=2&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=8080]] <<slider chkSldr [[Sequential femtosecond X-ray imaging]]  [[Abstract»]] [[read abstract of the paper]]>>

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''New nanomaterials research could lead to new solutions for an age-old public health problem: how to separate bacteria from drinking water.''

Working with a special kind of polymer called a block copolymer, a University at Buffalo  research team has synthesized a new kind of nanomembrane containing pores about 55 nanometers in diameter -- large enough for water to slip through easily, but too small for bacteria.

"There's a lot of research in this area, but what our research team was able to accomplish is to expand the range of available pores to 50 nanometers in diameter, which was previously unattainable by block-copolymer-based methods," said Javid Rzayev, the UB chemist who led the study. "Making pores bigger increases the flow of water, which will translate into cost and time savings. At the same time, 50 to 100 nm diameter pores are small enough not to allow any bacteria through. So, that is a sweet spot for this kind of application."

The new nanomembrane owes its special qualities to the polymers that scientists used to create it. Source: [[A nano-Solution to global water problem: Nanomembranes could filter bacteria|http://www.buffalo.edu/news/12288]]. This work is detailed in the paper ''[[Large Pore Size Nanoporous Materials from the Self-Assembly of Asymmetric Bottlebrush Block Copolymers|http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/nl103747m]]'' <<slider chkSldr [[Large Pore Size Nanoporous Materials from the Self-Assembly of Asymmetric Bottlebrush Block Copolymers]]  [[Abstract»]] [[read abstract of the paper]]>>

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''Context: //[[Global freshwater demand expected to exceed supply by 40% by 2030|http://www.cwn-rce.ca/news-and-events/featured/canada-to-take-leading-role/]]//''
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Investigators at the Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute have invented ''a way to directly image biological structures at their most fundamental level and in their natural habitats''. The technique is a major advancement toward the ultimate goal of imaging biological processes in action at the atomic level.

“It’s sort of like the difference between seeing Han Solo frozen in carbonite and watching him walk around blasting stormtroopers,” said Deborah Kelly, an assistant professor at the Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute and a lead author on the paper describing the first successful test of the new technique. ''“Seeing viruses, for example, in action in their natural environment is invaluable.”''

In the study, Kelly joined Sarah McDonald, also an assistant professor at the research institute, to prove that the technique works. McDonald provided a pure sample of rotavirus double-layered particles for the study. “What’s missing in the field of structural biology right now is dynamics – how things move in time,” said McDonald. “Debbie is developing technologies to bridge that gap, because that’s clearly the next big breakthrough that structural biology needs.”

Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea among infants and children. By the age of five, nearly every child in the world has been infected at least once. And although the disease tends to be easily managed in the developed world, in developing countries rotavirus kills more than 450,000 children a year. At the second step in the pathogen’s life cycle, rotavirus sheds its outer layer, which allows it to enter a cell, and becomes what is called a double-layered particle. Once its second layer is exposed, the virus is ready to begin using the cell’s own infrastructure to produce more viruses. It was the viral structure at this stage that the researchers imaged in the new study.

<html><img style="float:left; margin-right:10px; margin-bottom:10px" src="img/nanoscale-window-rotavirus.jpg" title="Microscopic view of the rotavirus double-layered particle, along with a 3-D reconstruction of the virus" class="photo"  width="60%"/></html>Kelly and McDonald coated the interior window of the microchip with antibodies to the virus. The antibodies, in turn, latched onto the rotaviruses that were injected into the microfluidic chamber and held them in place. The researchers then used a transmission electron microscope to image the prepared slide. The technique worked perfectly. The experiment gave results that resembled those achieved using traditional freezing methods to prepare rotavirus for electron microscopy, proving that the new technique can deliver accurate results. “It’s the first time scientists have imaged anything on this scale in liquid,” said Kelly.

The next step is to continue to develop the technique with an eye toward imaging biological structures dynamically in action. Specifically, McDonald is looking to understand how rotavirus assembles, so as to better know and develop tools to combat this particular enemy of children’s health. Source: From [[A nanoscale window to the biological world|http://www.vtnews.vt.edu/articles/2012/12/122112-vtc-nanoscale-window.html]] by Ken Kingery. This work is detailed in the paper ''[["Visualizing viral assemblies in a nanoscale biosphere"|http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2012/LC/C2LC41008G]]'' by Brian L. Gilmore,  Shannon P. Showalter,  Madeline J. Dukes,  Justin R. Tanner,  Andrew C. Demmert,  Sarah M. McDonald and Deborah F. Kelly.

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Scientists from Imperial College London, working at the Institut Laue-Langevin, have presented ''a new way of positioning nanoparticles in plastics'', with important applications in the production of coatings and photovoltaic material that harvest energy from the sun.  The study used neutrons to understand the role that light – even ambient light – plays in the stabilisation of these notoriously unstable thin films. As a proof of concept the team have shown how the combination of heat and low intensity visible and UV light could in future be used as ''a precise, low-cost tool for 3D printing of self-assembling, thin-film circuits on these films''.

Thin films made up of long organic molecule chains called polymers and [[fullerenes|fullerene]] (large football-shaped molecules composed entirely of carbon) are used mainly in polymer solar cells where they emit electrons when exposed to visible or ultraviolet sun rays. These so-called photovoltaic materials can generate electrical power by converting solar radiation into direct electrical current.

Polymer solar cells are of significant interest for low-power electronics, such as autonomous wireless sensor networks used to monitor everything from ocean temperature to stress inside a car engine. These fullerene-polymer mixtures are particularly appealing because they are lightweight, inexpensive to make, flexible, customisable on the molecular level, and relatively environmentally-friendly.

However current polymer solar cells only offer about one third of the efficiency of other energy harvesting materials, and are very unstable.

In order to improve science’s understanding of the dynamics of these systems and therefore their operational performance, the team carried out neutron reflectometry experiments at the ILL, the world’s flagship centre for neutron science, on a simple model film made up of pure fullerenes with a flexible polymer. Neutron reflectometry is a non-destructive technique that allows you to ‘shave’ layers off these thin films to look at what happens to the fullerenes and the polymers separately, at atomic scale resolution, throughout their depth.

Whilst previous theories suggested that thin film stabilisation was linked to the formation of an expelled fullerene nanoparticle layer at the substrate interface, neutron reflectometry experiments showed that the carbon “footballs” remain evenly distributed throughout the layer. Instead, the team revealed that the stabilisation of the films was caused by a form of photo-crosslinking of the fullerenes. The process imparts greater structural integrity to films, which means that ultrathin films, (down to 10000 times smaller than a human hair) readily become stable with trace amounts of fullerene.

The implications of this finding are significant, particularly in the potential to create much thinner plastic devices which remain stable, with increased efficiency and lifetime (whilst the smaller amount of material required minimises their environmental impact).

The light sensitivity also suggests a unique and simple tool for imparting patterns and designs onto these notoriously unstable films. To prove the concept the team used a photomask to spatially control the distribution of light and added heat. The combination causes the fullerenes to self-assemble into well-defined connected and disconnected patterns, on demand, simply by heating the film until it starts to soften. This results in spontaneous topography and may form the basis of a low-cost tool for 3D printing of thin film circuits. Other potential applications could include patterning of sensors or biomedical scaffolds.

In the future, the team is looking to apply its findings to conjugated polymers and fullerene derivatives, more common in commercial films, and industrial thin film coatings. Source: From [[A neutron investigation into self-assembling solar-harvesting films reveals new low-cost tool for 3D circuit printing|http://www.ill.eu/news-events/press-room/press-releases/neutron-investigation-into-self-assembling-solar-harvesting-films-reveals-new-low-cost-tool-for-3d-circuit-printing-21022013/]]. This work is detailed in the paper ''[["Patterning Polymer–Fullerene Nanocomposite Thin Films with Light"|http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/adma.201203541/full]]'' by Him Cheng Wong, Anthony M. Higgins, Andrew R. Wildes, Jack F. Douglas, João T. Cabral.

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Chemists at Boston College and Nagoya University have together ''synthesized the first example of a new form of carbon''. This new material consists of many identical piece of grossly warped graphene, each containing exactly 80 carbon atoms joined together in a network of 26 rings, with 30 hydrogen atoms decorating the rim. These individual molecules, because they measure somewhat more than a nanometer across, are referred to generically as ''“nanocarbons,”'' or more specifically in this case as “grossly warped nanographenes.”

Until recently, scientist had identified only two forms of pure carbon, namely: diamonds and graphite. Then in 1985, chemists were stunned by the discovery that carbon atoms could also join together to form hollow balls, known as fullerenes. Since then, scientists have also learned how to make long, ultra-thin, hollow tubes of carbon atoms, known as carbon nanotubes, and large flat single sheets of carbon atoms, known as graphene. The discovery of fullerenes was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1996, and the preparation of graphene was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2010.

<html><img style="float:left; margin-bottom:10px" src="img/warped_nanographene.jpg" title="Nanographene. Credit: Boston College" class="photo"  width="100%"/></html>Graphene sheets prefer planar, 2-dimensional geometries as a consequence of the hexagonal, chicken wire-like, arrangements of trigonal carbon atoms comprising their two-dimensional networks. The new form of carbon, however, is wildly distorted from planarity as a conse­quence of the presence of five 7-membered rings and one 5-membered ring embedded in the hexagonal lattice of carbon atoms.

Odd-membered-ring defects such as these not only distort the sheets of atoms away from planarity, they also alter the physical, optical, and electronic properties of the material, according to one of the principal authors, Lawrence T. Scott, the Jim and Louise Vanderslice and Family Professor of Chemistry at Boston College.  

''“Our new grossly warped nanographene is dramatically more soluble than a planar nanographene of comparable size,”'' says Scott, “and the two differ significantly in color, as well. Electrochemical measurements revealed that the planar and the warped nanographenes are equally easily oxidized, but the warped nanographene is more difficult to reduce.”

Graphene has been highly touted as a revolutionary material for nanoscale electronics. By introducing multiple odd-membered ring defects into the graphene lattice, Scott and his collaborators ''have experimentally demonstrated that the electronic properties of graphene can be modified in a predictable manner'' through precisely controlled chemical synthesis. Source: From [[Chemists at Boston College, Nagoya University Synthesize First Example of New Carbon Form|http://www.bc.edu/content/bc/offices/pubaf/news/2013-july-aug/chemists-synthesize-new-carbon-form.html]]. This work is detailed in the paper ''[["A grossly warped nanographene and the consequences of multiple odd-membered-ring defects"|http://www.nature.com/nchem/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nchem.1704.html]]'' by  Katsuaki Kawasumi, Qianyan Zhang, Yasutomo Segawa, Lawrence T. Scott & Kenichiro Itami.

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European scientific research is normally presented to the public after the project is complete. When clear post-hoc descriptions of the science are constructed, it can present a misleading impression - of the process of scientific research, the methods and skills used by the researchers, and the levels of uncertainty involved. This makes debate of scientific subjects in the public arena difficult, and blocks the public from actively engaging with the science. Furthermore many of the most challenging and exciting aspects of scientific research are often never seen by the public.

''To find a new way to involve the public in scientific research. To actively engage them in a two-way dialogue. To show that scientific research is not about cut-and-dried facts but is a dynamic process of discovery, surprise, occasional failure, and often the unexpected. To impart a deeper understanding of the scientific process, and hopefully transfer some of the excitement of involvement in cutting edge nanoscience research''.

Using the latest video and Internet technology, we will produce documentary films before and after the project, showing our aims, and eventual outcomes. Throughout the project, the participants will produce ''video diaries which will be available to view over the Internet'', with a forum facilitating discussion between the scientists and the public.

We use a novel plasma treatment technique developed at Namur to modify the surface of carbon nanotubes. This makes it possible, in a single step, to apply precisely controlled amounts of metal to the nanotube surfaces. These metal-nanotube hybrid materials have great potential for use in gas sensors. Combining detailed experiments with strong computer modelling support we will develop new insight into the fundamental interactions between metals and carbon nanotubes, as well as the behaviour of nanotubes in plasma treatments. At the same time we will develop industrial scale production techniques for synthesis, and design, test and optimise a gas sensing device using these metal-nanotube hybrid nanomaterials.

''To see what the scientists are doing at the moment'', go to the [[View Scientist Diaries|http://www.nano2hybrids.net/browse_posts.php]]

Source: [[nano2hybrids project|http://www.nano2hybrids.net/2-project/introduction.php]]

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For a long time miniaturization has been the magic word in electronics. Dr. Willi Auwaerter and Professor Johannes Barth, together with their team of physicists at the Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), have now presented a novel molecular switch. Decisive for the functionality of the switch is the position of a single proton in a porphyrin ring with an inside diameter of less than half a nanometer. The physicists can set four distinct states on demand.

<html><img style="float:left; margin-right:10px; margin-bottom:10px" src="img/nano_switch.gif" title="Porphyrin-nano switch Picture: Knud Seufert / TUM" class="photo"  width="50%"/></html>Porphyins are ring-shaped molecules that can flexibly change their structure, making them useful for a wide array of applications. Tetraphenylporphyrin is no exception: It likes to take on a saddle shape and is not limited in its functionality when it is anchored to a metal surface. The molecule holds has a pair of hydrogen atoms that can change their positions between two configurations each. At room temperature this process takes place continuously at an extremely rapid rate.

In their experiment, the scientists suppressed this spontaneous movement by cooling the sample. This allowed them to induce and observe the entire process in a single molecule using a scanning tunneling microscope. This kind of microscope is particularly well suited for the task since – in contrast to other methods – it can be used not only to determine the initial and final states, but also allows the physicists to control the hydrogen atoms directly. In a further step they removed one of the two protons from the inside of the porphyrin ring. The remaining proton could now take on any one of four positions. A tiny current that flows through the fine tip of the microscope stimulates the proton transfer, setting a specific configuration in the process.

Although the respective positions of the hydrogen atoms influence neither the basic structure of the molecule nor its bond to the metallic surface, the states are not identical. This small but significant difference, taken together with the fact that the process can be arbitrarily repeated, forms the basis of a switch whose state can be changed up to 500 times per second. A single tunneled electron initiates the proton transfer.

''The molecular switch has a surface area of only one square nanometer, making it the smallest switch implemented to date''. The physicists are thrilled by their demonstration and are also very happy about new insights into the mechanism behind the proton transfer resulting from their study. Knud Seufert played a key role with his experiments: ''“To operate a four-state switch by moving a single proton within a molecule is really fascinating and represents a true step forward in nano-scale technologies.”'' Source: From [[Targeted proton transfer within a molecule:The smallest conceivable switch|http://portal.mytum.de/pressestelle/pressemitteilungen/NewsArticle_20111208_092050]]. This work was detailed in the paper [[“A surface-anchored molecular four-level conductance switch based on single proton transfer”|http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/NNANO.2011.211]].

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[<img[Why nanosized minerals do what they do: This computer simulation reveals the cross section of the water density around a 2.7 nanometer faceted particle. The blue indicates an iron site, pink indicates the area with low water density, and red indicates the area with high water density.|http://newscenter.lbl.gov/wp-content/uploads/picture-3.png]] The red and blue images appear ghostly, like a fleeting glimpse of something that’s never been seen before — which is true. Using computer simulations, Berkeley Lab scientists have developed the first predicted images of water molecules surrounding a nanoparticle, in this case an iron-oxide mineral called [[hematite|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hematite]]. The simulations indicate that the size and shape of the nanosized mineral determines the way in which water molecules layer around it. And this influences how the mineral interacts with its environment, including other nanoparticles, dissolved ions, and the surfaces of larger minerals and bacteria.

The images are a peek into the hidden world of ''nanosized minerals'', which ''are important components of geochemical cycles in soils, groundwater, rivers and lakes. They’re also key players in some of the biggest challenges facing scientists today. Cleaning up contaminants left over from abandoned mines, or learning how to store carbon underground — where it can’t contribute to climate change — will require a better understanding of how nanosized minerals participate in these processes.''

Addressing these headline-grabbing problems is one of the reasons behind the recently created [[Berkeley Nanogeoscience Center|http://nanogeoscience.berkeley.edu/]] which seeks to uncover the roles played by nanosized particles in geochemical processes — both manmade and natural. The multidisciplinary group of scientists utilizes cutting edge imaging technologies and computer simulations to learn what makes nanosized minerals tick.

To explore this world, scientists at the Berkeley Nanogeoscience Center utilize [[transmission electron microscopy|http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Nanotechnology/Electron_microscopy#Transmission_electron_microscopy_.28TEM.29]] at Berkeley Lab’s National Center for Electron Microscopy, which offers extremely high-resolution imaging. [[Berkeley Lab’s Advanced Light Source|http://www-als.lbl.gov/]], a national user facility that generates intense light for scientific research, is used to characterize the chemistry of nanoparticles and image their association with biopolymers and cells. Source: From ''[[Computer simulations shed light on nanosized minerals|http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2009/07/06/nanosized-minerals/]]''. This work is detailed in the paper ''[[Prediction of the effects of size and morphology on the structure of water around hematite nanoparticles|http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V66-4W3HX9K-1&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=958079547&_rerunOrigin=scholar.google&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=9ddded52830b4f454340d372e2d3bf01]]'' by [[Dino Spagnoli|http://nanogeoscience.berkeley.edu/People/DSpagnoli/DSpagnoli.html]], [[Benjamin Gilbert|http://nanogeoscience.berkeley.edu/People/BGilbert/BGilbert.html]], [[Glenn Waychunas|http://nanogeoscience.berkeley.edu/People/GAWaychunas/GAWaychunas.html]], and [[Jillian Banfield|http://eps.berkeley.edu/development/view_person.php?uid=185017&page=25]].


''Nanoscale minerals - nanoparticles - are formed in the environment as a result of [[microbial activity|Nanotube-producing bacteria]], inorganic precipitation reactions and chemical weathering''. Nanoparticles of many common mineral phases have been found, including ferric iron oxyhydroxides, such as goethite; transition metal sulfides, such as sphalerite; as well as less common minerals such as ceria or gold! In addition, numerous common minerals are only found as nanomaterials, including ferrihydrite, akaganeite, mackinawite, and manganese hydroxides. Naturally-formed nanoparticles can be important components of geochemical cycles in soils, groundwater, rivers and lakes because they possess high surface areas for adsorption and reaction.

Nanoparticles may also be introduced into the environment as a consequence of human activities. For example, acid mine drainage, a legacy of decades of mining activity, can introduce huge quantities of ferric iron oxyhyoxide nanoparticles into surrounding watersheds. Moreover, the intense interest in nanoparticles as industrial catalysts, chemical additives, and novel technologies suggests that the environmental impact of synthetic nanomaterials will only increase with time. Several groups have proposed that engineered nanomaterials may be harnessed for cleaning up contaminated sites ... but the efficacy and impacts of such treatments have yet to be established. Source: ''[[Introduction to Nanogeoscience|http://nanogeoscience.berkeley.edu/]]''.

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For the first time, researchers have developed plant-based technology that could reduce America’s dependence on foreign oil and may also help treat cancer.

Known as lignin nanotubes, these cylindrical containers are smaller than viruses and tiny enough to travel through the body, carrying cancer patients’ medicine. They can be created in biorefineries from lignin, a plant substance that is a byproduct of bioethanol production. Bioethanol is a renewable alternative to fossil fuel created by fermenting sugar — such as that from sugarcane and sweet sorghum juices, stalks and stems.

<html><img style="float:left; margin-right:10px; margin-bottom:10px" src="img/lignin_nanotubes.jpg" title="Image of synthesized lignin nanotubes. Credit: University of Florida" class="photo"  width="65%"/></html>“We’re looking at biomedical applications whereby these nanotubes are injected in the body,” said Wilfred Vermerris, an associate professor in University of Florida’s agronomy department and Genetics Institute who was part of the team that developed the nanotubes.

Carbon-based nanotubes, which are the kind used today, cost around $500 a gram, and nanotechnology drug delivery has been projected to be a $220 billion market by 2015.

Nanotubes offer an advantage over radiation or traditional chemotherapy because they have a protective shell that keeps the drugs they contain from affecting healthy parts of the body, such as hair or intestinal lining, said Vermerris, a member of UF’s Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.

As with current carbon nanotubes, cancer-fighting drugs can be enclosed in the plant-based nanotubes and sent to target specific tumors, he said.

But, the researcher said, unlike currently used carbon nanotubes, lignin nanotubes are flexible and lack sharp edges. That means they’re expected to have fewer, if any, of the toxicity issues associated with current varieties.

“It is also much easier to chemically modify the lignin nanotubes so that they can locate their intended targets like homing devices,” he said.

Vermerris envisions nanotubes as a way to reduce the cost of biofuel production. “By selling the nanotubes for biomedical applications, an additional revenue stream is generated for the biorefinery that can offset some of the processing costs,” he said. “That essentially reduces the price of the fuels and makes them more competitive with petroleum-based fuel.”

Luisa Amelia Dempere, an associate engineer and director of the Major Analytical Instrumentation Center in UF’s College of Engineering, guided the analysis and characterization of the lignin nanotubes as part of the research team. She called the development of the lignin nanotubes “quite significant” and noted their ability to break down in the environment as another advantage over current nanotubes.

''“They are taking something from the waste stream, like lignin is for a lot of industries, and making it into something that can be useful and then can degrade back into the environment,”'' Dempere said. “This is probably a material that can be called green and sustainable because it comes from nature and goes back to nature.”

Vermerris said his research is now testing the technology in living cells in the lab as a first step toward tests in humans in the near future. Source: From ''[[UF researchers develop plant-based technology that helps biofuels, may fight cancer|http://news.ifas.ufl.edu/2012/03/29/uf-researchers-develop-plant-based-technology-that-helps-biofuels-may-fight-cancer/]]'' by Robert H. Wells. This work is detailed in the paper [["Template-mediated synthesis and bio-functionalization of flexible lignin-based nanotubes and nanowires "|http://iopscience.iop.org/0957-4484/23/10/105605/]] by Hector M Caicedo, Luisa A Dempere and Wilfred Vermerris.

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Is the emerging field of nanomedicine a breathtaking technological revolution that promises remarkable new ways of diagnosing and treating diseases? Or does it portend the release of dangerous nanoparticles, nanorobots or nanoelectronic devices that will wreak havoc in the body? A new review of more than 500 studies on the topic concludes that neither scenario is likely. It appears in ACS' journal Molecular Pharmaceutics.

Ruth Duncan and Rogerio Gaspar explain that ''nanomedicine — the application of nanotechnology to health care — often is overhyped as cure-alls or a potential danger''. The concept debuted with the visionary notion that robots and electronic devices so tiny that dozens would fit across the width of a human hair could be built and put into the human body to treat disease and repair damaged organs. ''About 40 nano health care products actually are in use'' and nano-sized drugs, drug delivery devices, imaging agents, and other products are on the horizon.

The authors first describe the history of nanomedicine, as well as many of the nanomedicine products available today. Then, they offer suggestions for how best to move a nanomedicine through the drug development process with risks and benefits in mind. Finally, they identify key factors critical for development of practical nanomedical technology that is safe and effective.

The authors acknowledged funding from iMedUL and The Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia. Source: From [[A realistic look at the promises and perils of nanomedicine|http://portal.acs.org/portal/PublicWebSite/pressroom/presspacs/CNBP_028640]]. This work was detailed in the paper [[“Nanomedicine(s) under the Microscope”|http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/mp200394t]].

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The physico-chemical properties and consequent behaviour of a tiny cage of 60 carbon atoms or a compact gold aggregation of a few thousand atoms are far more different that the differences between the necessary Escherichia Coli in the guts or the dangerous Streptococcus Pneumoniae Bacterias. However, both, the carbon and the gold structure, are called nanoparticles. As a 200 nm polymeric sphere loaded with drugs or the 10 nm titanium dioxide embedded in the sunscreens creams. All of them are very different and called the same: nanoparticles. Mainly in mass media, in the headlines, many different materials are called the same, not helping to understand. Thus confusing news simultaneously appear claiming that nanoparticles will cause and will heal cancer. And all that does not help to inform the public and us (as society) to reach appropriate consensus for the efficient and safe development of new technologies . We, all concerned people, should immediately engage in an honest effort to label, describe and characterize the different players (materials, properties, phenomena) of the nanoworld in order to create an adequate ontology to accurately describe the complexity happening at the nanoscale. The physical and chemical properties change when the mater is reduced to the nanometric scale, and therefore its kinetics and thermodynamics. But all those changes happen in a particular way towards a particular direction in any piece of different material. Different by composition, size, shape, number and surface state. One should not think that materials become similar when they reach the nanometric scale. Far from that. The differences between the carbon and the metal increases when they become nanometric. The diversity of properties and behaviour expands at the nanoscale, what is fascinating and, again, remain us the celebrated sentence [[There is Plenty of Room at the Botom|http://www.its.caltech.edu/~feynman/plenty.html]].

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[<img[Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscope|http://www-cmls.llnl.gov/data/assets/images/science_and_technology/materials/dtem/fig2.jpg]] Researchers have achieved a milestone in materials science and electron microscopy by taking a high-resolution snapshot of the transformation of nanoscale structures.

Using the Lab’s [[Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscope (DTEM)|http://www-cmls.llnl.gov/?url=science_and_technology-materials-dtem]], Judy Kim and colleagues peered into the microstructure and properties of reactive multilayer foils with 15-nanosecond-scale resolution.

//Observing short-lived behavior — how a chemical reaction, structural deformation or phase transformation occurs — is not easy, but is key to understanding many of the basic phenomena at the heart of chemistry, biology and materials science//. The ability to directly observe and characterize these complex events leads to a fundamental understanding of properties such as reactivity, stability and strength, and helps in the design of new and improved materials and devices.

Transmission electron microscopy has evolved dramatically in recent years and can spatially resolve microstructural details of phase and structure, but it can’t collect at times less than a millisecond.

That’s where Livermore’s DTEM comes in. It provides scientists with the ability to image transient behavior with ''an unprecedented combination of spatial and temporal resolution: nanometers and nanoseconds''.

Multilayer foils (also known as nanolaminates) are layers of reactant materials that undergo exothermic, self-propagating reactions when layer mixing is caused by an external energy source. The foils show mobile, high-temperature reaction zones where atoms of adjoining layers diffuse across the interfaces. They are used as customized heat sources for rapid fuses, biological neutralization and joining materials via localized heating rather than global device heating. 

Source: [[A snapshot of the transformation of nanoscale structures|https://publicaffairs.llnl.gov/news/news_releases/2008/NR-08-09-02.html]]. The research appears the journal Science, [["Imaging of Transient Structures Using Nanosecond in Situ TEM"|http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/sci;321/5895/1472?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=Judy+Kim&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&resourcetype=HWCIT]]
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Scientists who have ''developed a new way to create a type of radiation known as Terahertz (THz) or T-rays'' - the technology behind full-body security scanners - say their new, stronger and more efficient continuous wave T-rays could be used to make better medical scanning gadgets and may one day lead to innovations similar to the “tricorder” scanner used in Star Trek.

Researchers from the Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE), a research institute of the Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR) in Singapore and Imperial College London in the UK have ''made T-rays into a much stronger directional beam than was previously thought possible and have efficiently produced T-rays at room-temperature conditions''. This breakthrough allows future T-ray systems to be smaller, more portable, easier to operate, and much cheaper.
 
The scientists say that the T-ray scanner and detector could provide part of the functionality of a Star Trek-like medical "tricorder" - a portable sensing, computing and data communications device - since the waves are capable of detecting biological phenomena such as increased blood flow around tumorous growths. Future scanners could also perform fast wireless data communication to transfer a high volume of information on the measurements it makes.
 
T-rays are waves in the far infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum that have a wavelength hundreds of times longer than visible light. Such waves are already in use in airport security scanners, prototype medical scanning devices and in spectroscopy systems for materials analysis. T-rays can sense molecules such as those present in cancerous tumours and living DNA as ''every molecule has its unique signature in the THz range''. T-rays can also be used to detect explosives or drugs, in gas pollution monitoring or non-destructive testing of semiconductor integrated circuit chips. However, the current continuous wave T-rays need to be created under very low temperatures with high energy consumption. Existing medical T-ray imaging devices have only low output power and are very expensive.
 
<html><img style="float:left; margin-right:10px" src="img/nano-antennas.jpg" title="Optical microscope picture of an antenna structure with the nano-antennas built into its centre (highlighted, left) and the electric field distribution (right)" class="photo"  width="100%"/></html>In the new technique, the researchers demonstrated that it is possible to produce a strong beam of T-rays by shining light of differing wavelengths on a pair of electrodes - two pointed strips of metal separated by a 100 nanometre gap on top of a semiconductor wafer. The unique tip-to-tip nano-sized gap electrode structure greatly enhances the THz field and acts like a nano-antenna that amplifies the THz wave generated. The waves are produced by an interaction between the electromagnetic waves of the light pulses and a powerful current passing between the semiconductor electrodes from the carriers generated in the underlying semiconductor. The scientists are able to tune the wavelength of the T-rays to create a beam that is useable in the scanning technology. Source: From ''[[T-Rays Technology Could Help Develop Star Trek-Style Hand-Held Medical Scanners|http://www.a-star.edu.sg/?TabId=828&articleType=ArticleView&articleId=1591]]''. This work is detailed in the paper [["Greatly enhanced continuous-wave terahertz emission by nano-electrodes in a photoconductive photomixer"|http://www.nature.com/nphoton/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nphoton.2011.322.html]] by H Tanoto, [[JH Teng|http://www.imre.a-star.edu.sg/researcher.php?startlet=&rid=&id=P537W534]], QY Wu, M Sun, ZN Chen, SA Maier, B Wang, CC Chum, GY Si, AJ Danner and SJ Chua.

''related:''
''[[Qualcomm Tricorder X PRIZE|http://www.qualcommtricorderxprize.org/]]''. Disruptive innovation: a competition to change a broken healthcare system
[[A tunable graphene device for putting terahertz light to work]]

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Long-wavelength terahertz light is invisible – it’s at the farthest end of the far infrared – but it’s useful for everything from detecting explosives at the airport to designing drugs to diagnosing skin cancer. Now, for the first time, scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and the University of California at Berkeley have ''demonstrated a microscale device made of graphene'' – the remarkable form of carbon that’s only one atom thick – ''whose strong response to light at terahertz frequencies can be tuned with exquisite precision''.

<html><img style="float:left; margin-right:10px" src="img/tunable-THz-plasmons.jpg" title="The graphene microribbon array can be tuned in three ways. Varying the width of the ribbons changes plasmon resonant frequency and absorbs corresponding frequencies of terahertz light. Plasmon response is much stronger when there is a dense concentration of charge carriers (electrons or holes), controlled by varying the top gate voltage. Finally, light polarized perpendicularly to the ribbons is strongly absorbed at the plasmon resonant frequency, while parallel polarization shows no such response" class="photo"  width="100%"/></html>“The heart of our device is an array made of graphene ribbons only millionths of a meter wide,” says Feng Wang of Berkeley Lab’s Materials Sciences Division, who is also an assistant professor of physics at UC Berkeley, and who led the research team. “By varying the width of the ribbons and the concentration of charge carriers in them, we can control the collective oscillations of electrons in the microribbons.”

The name for such collective oscillations of electrons is “plasmons,” a word that sounds abstruse but describes effects as familiar as the glowing colors in stained-glass windows. “Plasmons in high-frequency visible light happen in three-dimensional metal nanostructures,” Wang says. The colors of medieval stained glass, for example, result from oscillating collections of electrons on the surfaces of nanoparticles of gold, copper, and other metals, and depend on their size and shape. “But graphene is only one atom thick, and its electrons move in only two dimensions. In 2D systems, plasmons occur at much lower frequencies.”

The wavelength of terahertz radiation is measured in hundreds of micrometers (millionths of a meter), yet the width of the graphene ribbons in the experimental device is only one to four micrometers each. “A material that consists of structures with dimensions much smaller than the relevant wavelength, and which exhibits optical properties distinctly different from the bulk material, is called a metamaterial,” says Wang. “So we have not only made the ''first studies of light and plasmon coupling in graphene'', we’ve also created a prototype for future graphene-based metamaterials in the terahertz range.” “Terahertz radiation covers a spectral range that’s difficult to work with, because until now there have been no tools,” says Wang. “Now we have the beginnings of a toolset for working in this range, potentially leading to a variety of graphene-based terahertz metamaterials.”

The Berkeley ''experimental setup is only a precursor of devices to come'', which will be able to control the polarization and modify the intensity of terahertz light and enable other optical and electronic components, in applications from medical imaging to astronomy – all in two dimensions. Source: From "[[A Whole New Light on Graphene Metamaterials|http://newscenter.lbl.gov/news-releases/2011/09/04/graphene-thz/]]. Berkeley Lab scientists demonstrate a tunable graphene device, the first tool in a kit for putting terahertz light to work." This work was detailed in the paper [["Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials”|http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/nl201357n]] <<slider chkSldr [[Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials]]  [[Abstract»]] [[read abstract of the paper]]>>

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''Mixing a little dry ice and a simple industrial process cheaply mass-produces high-quality graphene nanosheets'', researchers in South Korea and Case Western Reserve University report.

[[Graphene|graphene]], which is made from graphite, the same stuff as "lead" in pencils, has been hailed as the most important synthetic material in a century. Sheets conduct electricity better than copper, heat better than any material known, are harder than diamonds yet stretch.

Scientists worldwide speculate graphene will revolutionize computing, electronics and medicine but the inability to mass-produce sheets has blocked widespread use.

Jong-Beom Baek, professor and director of the Interdisciplinary School of Green Energy/Advanced Materials & Devices, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan, South Korea, led the effort.

"We have developed a low-cost, easier way to mass produce better graphene sheets than the current, widely-used method of acid oxidation, which requires the tedious application of toxic chemicals," said Liming Dai, professor of macromolecular science and engineering at Case Western Reserve and a co-author of the paper. Source: From ''[[Simple, cheap way to mass-produce graphene nanosheets|http://blog.case.edu/think/2012/03/26/simple_cheap_way_to_massproduce_graphene_nanosheets]]'' by Kevin Mayhood. Researchers in South Korea and CWRU devise new process. This work is detailed in the paper [["Edge-carboxylated graphene nanosheets via ball milling"|http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2012/03/26/1116897109.abstract]] by In-Yup Jeona, Yeon-Ran Shina, Gyung-Joo Sohna, Hyun-Jung Choia, Seo-Yoon Baea, Javeed Mahmooda, Sun-Min Junga, Jeong-Min Seoa, Min-Jung Kima, Dong Wook Changa, Liming Daia, and Jong-Beom Baeka.

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A team of scientists  led by [[Eugenia Kumacheva|http://www.chem.utoronto.ca/staff/EK/]] of the Department of Chemistry at the University of Toronto has ''discovered a way to predict the organization of nanoparticles in larger forms by treating them much the same as ensembles of molecules formed from standard chemical reactions.''

"Currently, no model exists describing the organization of nanoparticles," says [[Kumacheva|http://www.news.utoronto.ca/science-and-technology/uof-ts-kumacheva-first-canadian-woman-ever-chosen-for-prestigious-internati.html]] . "Our work paves the way for the prediction of the properties of nanoparticle ensembles and for the development of new design rules for such structures."

''The focus of nanoscience is gradually shifting from the synthesis of individual nanoparticles to their organization in larger structures. In order to use nanoparticle ensembles in functional devices such as memory storage devices or optical waveguides, it is important to achieve control of their structure.''

According to the researchers' observations, the self-organization of nanoparticles is an efficient strategy for producing nanostructures with complex, hierarchical architectures. "The past decade has witnessed great progress in nanoscience - particularly nanoparticle self-assembly - yet the quantitative prediction of the architecture of nanoparticle ensembles and of the kinetics of their formation remains a challenge," she continues. "We report on the remarkable similarity between the self-assembly of metal nanoparticles and chemical reactions leading to the formation of polymer molecules. The nanoparticles act as multifunctional single units, which form reversible, noncovalent bonds at specific bond angles and organize themselves into a highly ordered polymer."

"We developed a new approach that enables a quantitative prediction of the architecture of linear, branched, and cyclic self-assembled nanostructures, their aggregation numbers and size distribution, and the formation of structural isomers."

"We treated them as molecules, not particles, which in a process resembling a polymerization reaction, organize themselves into polymer-like assemblies," says Kumacheva. "Using this analogy, we used the theory of polymerization and predicted the architecture of the so-called 'molecules' and also found other, unexpected features that can find interesting applications." Source: [[Chemists make breakthrough in nanoscience research|http://www.physorg.com/news198169615.html]]. This work is detailed in the paper [[Step-Growth Polymerization of Inorganic Nanoparticles|http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/329/5988/197]] by Kun Liu, Zhihong Nie, Nana Zhao, Wei Li, [[Michael Rubinstein|http://dl9s6.chem.unc.edu/]], [[Eugenia Kumacheva|http://www.chem.utoronto.ca/ppl/faculty_profile.php?id=31]]

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Scientists have created a working cloaking device that not only takes advantage of one of nature's most bizarre phenomenon, but also boasts unique features; it has an 'on and off' switch and is best used underwater. The researchers, from the University of Texas at Dallas have ''demonstrated the device's ability to make objects disappear in a fascinating video''.

This novel design, makes use of sheets of carbon nanotubes (CNT) – one-molecule-thick sheets of carbon wrapped up into cylindrical tubes. CNTs have such unique properties, such as having the density of air but the strength of steel, that they have been extensively studied and put forward for numerous applications; however it is their exceptional ability to conduct heat and transfer it to surrounding areas that makes them an ideal material to exploit the so-called "mirage effect".

The mirage effect, frequently observed in deserts or on long roads in the summer, is an optical phenomenon in which light rays are bent to produce a displaced image of distant objects or the sky. The most common example of a mirage is when an observer appears to see pools of water on the ground. This occurs because the air near the ground is a lot warmer than the air higher up, causing lights rays to bend upward towards the viewer's eye rather than bounce off the surface. This results in an image of the sky appearing on the ground which the viewer perceives as water actually reflecting the sky; the brain sees this as a more likely occurrence.

Through electrical stimulation, the transparent sheet of highly aligned CNTs can be easily heated to high temperatures. They then have the ability to transfer that heat to its surrounding areas, causing a steep temperature gradient. Just like a mirage, this steep temperature gradient causes the light rays to bend away from the object concealed behind the device, making it appear invisible.

With this method, it is more practical to demonstrate [[cloaking|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cloaking_device]] underwater as all of the apparatus can be contained in a petri dish. It is the ease with which the CNTs can be heated that gives the device its unique 'on and off' feature.

Lead-author, Dr Ali Aliev, said, "Using these nanotube sheets, concealment can be realized over the entire optical range and rapidly turned on-and-off at will, using either electrical heating or a pulse of electromagnetic radiation. The research results also provide useful insights into the optimization of nanotube sheets as thermoacoustic projectors for loud speaker and sonar applications, where sound is produced by heating using an alternating electrical current."

An Institute of Physics spokesperson said, "''It is remarkable to see this cloaking device demonstrated in real life and on a workable scale''. The array of applications that could arise from this device, besides cloaking, is a testament to the excellent work of the authors." Source: From ''[['Mirage-effect' helps researchers hide objects|http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2011-10/iop-hr092911.php]]''. This work was detailed in the paper [["Mirage effect from thermally modulated transparent carbon nanotube sheets”|http://iopscience.iop.org/0957-4484/22/43/435704]].

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''"A definition is required in order to provide increased clarity and consistency with respect to the term nanomaterial for use in regulations laying down provisions on substances."'' ISO TS 27687 Definition for Nano-object- //a material with one, two or three external dimensions in the nanoscale, where nanoscale is defined as the size range from approximately 1 nm to 100 nm//. ICCA Core Elements of a Regulatory Definition of Manufactured Nanomaterials is a document that oultines the key principles that should be taken into consideration for the development of a regulatory definition of manufactured nanomaterials.  Source: [[International Council of Chemical Associations addresses key issues for nanomaterial definition|http://www.icca-chem.org/ICCADocs/Oct-2010_ICCA-Core-Elements-of-a-Regulatory-Definition-of-Manufactured-Nanomaterials.pdf]]

''Responding to the [[EC's consultation document|How much nano do we buy?]] :''

"The lack of an agreed definition creates legal uncertainties as shown in recent finalized or ongoing revision processes of important EU legislation which aims at protecting consumers and the environment. To ensure a coherent approach, we see an urgent need to develop a common definition at EU level. However, ''we propose that the Commission recommendation will not be restricted to the size range of 1- 100nm only and will also take into account the functional properties of nanomaterials''." From the Final ANEC/BEUC Reply to the public consultation on Proposal for a Commission definition of the term "nanomaterial". Source: [[European Comsumers' Organization reply to the European Commission public consultation on nanomaterials|http://www.anec.org/attachments/ANEC-PT-2010-NANO-018final.pdf]]

"The Center for International Environmental Law and the European Environmental Bureau submitted [[proposals to the European Commission for a definition of the term “nanomaterials”|http://www.ciel.org/Publications/Nanomaterials_ReplyForm_Nov10.pdf]]. The NGO proposal welcomes the Commission’s broad definition while warning against a narrowing of the scope in the final decision. ''NGOs favour a larger size range (i.e. 0,3 to 300 nm2) to define nanomaterials to allow the definition to capture as much material as possible about which there is already concern (including fullerenes)''" Source: [[CIEL and the European Environmental Bureau lead international NGO coalition to define nanomaterials|http://www.ciel.org/Chemicals/Nano_22Nov10.html]]

''The Institute of Food Science and Technology (IFST) raises concerns over draft definition of the term 'nanomaterial'''. "The size at which the properties of a material could abruptly change varied widely according to the material and the properties in question. “''There is thus concern over the selection of the single upper size boundary''. For biological materials the measurement of size and size distribution can also be dependent on the sample preparation method and the method used to size the samples.” Meanwhile,'' the way a product was formulated might also affect its classification'', noted the IFST. For example, if individual stabilised nanocrystals were sold as ingredients for colouring foods, they would be classified as nanomaterials, because they are tiny. However, were another ingredient formulated by agglomerating the same nanocrystals into bigger groups, their particle size meant that it would not be classified as a nanomaterial, even though processing it could lead to a free dispersion of its constituent nanoparticles in a food or drink, said the IFST." Source: [[Nano definition raises as many questions as it answers|http://www.foodmanufacture.co.uk/Regulation/Nano-definition-raises-as-many-questions-as-it-answers]] By Elaine Watson

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Regarding the last post on nanowiki ([[Neutrons reveal potential dangers of gold nanoparticles – pharma’s drug delivery agent of the future]]), I would like to point out the following:

1.- to observe this previously observed phenomena with such precission is exciting

2.- the described "mechanical-topological" interference of nanoparticles (NPs) and membranes is restricted to the very small NP sizes (typically below 5 nm)

3.- this is without taking into account that a NP protein corona is formed as soon as NPs enter in contact with physiological fluids unless an organic or biological corona is addedd before exposure to biological media... in this case, the NP is not the described object anymore

This is in part because their double lipid model is a simple model...

This is regarding the pharma consequences of the reported findings... which are not so relevant, only for the very small NPs... (below 5 nm)

Nothing to do with 30-40 nm cytinmmune NPs... (what they were thinking about when they prepared the press release?) ... remember that under the world NP there is many different objects: [[A severe need]]

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The Australian Minister for Education, launch an innovative secondary school resource that will assist science teachers to teach nanotechnology in Australian schools. 

~AccessNano is a unique, cutting-edge ''nanotechnology educational resource'' designed to introduce accessible and innovative science and technology into Australian secondary school classrooms. We hope that ~AccessNano provides you with a fresh new approach to teaching science in your school, as well as stimulating new ideas and opening pathways for Australian careers in nanotechnology for your students.

The [[Australian Office of Nanotechnology|http://www.nanotechnology.gov.au/]] developed ~AccessNano following feedback from science teachers that children were asking to be taught about nanotechnology, but many teachers did not have the knowledge or resources to be able to teach the topic.

Source: [[AccessNano|http://www.accessnano.org/]]
/%
!info
{{accuButton button{[[AccuRadio ►|http://www.accuradio.com]]@@ ...is a great experience when it comes to online radio. @@}}}@@display:block;padding:10px;padding-top:0px;Click on any of the stations to your left to have them play.

Are you curious how I managed to get the scrollbars from being visible in these iframes? Just put your iframe into a containing div with the css style of "overflow:hidden;" and fix the width and height parameters to suit your needs. Here's the css code applied for the AccuRadio iframes:
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So, Instead of trying to hide the overflow for the iframe, which for some browsers doesn't work, hide the overflow for the containing block. This way you get the extra benefit of still being able to move around in the iframe with you mouse to see whatever was hidden.

The idea for [[this tiddlywiki|http://mjuzik.tiddlyspot.com]] grew, when I wanted to share the music I love with all you folks. It became this self contained thing after a bit of tiddly-fiddling with one of the master in the tiddliverse... Eric Shulman.@@
!list
Alternative:alternativenow
BritRock:channel Channel13
Chillout:chill
Classical:accuclassical
Electro:electronic
Folk:folk
Hiptronica:channel Channel12
Hitcast:hitkast
Indie:futureperfectradio
SmoothJazz:smoothjazz
ListeningPost:channel aaa
Reggae:reggae
Textures:textures
World:worldmusic
!listMore
Blues:blues
Broadway:broadway
Cabaret:cabaret
Comedy:comedy
Country:accucountry
Jazz:accujazz
Latin:radiopreciso
SunnyRemix:magicsunnylitemix
ModernRock:modernrockclassics
Soul:classicsoul
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{{twocolumns{
How noisy is a walking flea? What sorts of sound waves are caused by motile bacteria? Physi­cists at the Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM) have managed for the first time to detect sound waves at such minuscule length scales. Their nanoear is a single gold nanoparticle that is kept in a state of levitation by a laser beam. Upon weak acoustic excitation the particle oscillates parallel to the direction of sound propagation. The scientists led by Dr. Andrey Lutich, who is a member of [[Prof. Jochen Feldmann’s group at LMU Munich|http://www.phog.physik.uni-muenchen.de/]], managed to detect such tiny displacements using a dark-field microscope and an ordinary video camera. ''The nanoear is capable of detecting sound levels of approximately -60 dB. Thus, it is about a million times more sensitive than the hearing threshold of the human ear'', which by convention is set at 0 dB.

<html><img style="float:left; margin-right:10px" src="img/nanoear.png" title="Trapped gold nanoparticle (left) acts as nanoear. In a water drop, an aggregate of gold nanoparticles is heated by a green laser. As a consequence, sound waves are emitted which displace a nearby single nanoparticle that is kept in levitation by a red laser (Credit: Ohlinger et al.)" class="photo"  width="50%"/></html>The new method realized by the Munich physicists opens a new world to scientists: for the first time, otherwise imperceptibly weak motions – minuscule sound waves – can be visualized. The scientists developed the nanoear in two stages. “First, we validated the basic principle using a relatively strong sound source” group leader Andrey Lutich explains. “In the second step we were able to detect significantly weaker acoustic excitations.” The main element in both cases is a gold nanoparticle, 60 nm in diameter, which is kept in levitation by a so-called optical trap us­ing a red laser. Each of the experiments was done in a small water drop on a cover slide.

''“With our nanoear, we have developed a nanomicrophone that allows us to get closer than ever to microscopic objects”'' Alexander Ohlinger, first author of the publication, explains. “By observing the oscillations of a single gold nanoparticle, tiny movements can be detected.” In this way, the nanoear could yield important information on the minute motions of cells, cell organelles or artificial microscopic objects. Additionally, no high-end devices are necessary as only well-established methods are used. Source: From [[A nanoear to listen into the silence|http://www.nano-initiative-munich.de/en/news/news/article/1/a-nanoear-to-listen-into-the-s/]]. Gold nanoparticles detect tiny acoustic vibrations. The research is detailed in the paper ''[[“Optically Trapped Gold Nanoparticle Enables Listening at the Microscale”|http://prl.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v108/i1/e018101]]'' by Alexander Ohlinger, Andras Deak, Andrey A. Lutich, and Jochen Feldmann.

''Related news'' list by date, most recent first: <<matchTags popup sort:-created milestone>><<matchTags popup sort:-created detection>><<matchTags popup sort:-created microscope>><<matchTags popup sort:-created nanophotonics>>
<<tiddler Twitter>>
}}}
One expect that engineered inorganic nanoparticles have customized multiple and particular functionalities to interact in a precisse manner with its environment either generating energy or delivering drugs, but it will be even better when ''the nanoparticles can in addition of transforming the environment to be -reversively and univocally- transformed by it''. The anticipated, expected and observed ''transient nature of nanoparticles'' will open exciting ways of dealing with matter at the molecular level. [[Researches observed|http://www.als.lbl.gov/als/science/sci_archive/179nanoparticle-catalyst.html]] that Heterogeneous catalysts that contain bimetallic nanoparticles underwent dramatic and reversible changes in composition and chemical state in response to oxidizing or reducing conditions. In the case of [[Rh-Pd nanoparticles|http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/1164170]] the metals migrated alternatively to the surface of the particle in response to the environment.

''Background:'' [[Secret Lives of Catalysts Revealed]]

''Related news'' list by date, most recent first: <<matchTags popup sort:-created nanoparticles>><<matchTags popup sort:-created [[Victor Puntes]]>>

{{twocolumns{
When University of Pennsylvania nanoscientists created beautiful, tiled patterns with flat nanocrystals, they were left with a mystery: why did some sets of crystals arrange themselves in an alternating, herringbone style, even though it wasn’t the simplest pattern? To find out, they turned to experts in computer simulation at the University of Michigan and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

The result gives nanotechnology researchers'' a new tool for controlling how objects one-millionth the size of a grain of sand arrange themselves into useful materials, it gives a means to discover the rules for “programming” them into desired configurations''.

Previous work in [[Christopher Murray’s group|http://cbmurray.chem.upenn.edu/]] has been focused on creating nanocrystals and arranging them into larger crystal superstructures. Ultimately, researchers want to modify patches on nanoparticles in different ways to coax them into more complex patterns. The goal is developing “programming matter,” that is, a method for designing novel materials based on the properties needed for a particular job.

“By engineering interactions at the nanoscale,” [[Sharon Glotzer|http://sitemaker.umich.edu/glotzergroup/home]] said, “we can begin to assemble target structures of great complexity and functionality on the macroscale.”

<html><img style="float:left; margin-bottom:10px" src="img/two_kinds_of_packing_full.jpg" title="These transmission electron microscope images show the two different patterns the nanocrystals could be made to pack in. Credit: University of Pennsylvania" class="photo"  width="100%"/></html>Glotzer introduced the concept of nanoparticle “patchiness” in 2004. Her group uses computer simulations to understand and design the patches.

“Our study shows a way forward making very subtle changes in building block architecture and getting a very profound change in the larger self-assembled pattern,” Glotzer said. “The goal is to have knobs that you can change just a little and get a big change in structure, and this is one of the first papers that shows a way forward for how to do that.” Source: From [[Penn Research Helps Make Advance in “Programmable Matter” Using Nanocrystals|http://www.upenn.edu/pennnews/news/penn-research-helps-make-advance-programmable-matter-using-nanocrystals]]. This work is detailed in the paper ''[["Competition of shape and interaction patchiness for self-assembling nanoplates"|http://www.nature.com/nchem/journal/v5/n6/full/nchem.1651.html]]'' by Xingchen Ye, Jun Chen, Michael Engel, Jaime A. Millan, Wenbin Li, Liang Qi, Guozhong Xing, Joshua E. Collins, Cherie R. Kagan, Ju Li, Sharon C. Glotzer & Christopher B. Murray.

''Related news'' list by date, most recent first: <<matchTags popup sort:-created nanomanufacturing>><<matchTags popup sort:-created nanocrystals>><<matchTags popup sort:-created self-assembly>>

<<tiddler Twitter>>
}}}
^^Permalink of this post: http://nanowiki.info/#%5B%5BAdvance%20in%20%E2%80%9CProgrammable%20Matter%E2%80%9D%20Using%20Nanocrystals%5D%5D^^
^^Short link: http://goo.gl/5BMXht^^
<<tiddler [[random suggestion]]>>
[[Dr. Robert Langer|http://web.mit.edu/langerlab/langer.html]] is institute professor, chemical and biomedical engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. "//Robert Langer is the foremost pioneer and innovator in modern drug delivery//," says John Sterling, ~Editor-in-Chief of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology News. "[[Dr. Langer|http://nanowiki.info/index.html#%5B%5BGroundbreakers%20in%20the%20field%20of%20Nanotechnology%20worldwide%5D%5D]] and his team continue to advance research and development on novel biomaterials and tissue- engineered products. They are constantly pushing the technology envelope for new ways to deliver biodrugs and pharmaceuticals."

[[Interview with Robert Langer|http://www.genengnews.com/genCasts.aspx?id=198]]. This podcast ''on New Polymeric Drug Delivery Systems'' is imperative for researchers and biotechnology, pharmaceutical and medical device executives whose companies are engaged in drug discovery and development, as well as market makers, analysts, and investors who must be knowledgeable about the challenges and directions in therapeutic delivery.

Source: [[Advances in drug delivery and tissue engineering|http://www.genengnews.com/genCasts.aspx?id=198]]
^^Via [[Joan Esteve|http://www.ub.edu/gcfes/index_es.htm]], [[Victor Puntes|Victor Puntes]]^^
Stained glass windows that are painted with gold purify the air when they are lit up by sunlight, a team of Queensland University of Technology experts have discovered. Associate Professor [[Zhu Huai Yong|http://www.sci.qut.edu.au/about/staff/physchem/chem/zhuh.jsp]] said that //glaziers in medieval forges were the first nanotechnologists who produced colours with gold nanoparticles of different sizes//. Professor Zhu said numerous church windows across Europe were decorated with glass coloured in gold nanoparticles. "For centuries people appreciated only the beautiful works of art, and long life of the colours, but little did they realise that these works of art are also, in modern language, ''photocatalytic air purifier with nanostructured gold catalyst''," Professor Zhu said.

He said tiny particles of gold, energised by the sun, were able to destroy air-borne pollutants like volatile organic chemical (~VOCs), which may often come from new furniture, carpets and paint in good condition. "These ~VOCs create that 'new' smell as they are slowly released from walls and furniture, but they, along with methanol and carbon monoxide, are not good for your health, even in small amounts," he said.

"Gold, when in very small particles, becomes very active under sunlight. The electromagnetic field of the sunlight can couple with the oscillations of the electrons in the gold particles and creates a resonance [[[surface plasmon resonance|http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Nanotechnology/Nanometals]]]. The magnetic field on the surface of the gold nanoparticles can be enhanced by up to hundred times, which breaks apart the pollutant molecules in the air." Professor Zhu said the by-product was carbon dioxide, which was comparatively safe, particularly in the small amounts that would be created through this process.

He said ''the use of gold [[nanoparticles]] to drive chemical reactions'' opened up exciting possibilities for scientific research. //"This technology is solar-powered, and is very energy efficient, because only the particles of gold heat up," he said. "In conventional chemical reactions, you heat up everything, which is a waste of energy. Once this technology can be applied to produce specialty chemicals at ambient temperature, it heralds significant changes in the economy and environmental impact of the chemical production."//

Source: [[Air-purifying church windows early nanotechnology|http://www.news.qut.edu.au/cgi-bin/WebObjects/News.woa/wa/goNewsPage?newsEventID=19841]]. Findings have been published in a recent edition of Angewandte Chemie International: [[Visible-Light-Driven Oxidation of Organic Contaminants in Air with Gold Nanoparticle Catalysts on Oxide Supports|http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1002/anie.200800602]]. 
[<img[the special paving stone in a lab of the Twente University|http://www.terradaily.com/images/air-purifying-concrete-afp-bg.jpg]] As of April 2008, [[Jos Brouwers|http://www.cme.ctw.utwente.nl/organisatie/Persoonlijke%20websites/Jos%20Brouwers.doc/index.html]] with a post-doc (Dr. M. Ballari) has started a 2-year project concerning the full-scale demonstration of 500 m2 air-purifying (~DeNOx) stones in a street in Hengelo. [[The municipality of Hengelo and the University of Twente|http://www.hengelo.nl/smartsite.dws?menu=8698&channel=INT&ch=INT&id=65390&hl=Castorweg]] (UT) are paving a test road section in Hengelo with air-purifying stones. The top layer of the concrete stones converts nitrogen oxide from exhaust fumes into harmless nitrates.

Car exhaust fumes contain nitrogen oxides (~NOx). Nitrogen oxides cause acid rain and smog. This problem can be partly solved by using [[air-purifying|air]] paving stones. The top layer of the paving stones is made of [[air-purifying concrete|http://www.tudelft.nl/live/pagina.jsp?id=05922daf-ecd9-4098-8b64-8dd2373e6ac6&lang=nl&binary=/doc/13-05%20High-tech%20concrete.pdf]]. This concrete contains titanium dioxide, a photocatalytic material which uses sunlight to convert the nitrogen oxides in the air into harmless nitrates. The rain then washes the streets clean.

Based on a [[Japanese invention|http://www.businessgreen.com/business-green/news/2223985/dutch-debut-pollution-eating]], the stones were further developed and their effectiveness demonstrated by the UT in its concrete research laboratory. The next step now is to test the stones in practice. The municipality of Hengelo has made the Castorweg location available for this purpose. The street will be divided into two sections, one half will be paved with conventional stones and the other half with air-purifying ones. The air quality will then be measured in each section to test the effectiveness of the stones. As an added bonus, the stones repel dirt and therefore always stay clean.

The location in Hengelo was chosen because of the volume of cars and the fact that the road is being reconstructed. The local air quality is currently well within the norm.

This trial is being carried out with stone producer [[Struyk Verwo Infra|http://www.struykverwo.nl/]]. As part of its ‘Effective Sustainability’ programme the province of Overijssel has granted a subsidy for the project. The province of Overijssel sees these stones as a good future opportunity for improving the air quality at places where the norms are not met. The demonstration project also has national significance.

The road reconstruction is expected to be completed by the end of the year. Measurements will then start early next year, with the first test results expected around the summer of 2009.

Source: [[Air-purifying paving stones on trial|http://www.utwente.nl/en/news/2008/august/66780%20UT%20PB%20Straatstenen%20(Engels).doc/]]. See also [[The European-Japanese Initiative on Photocatalytic Applications and Commercialization|http://www.ejipac.de/]]
^^Via [[Victor Puntes|Victor Puntes]]^^
{{twocolumns{
New chemistry has been developed to integrate lead chalcogenide nanocrystals into continuous inorganic matrices of chalcogenide glasses. Inorganic capping, rather than conventional organic capping ligands, allows simple and low-temperature encapsulation of these nanocrystals into solution-cast infrared (IR)-transparent amorphous As2S3 chalcogenide matrices. The resulting all-inorganic thin films display stable infrared luminescence in the technologically important near-IR region. The research team was composed of scientists from the Center for Nanoscale Materials' [[NanoBio Interfaces|http://nano.anl.gov/research/nano_bio.html]] and [[Nanophotonics|http://nano.anl.gov/research/nanophotonics.html]] groups, as well as the University of Chicago and the University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
inorganic nanocrystals.

<html><img style="float:left; margin-bottom:10px" src="img/inorganic_nanocrystals.jpg" title="Synthesis of all-inorganic infrared-emitting PbS/CdS nanocrystals and integration into infrared-transparent As2S3 chalcogenide glass matrix" class="photo"  width="100%"/></html>

Conventional methods for synthesizing nanocrystals include capping them with long-chain organic molecules to control particle size, morphology, and stability. But molecular vibrations associated with those ligands sap the particles' excitation energies, reducing IR emission efficiency and stability.

In a wholly unique approach, the research team devised a solution-phase method for making core/shell nanocrystals in which conventional organic groups are replaced with inorganic As2S3 ligands. These all-inorganic particles are then mildly heated to convert the ionic ligands to an IR-transparent As2S3 matrix. Low-temperature integration of nanocrystals into transparent inorganic matrices is an important step for their optical and optoelectronic integration The new data suggest that dielectric screening is the major cause of slow radiative rates in conventional lead chalcogenide nanocrystals. Effective integration reduces the dielectric contrast and enables fast radiative rates. This is especially useful for nanocrystals emitting in the IR region where few host materials can provide good optical transparency.

Source: Source: From ''[[All-Inorganic Nanocrystals Boost Infrared Emission|http://nano.anl.gov/news/highlights/2012_inorganic_nanocrystals.html]]''. This work is detailed in the paper [["Inorganically Functionalized PbS-CdS Colloidal Nanocrystals: Integration into Amorphous Chalcogenide Glass and Luminescent Properties"|http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ja2087689]] byM.V. Kovalenko et al..

''Related news'' list by date, most recent first: <<matchTags popup sort:-created nanoscience>><<matchTags popup sort:-created nanocrystals>>

<<tiddler Twitter>>
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{{twocolumns{
Sometimes simplicity is best. Two Northwestern University researchers have ''discovered a remarkably easy way to make nanofluidic devices: using “paper” and scissors''. And they can cut a device into any shape and size they want, adding to the method’s versatility.

<html><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanofluidics" title="Nanofluidics is the study of the behavior, manipulation, and control of fluids that are confined to structures of nanometer">Nanofluidic</a></html> devices are attractive because their thin channels can transport ions -- and with them a higher than normal electric current -- making the devices promising for use in batteries and new systems for water purification, harvesting energy and DNA sorting.

The “paper-and-scissors” method one day could be used to manufacture large-scale nanofluidic devices without relying on expensive lithography techniques.

The Northwestern duo found that simply stacking up sheets of the inexpensive material graphene oxide creates flexible “paper” with tens of thousands of very useful channels. A tiny gap forms naturally between neighboring sheets, and each gap is a channel through which ions can flow.

Using a pair of regular scissors, the researchers simply cut the paper-like material into a desired shape, which, in the case of their experiments, was a rectangle.

“In a way, we were surprised that these nanochannels actually worked, because creating the device was so easy,” said [[Jiaxing Huang|http://www.matsci.northwestern.edu/people/faculty/profiles/jiaxing-huang.html]], who conducted the research with postdoctoral fellow Kalyan Raidongia. ''“No one had thought about the space between sheet-like materials before. Using the space as a flow channel was a wild idea.'' We ran our experiment at least 10 times to be sure we were right.”

“Many people have studied [[|]]<html><a href="http://www.northwestern.edu/newscenter/stories/2007/07/ruoff.html" title="Nearly 2,000 years ago, the discovery of paper revolutionized human communication. In 2007 researchers at Northwestern University have fabricated a new type of paper that they hope will create a revolution of its own -- and while it won't replace your notepad, this remarkably stiff and strong yet lightweight material should find use in a wide variety of applications.">graphene oxide papers</a></html> but mainly for their mechanical properties or for making graphene,” Huang said. “Here we show that graphene oxide paper naturally generates numerous nanofluidic ion channels when layered.”

To create a working device, the researchers took a pair of scissors and cut a piece of their graphene oxide paper into a centimeter-long rectangle. They then encased the paper in a polymer, drilled holes to expose the ends of the rectangular piece and filled up the holes with an electrolyte solution (a liquid containing ions) to complete the device.

Next they put electrodes at both ends and tested the electrical conductivity of the device. Huang and Raidongia observed higher than normal current, and the device worked whether flat or bent.

The nanochannels have significantly different -- and desirable -- properties from their bulk channel counterparts, Huang said. The nanochannels have a concentrating effect, resulting in an electric current much higher than those in bulk solutions.

Graphene oxide is basically graphene sheets decorated with oxygen-containing groups. It is made from inexpensive graphite powders by chemical reactions known for more than a century.

''Scaling up the size of the device is simple''. Tens of thousands of sheets or layers create tens of thousands of nanochannels, each channel approximately one nanometer high. There is no limit to the number of layers -- and thus channels -- one can have in a piece of paper.

To manufacture very massive arrays of channels, one only needs to put more graphene oxide sheets in the paper or to stack up many pieces of paper. A larger device, of course, can handle larger quantities of electrolyte. Source: From [[Paper-and-Scissors Technique Rocks the Nano World|http://www.mccormick.northwestern.edu/news/articles/2012/11/jiaxing-huang-paper-and-scissors-technique-ofor-nanofluidic-devices.html]]. This work is detailed in the paper ''[["Nanofluidic Ion Transport through Reconstructed Layered Materials"|http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ja308167f]]'' by Kalyan Raidongia and Jiaxing Huang.

''Related news'' list by date, most recent first: <<matchTags popup sort:-created nanodevice>><<matchTags popup sort:-created graphene>><<matchTags popup sort:-created nanomanufacturing>><<matchTags popup sort:-created energy>><<matchTags popup sort:-created [[dna nanotechnology]]>><<matchTags popup sort:-created water>><<matchTags popup sort:-created detection>>
<<tiddler [[random suggestion]]>>

<<tiddler Twitter>>
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{{twocolumns{
A new method of harvesting the Sun's energy is emerging, thanks to scientists at UC Santa Barbara's Departments of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, and Materials. Though still in its infancy, the research promises to convert sunlight into energy using a process based on metals that are more robust than many of the semiconductors used in conventional methods.

''"It is the first radically new and potentially workable alternative to semiconductor-based solar conversion devices to be developed in the past 70 years or so,"'' said [[Martin Moskovits|http://www.chem.ucsb.edu/people/academic/martin-moskovits]], professor of chemistry at UCSB. 

In conventional photoprocesses, a technology developed and used over the last century, sunlight hits the surface of semiconductor material, one side of which is electron-rich, while the other side is not. The photon, or light particle, excites the electrons, causing them to leave their postions, and create positively-charged "holes." The result is a current of charged particles that can be captured and delivered for various uses, including powering lightbulbs, charging batteries, or facilitating chemical reactions. 

"For example, the electrons might cause hydrogen ions in water to be converted into hydrogen, a fuel, while the holes produce oxygen," said Moskovits. 

In the technology developed by Moskovits and his team, it is not semiconductor materials that provide the electrons and venue for the conversion of solar energy, but nanostructured metals—a "forest" of gold nanorods, to be specific. 

For this experiment, gold nanorods were capped with a layer of crystalline titanium dioxide decorated with platinum nanoparticles, and set in water. A cobalt-based oxidation catalyst was deposited on the lower portion of the array. 

<html><img style="float:left; margin-bottom:10px" src="img/plasmonic_solar_water_splitter.jpg" title="Structure and mechanism of operation of the autonomous plasmonic solar water splitter. (a) Schematic of the cross-section of an individual photosynthetic unit showing the inner gold nanorod, the TiO2 cap decorated with platinum nanoparticles, which functions as the hydrogen evolution catalyst, and the Co-OEC material deposited on the lower portion of the gold nanorod. (b) Corresponding transmission electron micrograph (left) and magnified views of the platinum/TiO2 cap (top right) and the Co-OEC (bottom right). (c) Energy level diagram superimposed on a schematic of an individual unit of the plasmonic solar water splitter, showing the proposed processes occurring in its various parts and in energy space. CB, conduction band; VB, valence band; EF, Fermi energy. Credit: Mubeen et al." class="photo" width="100%"/></html>"When nanostructures, such as nanorods, of certain metals are exposed to visible light, the conduction electrons of the metal can be caused to oscillate collectively, absorbing a great deal of the light," said Moskovits. "This excitation is called a surface plasmon." 

As the "hot" electrons in these plasmonic waves are excited by light particles, some travel up the nanorod, through a filter layer of crystalline titanium dioxide, and are captured by platinum particles. This causes the reaction that splits hydrogen ions from the bond that forms water. Meanwhile, the holes left behind by the excited electrons head toward the cobalt-based catalyst on the lower part of the rod to form oxygen. 

According to the study, hydrogen production was clearly observable after about two hours. Additionally, the nanorods were not subject to the photocorrosion that often causes traditional semiconductor material to fail in minutes. 

"The device operated with no hint of failure for many weeks," Moskovits said. 

The plasmonic method of splitting water is currently less efficient and more costly than conventional photoprocesses, but if the last century of photovoltaic technology has shown anything, it is that continued research will improve on the cost and efficiency of this new method—and likely in far less time than it took for the semiconductor-based technology, said Moskovits. 

"Despite the recentness of the discovery, we have already attained 'respectable' efficiencies. More importantly, we can imagine achievable strategies for improving the efficiencies radically," he said. Source: From [[Gold nanorods provide whole new way of harvesting energy from the sun|http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2013-02/uoc--usb022213.php]]. This work is detailed in the paper ''[["An autonomous photosynthetic device in which all charge carriers derive from surface plasmons"|http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nnano.2013.18.html]]'' by Syed Mubeen, Joun Lee, Nirala Singh, Stephan Krämer, Galen D. Stucky & Martin Moskovits.

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A groundbreaking poll (Risks and Benefits of Nanotechnology & Synthetic Biology) finds that //almost half of U.S. adults have heard nothing about nanotechnology, and nearly nine in 10 Americans say they have heard just a little or nothing at all about the emerging field of synthetic biology//, according to a new report released by the [[Project on Emerging Technologies|http://www.nanotechproject.org/about/mission/]] and [[Peter D. Hart Research|http://www.nanotechproject.org/multimedia/flash/focus3/garin/garin.html]]. Both technologies involve manipulating matter at an incredibly small scale to achieve something new.

This ''new insight into limited public awareness of emerging technologies'' comes as a major leadership change is about to take hold in the nation's capital. Public policy experts are concerned, regardless of party, that //the federal government is behind the curve in engaging citizens on the potential benefits and risks posed by technologies that could have a significant impact on society//.

"Early in the administration of the next president, //scientists are expected to take the next major step toward the creation of synthetic forms of life//. Yet the results from the first U.S. telephone poll about synthetic biology show that most adults have heard just a little or nothing at all about it," says PEN Director David Rejeski. The poll findings are contained in the report, [[The American Public's Awareness Of And Perceptions About Potential Risks and Benefits of Nanotechnology & Synthetic Biology|http://www.nanotechproject.org/mint/pepper/tillkruess/downloads/tracker.php?url=http%3A//www.nanotechproject.org/process/assets/files/7040/final-synbioreport.pdf]].

//Synthetic biology is the use of advanced science and engineering to construct or re-design living organisms–like bacteria–so that they can carry out specific functions. This emerging technology is likely to develop rapidly in the coming years, much as nanotechnology did in the last decade//.

//At the same time, the poll found that about half of adults say they have heard nothing at all about nanotechnology. About 50 percent of adults are too unsure about nanotechnology to make an initial judgment on the possible tradeoffs between benefits and risks. Of those people who are willing to make an initial judgment, they think benefits will outweigh risks by a three to one margin when compared to those who believe risks will outweigh benefits. The plurality of respondents, however, believes that risks and benefits will be about equal. A major industry forecasting firm determined that last year nanotech goods in the global marketplace totaled $147 billion.//

According to the poll, ''the level of U.S. public awareness about nanotechnology has not changed measurably since 2004'' when Hart Research conducted the first poll on the topic on behalf of the PEN.

Source: [[Poll: Risks and Benefits of Nanotechnology & Synthetic Biology|http://www.nanotechproject.org/news/archive/synbio_poll/]]
“Information about the toxicity of nanoparticles is important in determining how nanoparticles will be regulated. In the U.S., the burden of collecting this information and conducting risk assessment is placed on regulatory agencies without the budgetary means to carry out this mandate. In this paper, we analyze the impact of testing costs on society’s ability to gather information about nanoparticle toxicity and whether such costs can reasonably be borne by an emerging industry. We show for the United States that costs for testing existing nanoparticles ranges from $249 million for optimistic assumptions about nanoparticle hazards (i.e., they are primarily safe and mainly require simpler screening assays) to $1.18 billion for a more comprehensive precautionary approach (i.e., all nanomaterials require long-term in vivo testing). At midlevel estimates of total corporate R&D spending, and assuming plausible levels of spending on hazard testing, the time taken to complete testing is likely to be very high (34-53 years) if all existing nanomaterials are to be thoroughly tested. These delays will only increase with time as new nanomaterials are introduced. The delays are considerably less if less-stringent yet risk-averse perspectives are used. Our results support a tiered risk-assessment strategy similar to the EU’s REACH legislation for regulating toxic chemicals.” Source: [[The Impact of Toxicity Testing Costs on Nanomaterial Regulation|http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es802388s]] by ~Jae-Young Choi, Gurumurthy Ramachandran and Milind Kandlikar.

Apparently, there is no way out for this situation other than take risks. However, we could imagine another and more peaceful scenario where companies delay the aggressive and competitive commercialization of advanced products containing nanostructures until enough scientific knowledge is gathered and matured. This may take long time, I do not thing that so much, however, even if we work for the next generation, will not they be our sons? Is not that better than just contaminate the world until things like fertility is challenged and mankind enter into a decline? Why companies are selling while scientist are still wondering about the impact of nanotechnology?

Off course, it is very different to uncontrolledly disperse antibiotic nanoparticles with underwear, than using nanoparticles in critical cases in therapies or diagnosis in a controlled environment (like and hospital) applied by specialists s(as doctors). 

What we have to do is very simple, that we will be able to do despite ourselves is another question.

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Just as artists at Disney and Pixar Animation Studios bring Mickey Mouse, Shrek and Nemo to life, life science artists are using animation to bring viruses, bacteria and even nanowires to life and demystify scientific concepts.

Life science animators from Purdue Research Park-based [[Seyet LLC|http://www.seyet.com/]] recently used their video talents to demonstrate how silicon nanowires form, a process that may change the way computers and consumer electronics are manufactured. Seyet's video provides people who don't have a medical or scientific background a "visual story" of how such complicated organisms or human-designed technologies operate.

"Scientific research is becoming increasingly complex, At the same time, it is important that researchers clearly communicate new discoveries to the public," said Jon Kevan, director of research and design for Seyet LLC, a visual communication company. "The animation of the nanowires demonstrates how a silicon nanowire can 'nucleate,' or begin to form on the way to becoming wires."

Seyet specializes in ''translating difficult-to-grasp scientific concepts and processes into the highly accurate animated forms now demanded by specialized scientific- and technology-focused audiences, as well as regulatory agencies''.

"For example, ''a National Science Foundation grant is reviewed first on intellectual merit and second on 'broader impacts,'''" Kevan said. "Seyet's animations can help fulfill the second criteria for those broader impacts in an innovative way."

A recent video animation was designed for a research discovery by Eric Stach, a Purdue University assistant professor of materials engineering. The video describes his work with an instrument called a transmission electron microscope, which shows [[how nanowires develop|http://news.uns.purdue.edu/x/2008b/081113StachNanowires.html]]. The research is based at IBM's Thomas J. Watson Research Center, and at Purdue's Birck Nanotechnology Center in the university's Discovery Park.

Stach published a paper on his research that appeared in the journal Science this month. It is the first time researchers have made such precise measurements of the nucleation process in nanowires, Stach said."This is very complicated science, and showing people how it works is a tremendous help in understanding it," Kevan said. "The demand for new discoveries like Eric Stach's is great, as is the need to explain, in a non-scientific way, their meaning to the public." Stach's research is funded by the NSF's Electronic Materials Division.

''Translating data into visual images, such as showing how nanowires grow, may help researchers secure funding from government and other sources'', such as the National Institutes for Health, the U.S. Department of Defense and the U.S. Department of Education.

Source: [[Animation demystifies complex science; brings nanotechnology to life|http://news.uns.purdue.edu/x/2008b/081118SeyetGraphic.html]]

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A NASA engineer has achieved yet another milestone in his quest to advance an emerging super-black nanotechnology that promises to make spacecraft instruments more sensitive without enlarging their size.  

A team led by [[John Hagopian|http://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/about/people/JHagopian.html]], an optics engineer at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., has demonstrated that it can grow a uniform layer of carbon nanotubes through the use of another emerging technology called [[atomic layer deposition or ALD|http://nanomelbourne.com/news/article/nasa-connects-down-under-for-growth-of-carbon-nanotubes]]. The marriage of the two technologies now means that NASA can grow nanotubes on three-dimensional components, such as complex baffles and tubes commonly used in optical instruments.

<html><img style="float:left; margin-bottom:10px" src="img/mcn_ald.jpg" title="Lachlan Hyde, an expert in atomic layer deposition at Australia’s Melbourne Centre for Nanofabrication, works with one of the organization’s two ALD systems. Credit: Australia’s Melbourne Centre for Nanofabrication" class="photo"  width="100%"/></html>''“The significance of this is that we have new tools that can make NASA instruments more sensitive without making our telescopes bigger and bigger,”'' Hagopian said. “This demonstrates the power of nanoscale technology, which is particularly applicable to a new class of less-expensive tiny satellites called Cubesats that NASA is developing to reduce the cost of space missions.”

Since beginning his research and development effort five years ago, Hagopian and his team have made significant strides applying the carbon-nanotube technology to a number of spaceflight applications, including, among other things, the suppression of stray light that can overwhelm faint signals that sensitive detectors are supposed to retrieve. Source: From [[NASA Engineer Achieves Another Milestone in Emerging Nanotechnology|http://www.nasa.gov/content/goddard/nasa-engineer-achieves-another-milestone-in-emerging-nanotechnology/#.UeeQUER2bEN]] by Lori Keesey.

''Context:''
May 22, 2013. [[Final frontier in climate studies: carbon-nanotube sensors measuring Earth radiation budget]]
November 14, 2011. [[Super-Black Material That Absorbs Light Across Multiple Wavelength Bands]]

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<html><img style="float:left; margin-right:10px" src="img/antenna.jpg" title="Ultra-wideband antenna. Credit: Georgia Tech School of Electrical and Computer Engineering" class="photo"  width="100%"/></html>Researchers have discovered a way to capture and harness energy transmitted by such sources as radio and television transmitters, cell phone networks and satellite communications systems. By scavenging this ambient energy from the air around us, the technique could provide a new way to power networks of wireless sensors, microprocessors and communications chips.

''"There is a large amount of electromagnetic energy all around us, but nobody has been able to tap into it,"'' said Manos Tentzeris, a professor in the Georgia Tech School of Electrical and Computer Engineering who is leading the research. "We are using an ultra-wideband antenna that lets us exploit a variety of signals in different frequency ranges, giving us greatly increased power-gathering capability."

Tentzeris and his team are ''using inkjet printers to combine sensors, antennas and energy-scavenging capabilities on paper or flexible polymers''. The resulting self-powered wireless sensors could be used for chemical, biological, heat and stress sensing for defense and industry; radio-frequency identification (RFID) tagging for manufacturing and shipping, and monitoring tasks in many fields including communications and power usage.

Communications devices transmit energy in many different frequency ranges, or bands. The team's scavenging devices can capture this energy, convert it from AC to DC, and then store it in capacitors and batteries. The scavenging device could be used by itself or in tandem with other generating technologies. For example, scavenged energy could assist a solar element to charge a battery during the day. At night, when solar cells don't provide power, scavenged energy would continue to increase the battery charge or would prevent discharging.

To print electrical components and circuits, the Georgia Tech researchers use a standard-materials inkjet printer. However, they add what Tentzeris calls "a unique in-house recipe" containing silver nanoparticles and/or other nanoparticles in an emulsion. This approach enables the team to print not only RF components and circuits, but also novel sensing devices based on such nanomaterials as carbon nanotubes.

The researchers believe that self-powered, wireless paper-based sensors will soon be widely available at very low cost. Source: From ''[[Ambient Electromagnetic Energy Harnessed for Small Electronic Devices|http://www.ece.gatech.edu/media/news/release.php?nid=68714]]''.

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University of Toronto researchers have derived inspiration from the photosynthetic apparatus in plants to engineer a new generation of nanomaterials that control and direct the energy absorbed from light.

The U of T researchers, led by Professors Shana Kelley and Ted Sargent, ''report the construction of what they term “artificial molecules.”''

“Nanotechnologists have for many years been captivated by quantum dots - particles of semiconductor that can absorb and emit light efficiently, and at custom-chosen wavelengths,” explained co-author Kelley, a professor at the Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, the Department of Biochemistry in the Faculty of Medicine, and the Department of Chemistry in the Faculty of Arts and Science. “What the community has lacked - until now - is a strategy to build higher-order structures, or complexes, out of multiple different types of quantum dots. This discovery fills that gap.”

The team ''combined its expertise in DNA and in semiconductors to invent a generalized strategy to bind certain classes of nanoparticles to one another''.

“The credit for this remarkable result actually goes to DNA: its high degree of specificity - its willingness to bind only to a complementary sequence - enabled us to build rationally-engineered, designer structures out of nanomaterials,” said Sargent, a professor in The Edward S. Rogers Sr. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Canada Research Chair in Nanotechnology. “The amazing thing is that our antennas built themselves - we coated different classes of nanoparticles with selected sequences of DNA, combined the different families in one beaker and nature took its course. The result is a beautiful new set of self-assembled materials with exciting properties.”

''Traditional antennas increase the amount of an electromagnetic wave - such as a radio frequency - that is absorbed, and then funnel that energy to a circuit. The U of T nanoantennas instead increased the amount of light that is absorbed and funneled it to a single site within their molecule-like complexes''. This concept is already used in nature in light harvesting antennas, constituents of leaves that make photosynthesis efficient. “Like the antennas in radios and mobile phones, our complexes captured dispersed energy and concentrated it to a desired location. Like the light harvesting antennas in the leaves of a tree, our complexes do so using wavelengths found in sunlight,” explained Sargent.

“What this work shows is that our capacity to manipulate materials at the nanoscale is limited only by human imagination. If semiconductor quantum dots are artificial atoms, then we have rationally synthesized artificial molecules from these versatile building blocks,” said Kelley.

Source: From [[U of T researchers build antenna for light|http://www.news.utoronto.ca/science-and-technology/u-of-t-researchers-build-antenna-for-light.html]]. Work informed by photosynthesis by Jef Ekins. This work was detailed in the paper ''[[“DNA-based programming of quantum dot valency, self-assembly and luminescence”|http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nnano.2011.100.html]]''<<slider chkSldr [[DNA-based programming of quantum dot valency, self-assembly and luminescence]]  [[Abstract»]] [[read abstract of the paper]]>>

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One of the ultimate goals of molecular biology is to watch how single molecules work at physiological conditions. This involves high local concentrations in the micromolar range, and calls for more than three orders of magnitude shrinking of the detection volume as compared to conventional optical microscopes. Hence, new nanotechnology tools need to be introduced in order to reach ultra-small detection volumes and turn single molecules into bright light sources.

The groups led by ICREA Professors at ICFO, [[Maria Garcia-Parajo|http://www.icfo.eu/research/group_details.php?id=34]] and [[Niek van Hulst|http://www.icfo.eu/research/group_details.php?id=24]], in collaboration with researchers from the Fresnel Institute report on a novel “antenna-in-box” platform for single molecule fluorescence detection with unprecedented resolutions and sensitivity. The innovative approach combines a plasmonic gap antenna for ultra-high fluorescence enhancement with a metal nanoaperture for optimized background-free operation. It allows for 1100-fold fluorescence brightness enhancement together with detection volumes down to 58 zeptoliters (1 zL = 10-21L), realizing a gain of four orders of magnitude as compared to classical microscopes.

<html><img style="float:left; margin-bottom:10px" src="img/nanobox.jpg" title="Dimer antenna inside a nanobox for single biomolecule analysis at high concentrations" class="photo"  width="100%"/></html>The antenna-in-box offers a highly efficient platform for nanoscale biochemical assays with single molecule sensitivity at physiological conditions. Its versatile design also provides a leap towards ultra-bright optical nanosources. Source: From [[Antenna-in-box platform to enhance single molecule detection|http://www.icfo.eu/newsroom/news2.php?id_news=1975&subsection=home]]. Researchers from ICFO and CNRS publish results in Nature Nanotechnology. This work is detailed in the paper ''[["A plasmonic ‘antenna-in-box’ platform for enhanced single-molecule analysis at micromolar concentrations"|http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nnano.2013.98.html]]'' by  Deep Punj, Mathieu Mivelle, Satish Babu Moparthi, Thomas S. van Zanten, Hervé Rigneault, Niek F. van Hulst, María F. García-Parajó & Jérôme Wenger.

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Interdisciplinary, transdisciplinary, cross-disciplinary, intermedia, transmedia, and multimedia are becoming ever more prominent within the sciences, technology, and arts. These new ways of conceiving knowledge and its products creates opportunities and confusion about objectives. To stimulate discussion about where new arts and sciences should intersect, we propose an overarching synthesis we call “ArtScience” <html><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Todd_Siler" title="Siler, TS. Breaking the Mind Barrier. Simon and Schuster, 1990; Siler, TS. Think Like A Genius. Bantam Books, 1996">(1)</a></html>. ArtScience integrates all human knowledge through the processes of invention and exploration <html><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Root-Bernstein" title="Root-Bernstein RS & MM. Sparks of Genius. Houghton Mifflin, 1999">(2)</a></html>. It is both new and old; conservative and revolutionary; playful and serious. It enfolds the work of such liminal figures as Etienne Jules Marey, Loie Fuller, Harold “Doc” Edgerton, Alexander Calder, Lejaren Hiller, John Cage, Gerald Oster, Frank Malina, Lillian Schwartz, Buckminster Fuller, Gyorgy Kepes, and Piotr Kowalski, yet it proffers an infinite variety of future possibilities. ArtScience will move art out of galleries and museums, science from its laboratories and journals, into newly invented spaces and places, such as MIT’s Media Lab <html><a href="http://www.media.mit.edu/" title="Brand, S. Inventing the Future at MIT. Penguin Books, 1988">(3)</a></html>, La Laboratoire in Paris <html><a href="http://www.lelaboratoire.org/" title="Edwards D. ArtScience. Creativity in the Post-Google Generation. Harvard University Press, 2009">(4)</a></html>, SymbioticA in Perth <html><a href="http://www.symbiotica.uwa.edu.au/" title="SymbioticA">(5)</a></html>, and Harvard University’s Initiative for Innovative Computing (IIC) <html><a href="http://iic.seas.harvard.edu/" title="Initiative for Innovative Computing (IIC)">(6)</a></html>, which already do scientific exploration, engineering, design, and artistic display in a single space. Other novel venues will be invented. In that inventiveness lies the excitement of ArtScience.

''ArtScience Manifesto:''
1)  Everything can be understood through art but that understanding is incomplete. 
2)  Everything can be understood through science but that understanding is incomplete. 
3)  ArtScience enables us to achieve a more complete and universal understanding of things. 
4)  ArtScience involves understanding the human experience of nature through the synthesis
of artistic and scientific modes of exploration and expression. 
5)  ArtScience melds subjective, sensory, emotional, and personal understanding with objective, analytical, rational, public understanding. 
6)  ArtScience embodies the convergence of artistic and scientific processes and skills, not from their products. 
7)  ArtScience is not Art + Science or Art-and-Science or Art/Science, in which the components retain their disciplinary distinctions and compartmentalization. 
8)  ArtScience transcends and integrates all disciplines or forms of knowledge. 
9)  One who practices ArtScience is both an Artist and a Scientist simultaneously, and one who produces things that are both artistic and scientific simultaneously. 
10)  Every major artistic advance, technological breakthrough, scientific discovery, and medical innovation since the beginning of civilization has resulted from the process of ArtScience. 
11)  Every major inventor and innovator in history was an ArtScience practitioner. 
12)  We must teach Art, Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics as integrated disciplines, not separately. 
13)  We must create curricula based in the history, philosophy, and practice of ArtScience, using best practices in experiential learning. 
14)  The vision of ArtScience is the re-humanization of all knowledge. 
15)  The mission of ArtScience is the re-integration of all knowledge. 
16)  The goal of ArtScience is to cultivate a New Renaissance.
17)  The objective of ArtScience is to inspire open-mindedness, curiosity, creativity, imagination, critical thinking, problem solving, and innovation through innovation and collaboration!

ArtScience, in sum, connects. The future of humanity and civil society depend on these connections. ArtScience is a new way to explore culture, society, human experience, that is synaesthetic experience integrated with analytical exploration. It is knowing, analyzing, experiencing and feeling simultaneously.

//“The acute problems of the world can be solved only by whole men [and women], not by people who refuse to be, publicly, anything more than a technologist, or a pure scientist, or an artist. In the world of today, you have got to be everything or you are going to be nothing.”// <html><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conrad_Hal_Waddington" title="Waddington CH. Biology and the History of the Future. Edinburgh University Press, 1972, p. 360">(7)</a></html> Conrad Hal Waddington, biologist, philosopher, artist, and historian. <html><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conrad_Hal_Waddington" title="Waddington CH. Behind Appearance. A Study of the relations between painting and the natural sciences in this century. Edinburgh University Press, 1969">(8)</a></html>

Signed,
Bob Root-Bernstein  http://www.msu.edu/~rootbern 
Todd Siler http://www.toddsilerart.com/
Adam Brown http://adamwbrown.net 
Kenneth Snelson http://www.kennethsnelson.net/

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Researchers develop first models for producing polymer-based artificial cells capable of self-organizing, performing tasks, and transporting “cargo,” from chemicals to medicine. Inspired by the social interactions of ants and slime molds, University of Pittsburgh engineers have designed artificial cells capable of self-organizing into independent groups that can communicate and cooperate. ''The research is a significant step toward producing synthetic cells that behave like natural organisms and could perform important, microscale functions in fields ranging from the chemical industry to medicine.''

The team presents computational models that provide a blueprint for developing artificial cells—or microcapsules—that can communicate, move independently, and transport “cargo” such as chemicals needed for reactions. Most importantly, the “biologically inspired” devices function entirely through simple physical and chemical processes, behaving like complex natural organisms but without the complicated internal biochemistry, said the researcher [[Anna Balazs|http://www.engr.pitt.edu/chemical/facstaff/balazs.html]], Distinguished Professor of Chemical Engineering in Pitt’s Swanson School of Engineering.

The Pitt group’s ''microcapsules interact by secreting nanoparticles in a way similar to that used by biological cells signal to communicate and assemble into groups''. And with a nod to ants, the cells leave chemical trails as they travel, prompting fellow microcapsules to follow. Balazs worked with German Kolmakov and Victor Yashin, both postdoctoral researchers in Pitt’s Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, who produced the cell models; and with Pitt professor of electrical and computer engineering [[Steven Levitan|http://kona.ee.pitt.edu/steve/]], who devised the ant-like trailing ability.

The researchers write that communication hinges on the interaction between microcapsules exchanging two different types of nanoparticles. The “signaling” cell secretes nanoparticles known as agonists that prompt the second “target” microcapsule to emit nanoparticles known as antagonists. [[Video of this interaction|http://www.pitt.edu/news2010/CellTalk.wmv]] is available on Pitt’s Web site, one of several videos of the artificial cells Pitt has provided. 

Locomotion results as the released nanoparticles alter the surface underneath the microcapsules. The cell’s polymer-based walls begin to push on the fluid surrounding the capsule and the fluid pushes back even harder, moving the capsule. At the same time, the nanoparticles from the signaling cell pull it toward the target cells. Groups of capsules begin to form as the signaling cell rolls along, picking up target cells. In practical use, Balazs said, the signaling cell could transport target cells loaded with cargo; the team’s next step is to control the order in which target cells are collected and dropped off.

The researchers adjusted the particle output of the signaling cell to create various cell formations, some of which are shown in the videos available on Pitt’s Web site. Source: [[Pitt Team Designs Artificial Cells That Communicate and Cooperate Like Biological Cells, Follow Each Other Like Ants|http://www.news.pitt.edu/news/pitt-team-designs-artificial-cells-communicate-and-cooperate-biological-cells-follow-each-othe-0]]. This work is detailed in the paper ''[[Designing communicating colonies of biomimetic microcapsules|http://www.pnas.org/content/107/28/12417.abstract?sid=fcd7e4c5-0900-4934-9f48-6fab2940e077]]'' by German V. Kolmakov, Victor V. Yashin, Steven P. Levitan, and Anna C. Balazs.

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Cilia, tiny hair-like structures that perform feats such as clearing microscopic debris from the lungs and determining the correct location of organs during development, move in mysterious ways. Their beating motions are synchronized to produce metachronal waves, similar in appearance to “the wave” created in large arenas when audience members use their hands to produce a pattern of movement around the entire stadium.

Due to the importance of ciliary functions for health, there is great interest in understanding the mechanism that controls the cilias’ beating patterns. But learning exactly how cilia movement is coordinated has been challenging.

That may be beginning to change as a result of the creation, by a team of Brandeis researchers, of artificial cilia-like structures that dramatically offers a new approach for cilia study. Associate Professor of Physics [[Zvonimir Dogic|http://www.brandeis.edu/departments/physics/people/faculty/dogic.html]] and colleagues present ''the first example of a simple microscopic system that self-organizes to produce cilia-like beating patterns''. 

“We’ve shown that there is a new approach toward studying the beating,” says Dogic. “Instead of deconstructing the fully functioning structure, we can start building complexity from the ground up.”

The complexity of these structures presents a major challenge as each cilium contains more than 600 different proteins.  For this reason, most previous studies of cilia have employed a top-down approach, attempting to study the beating mechanism by deconstructing the fully functioning structures through the systematic elimination of individual components.

The interdisciplinary team consisted of physics graduate student Timothy Sanchez and biochemistry graduate student David Welch who worked with biologist [[Daniela Nicastro|http://www.bio.brandeis.edu/faculty/nicastro.html]] and Dogic. Their experimental system was comprised of three main components: microtubule filaments — tiny hollow cylinders found in both animal and plant cells, motor proteins called kinesin, which consume chemical fuel to move along microtubules and a bundling agent that induces assembly of filaments into bundles. 

Sanchez and colleagues found that under a particular set of conditions these very simple components spontaneously organize into active bundles that beat in a periodic manner. In addition to observing the beating of isolated bundles, the researchers were also able to assemble a dense field of bundles that spontaneously synchronized their beating patterns into traveling waves. 

''Self-organizing processes of many kinds have recently become a focus of the physics community''.  These processes range in scale from microscopic cellular functions and swarms of bacteria to macroscopic phenomena such as flocking of birds and traffic jams. Since controllable experiments with birds, crowds at football stadiums and traffic are virtually impossible to conduct, the experiments described by Sanchez and colleagues could serve as a model for testing a broad range of theoretical predictions.

In addition, the reproduction of such an essential biological functionality in a simple system will be of great interest to the fields of cellular and evolutionary biology, Dogic says. The findings also open a door for the development of one of the major goals of nanotechnology — to design an object that’s capable of swimming independently.

The Dogic lab is currently planning refinements to the system to study these topics in greater depth. Source: [[Brandeis lab's artificial cilia spur new thinking in nanotechnology|http://www.brandeis.edu/now/2011/july/cilia.html]]. One step closer to learning how cilia movement is coordinated. This work was detailed in the paper ''[[Cilia-Like Beating of Active Microtubule Bundles|http://www.sciencemag.org/content/333/6041/456.abs]]''<<slider chkSldr [[Cilia-Like Beating of Active Microtubule Bundles]]  [[Abstract»]] [[read abstract of the paper]]>>

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An industrial revolution on a minute scale is taking place in laboratories at The University of Manchester with the development of ''a highly complex machine that mimics how molecules are made in nature''.

The artificial molecular machine developed by Professor [[David Leigh|http://www.rotaxane.net/]] FRS and his team in the School of Chemistry is [[the most advanced molecular machine of its type in the world|http://www.rotaxane.net/pages/links.html]].

Professor Leigh explains: //"The development of this machine which uses [[molecules to make molecules|http://www.rotaxane.net/pages/2013pep_synth.html]] in a synthetic process is similar to the robotic assembly line in car plants. Such machines could ultimately lead to the process of making molecules becoming much more efficient and cost effective. This will benefit all sorts of manufacturing areas as many humanmade products begin at a molecular level. For example, we're currently modifying our machine to make drugs such as penicillin."//

The machine is just a few nanometres long (a few millionths of a millimetre) and can only be seen using special instruments. Its creation was inspired by natural complex molecular factories where information from DNA is used to programme the linking of molecular building blocks in the correct order. The most extraordinary of these factories is the ribosome, a massive molecular machine found in all living cells.

Professor Leigh's machine is based on the ribosome. It features a functionalized nanometre-sized ring that moves along a molecular track, picking up building blocks located on the path and connecting them together in a specific order to synthesize the desired new molecule.

<html><img style="float:left; margin-right:10px; margin-bottom:10px" src="img/pepsynth.png" title="Mechanism of operation of the artificial molecular machine. A: Molecular ring, strand with building blocks (green, pink and red spheres) attached, stopper group and a copper ion. B: The copper ion directs the threading of the ring onto the strand and causes a chemical reaction that attaches the stopper, locking the components together (C). D: The reactive ‘arm’ is attached and the machine is now ready for operation. E: Molecular synthesis begins: The arm picks up the first building block (green) from the strand and, F, attaches it to a site on the moving ring. The ring is now free to move to the second building block (pink) which is, in turn, detached from the strand (G) and connected to the green unit (H). I: The process continues until all the building blocks have been removed from the strand by the molecular machine, at which point the synthesis is finished and the ring de-threads with the newly-formed peptide molecule attached (I).. Credit: Miriam Wilson" class="photo"  width="100%"/></html>Professor Leigh says the current prototype is still far from being as efficient as the ribosome: //"The ribosome can put together 20 building blocks a second until up to 150 are linked. So far we have only used our machine to link together 4 blocks and it takes 12 hours to connect each block. But you can massively parallel the assembly process: We are already using a million million million (10^^18^^) of these machines working in parallel in the laboratory to build molecules."//

Professor Leigh continues: //"The next step is to start using the machine to make sophisticated molecules with more building blocks. The potential is for it to be able to make molecules that have never been seen before. They're not made in nature and can't be made synthetically because of the processes currently used. This is a very exciting possibility for the future."// Source: From [[Molecular Machine Could Hold Key to More Efficient Manufacturing|http://www.manchester.ac.uk/]]. This work is detailed in the paper ''[["Sequence-Specific Peptide Synthesis by an Artificial Small-Molecule Machine"|http://www.sciencemag.org/content/339/6116/189]]'' by Bartosz Lewandowski, Guillaume De Bo, John W. Ward, Marcus Papmeyer, Sonja Kuschel, María J. Aldegunde, Philipp M. E. Gramlich, Dominik Heckmann, Stephen M. Goldup, Daniel M. D’Souza, Antony E. Fernandes, David A. Leigh.

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A multi-institutional research team has developed a method for embedding networks of biocompatible nanoscale wires within engineered tissues. These networks—which mark ''the first time that electronics and tissue have been truly merged in 3D''—allow direct tissue sensing and potentially stimulation, a potential boon for development of engineered tissues that incorporate capabilities for monitoring and stimulation, and of devices for screening new drugs.

The researcher team, led by Daniel Kohane, MD, PhD, in the Department of Anesthesia at Boston Children's Hospital; included Charles M. Lieber, PhD, at Harvard University; and Robert Langer, ScD, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

One of the major challenges in developing bioengineered tissues is creating systems to sense what is going on (e.g., chemically, electrically) within a tissue after it has been grown and/or implanted. Similarly, researchers have struggled to develop methods to directly stimulate engineered tissues and measure cellular reactions.

"In the body, the autonomic nervous system keeps track of pH, chemistry, oxygen and other factors, and triggers responses as needed," Kohane explained. "We need to be able to mimic the kind of intrinsic feedback loops the body has evolved in order to maintain fine control at the cellular and tissue level."

With the autonomic nervous system as inspiration, a postdoctoral fellow in the Kohane lab, Bozhi Tian, PhD, and his collaborators built mesh-like networks of nanoscale silicon wires—about 80 nm in diameter—shaped like flat planes or in a "cotton-candy"-like reticular conformation. The networks were porous enough to allow the team to seed them with cells and encourage those cells to grow in 3D cultures.

"Previous efforts to create bioengineered sensing networks have focused on 2D layouts, where culture cells grow on top of electronic components, or on conformal layouts where probes are placed on tissue surfaces," said Tian. "It is desirable to have an accurate picture of cellular behavior within the 3D structure of a tissue, and it is also important to have nanoscale probes to avoid disruption of either cellular or tissue architecture."

''"The current methods we have for monitoring or interacting with living systems are limited,"'' said Lieber. "We can use electrodes to measure activity in cells or tissue, but that damages them. With this technology, for the first time, we can work at the same scale as the unit of biological system without interrupting it. Ultimately, this is about merging tissue with electronics in a way that it becomes difficult to determine where the tissue ends and the electronics begin."

"Thus far, this is the closest we've come to incorporating into engineered tissues electronic components near the size of structures of the extracellular matrix that surrounds cells within tissues," Kohane added.

Using heart and nerve cells as their source material and a selection of biocompatible coatings, the team successfully engineered tissues containing embedded nanoscale networks without affecting the cells' viability or activity. Via the networks, the researchers could detect electrical signals generated by cells deep within the engineered tissues, as well as measure changes in those signals in response to cardio- or neurostimulating drugs.

Lastly, the team demonstrated that they could construct bioengineered blood vessels with embedded networks and use those networks to measure pH changes within and outside the vessels—as would be seen in response to inflammation, ischemia and other biochemical or cellular environments.

"This technology could turn some basic principles of bioengineering on their head," Kohane said. "Most of the time, for instance, your goal is to create scaffolds on which to grow tissues and then have those scaffolds degrade and dissolve away. Here, the scaffold stays, and actually plays an active role."

The team members see multiple future applications for this technology, from hybrid bioengineered "cyborg" tissues that sense changes within the body and trigger responses (e.g., drug release, electrical stimulation) from other implanted therapeutic or diagnostic devices, to development of "lab-on-a-chip" systems that would use engineered tissues for screening of drug libraries. Source: From [[Researchers develop method to grow artificial tissues with embedded nanoscale sensors|http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2012-08/bch-rdm082412.php]]. 'Cyborg' tissues could merge bioengineering with electronics for drug development, implantable therapeutics. This work is detailed in the paper ''[["Macroporous nanowire nanoelectronic scaffolds for synthetic tissues"|http://www.nature.com/nmat/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nmat3404.html]]'' by Bozhi Tian, Jia Liu, Tal Dvir, Lihua Jin, Jonathan H. Tsui, Quan Qing, Zhigang Suo, Robert Langer, Daniel S. Kohane & Charles M. Lieber.

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"The Nobelprize.org YouTube channel is currently dedicated to questions and answers series called [["Ask a Nobel Laureate."|http://www.youtube.com/thenobelprize#p/p]]

Our fourth Nobel Laureate to participate is Harry Kroto, Nobel Laureate in Chemistry 1996 awarded together with Robert F. Curl Jr. and Richard E. Smalley [["for their discovery of fullerenes"|C60: Buckminsterfullerene]], called C60, a remarkable molecule composed of 60 carbon atoms arranged in a soccer-ball-like pattern. Ask as many questions as you like and don't forget to vote for your favorite question to get answered. Deadline for submission is 4 September 2010. Answers from Harry Kroto will be posted at the end of September." Source: [[Ask a Nobel Laureate, Sir Harry Kroto|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Vh8PQXC9po&feature=player_embedded]]

''[[Ask a Nobel Laureate: Answers from Sir Harry Kroto|http://www.youtube.com/view_play_list?p=222AA1DB5CB24A88]]'' by thenobelprize. Sir Harry Kroto, Nobel Laureate in Chemistry 1996, has answered a selection of your video and text questions from YouTube, Facebook and Twitter, sharing his thoughts on the discovery of C60 in space, science and religion, tennis racquets and the future of carbon chemistry.

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For the first time, an assembly of thousands of nano-machines capable of producing a coordinated contraction movement extending up to around ten micrometers, like the movements of muscular fibers, has been synthesized by a CNRS team from the Institut Charles Sadron. This innovative work, headed by Nicolas Giuseppone, professor at the Université de Strasbourg, and involving researchers from the Laboratoire de Matière et Systèmes Complexes (CNRS/Université Paris Diderot), provides ''an experimental validation of a biomimetic approach that has been conceptualized for some years in the field of nanosciences''. This discovery opens up perspectives for a multitude of applications in robotics, in nanotechnology for the storage of information, in the medical field for the synthesis of artificial muscles or in the design of other materials incorporating nano-machines (endowed with novel mechanical properties).

Nature manufactures numerous machines known as “molecular”. Highly complex assemblies of proteins, they are involved in essential functions of living beings such as the transport of ions, the synthesis of ATP (the “energy molecule”), and cell division. Our muscles are thus controlled by the coordinated movement of these thousands of protein nano-machines, which only function individually over distances of the order of a nanometer. However, when combined in their thousands, such nano-machines amplify this telescopic movement until they reach our scale and do so in a perfectly coordinated manner. Even though synthetic chemists have made dazzling progress over the last few years in the manufacture of artificial nano-machines (the mechanical properties of which are of increasing interest for research and industry), the coordination of several of these machines in space and in time hitherto remained an unresolved problem.

Not anymore: for the first time, Giuseppone's team has succeeded in synthesizing long polymer chains incorporating, via supramolecular bonds, thousands of nano-machines each capable of producing linear telescopic motion of around one nanometer. Under the influence of pH, their simultaneous movements allow the whole polymer chain to contract or extend over about 10 micrometers, thereby amplifying the movement by a factor of 10,000, along the same principles as those used by muscular tissues. Precise measurements of this experimental feat have been performed in collaboration with the team led by Eric Buhler, a physicist specialized in radiation scattering at the Laboratoire Matière et Systèmes Complexes (CNRS/Université Paris Diderot).

These results, obtained using a biomimetic approach, could lead to numerous applications for the design of artificial muscles, micro-robots or the development of new materials incorporating nano-machines endowed with novel multi-scale mechanical properties. Source: From [[Assembly of nano-machines mimics human muscle|http://www2.cnrs.fr/en/2117.htm]]. This work is detailed in the paper ''[["Muscle-like Supramolecular Polymers: Integrated Motion from Thousands of Molecular Machines"|http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ange.201206571/abstract]]'' by Guangyan Du, Dr. Emilie Moulin, Dr. Nicolas Jouault, Prof. Dr. [[Eric Buhler|http://www.msc.univ-paris-diderot.fr/spip.php?rubrique128&lang=en]], Prof. Dr. [[Nicolas Giuseppone|http://www-ics.u-strasbg.fr/spip.php?rubrique49&lang=en]].

''Context:''
October 26, 2012. [[Molecular muscle machines bulk up|http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/2012/10/rotaxane-muscle-machines-bulk]] by Andy Extance, Chemistry World. //"This is a result long expected by the community, but it is the first example"//
October 25, 2012. [[Nanomachine assembly mimics muscle fibre movement|http://nanotechweb.org/cws/article/tech/51271]] by Belle Dumé, nanotechweb.org. //"Our results are experimental proof in an artificial system of an integrated mechanism that is already found in nature"//

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Tthe President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) released its latest assessment of the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI): ''[[Report to the President and Congress on the Fourth Assessment of the National Nanotechnology Initiative|http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/PCAST_2012_Nanotechnology_FINAL.pdf]]''. The assessment is a Congressionally mandated biennial review of the NNI, a crosscutting Federal program designed to coordinate U.S. investments in research and development (R&D) activities in nanoscale science, engineering, tech­nology, and related efforts across 26 agencies and programs. It was written by PCAST, acting in its capacity as the National Nanotechnology Advisory Panel.

This year’s assessment focused on the progress made by the NNI and the National Nanotechnology Coordinating Office (NNCO) in fulfilling the recommendations that PCAST made in its [[2010 assessment|http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/pcast-nni-report.pdf]]. 

PCAST found that the Federal agencies in the NNI have made ''substantial progress in addressing many of the 2010 recommendations that were aimed at maintaining U.S. leadership in nanotechnology''.  One of the primary goals of the NNI is to stay ahead of heavily-investing competitors such as China, South Korea, the European Union, and Russia. Overall, PCAST concluded that the NNI remains a successful cooperative venture that is supporting high-quality research, facilitating the translation of discoveries into new commercial products, and ensuring the Nation’s continued global leadership in this important field.

The PCAST assessment particularly commends the expanded efforts of the NNCO in the area of commercialization and coordination with industry, and the NNCO’s release of a focused research strategy for addressing environmental, health, and safety (EHS) implications of nanotechnology. In addition, the assessment recognizes NNI’s strong and growing portfolio of research on the societal implications of nanotechnology, nanotechnology education, and public outreach.

The report makes recommendations (summarized on page vii) for additional progress in the areas of strategic planning, program management, metrics for assessing nanotechnology’s commercial and societal impacts, and increased support for EHS research.  It notes, for example, that while the NNI has produced a visionary strategic plan, it remains unclear how agencies will implement the actions suggested in the plan.  In the case of program management, it calls for the NNCO to be better supported by the participating agencies given the increasingly important coordinating role that the NNCO plays.  In the area of metrics development, it identifies a need to track the development of, and ultimately utilize, metrics for assessing commercial impacts of nanotechnology.  And in the area of EHS, the report concludes that cross-agency governance and coordinated research funding is going to be essential as the field of nanotechnology matures.

PCAST is optimistic that with continued efforts to implement these 2012 recommendations, the United States will continue to maintain its global leadership position in nanotechnology with widespread impact on the economy, high-tech jobs, health, national security, energy, and other critical domains. Source: [[PCAST Releases Assessment of National Nanotechnology Initiative|http://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2012/04/27/pcast-releases-assessment-national-nanotechnology-initiative]] by [[Maxine Savitz|http://www.ccst.us/news/2009/20090430savitz.php]], [[Ed Penhoet|http://www.altapartners.com/team_detail.php?id=16]], and [[Chad Mirkin|http://chemgroups.northwestern.edu/mirkingroup/]] on April 27, 2012.

//Maxine Savitz, Ed Penhoet, and Chad Mirkin were co-chairs of the assessment and are members of the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST).  PCAST is an advisory group of the Nation’s leading scientists and engineers, appointed by the President to augment the science and tech­nology advice available to him from inside the White House and from cabinet departments and other Federal agencies.//

''Context:''
May 1, 2012. ''[[President's Council Wants a Few More Things from the National Nanotechnology Initiative|http://spectrum.ieee.org/nanoclast/semiconductors/nanotechnology/national-nanotechnology-initiative-meeting-recommendations]]'' by Dexter Johnson, IEEE Spectrum. //Nobody is satisfied with the metrics that we have//
January 25, 2012. [[The National Academies: Health and Environmental Effects of Nanomaterials Remain Uncertain|NAS: Health and Environmental Effects of Nanomaterials Remain Uncertain]]
March 2010. [[Debate around U.S National Nanotechnology Initiative]]. //U.S. leadership in nanotechnology is threatened //

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While pondering the challenges of distinguishing one nano-sized probe image from another in a mass of hundreds or thousands of nanoprobes, researchers made an interesting observation. ''The tiny, clustered dots of light looked a lot like a starry sky on a clear night''.

The biomedical researchers realized that astronomers had already made great strides in solving a problem very similar to their own — isolating and analyzing one dot (in this case a star) in a crowded field of light. They hypothesized that a computer system designed for stellar photometry, a branch of astronomy focused on measuring the brightness of stars, could hold the solution to their problem.

Now, Georgia Tech and Emory ''researchers have created a technology based on stellar photometry software that provides more precise images of single molecules tagged with NanoProbes, particles specially designed to bind with a certain type of cell or molecule and illuminate when the target is found''. The clearer images allow researchers to collect more detailed information about a single molecule, such as how the molecule is binding in a gene sequence, taking scientists a few steps closer to truly personalized and predictive medicine as well as more complex biomolecular structural mapping.

In addition to biomedical applications, the system could be used to clarify other types of nanoparticle probes, including tagged particles or molecules.

''“This work is pointing to a new era in light microscopy in which single molecule detection is achieved at nanometer resolution,”'' said Dr. Shuming Nie, a professor of biomedical engineering and chemistry and also the director of the ~Emory-Georgia Tech Cancer Nanotechnology Center.'' “This is also an example of interdisciplinary research in which advanced computing meets nanotechnology''. I envision major applications not only for single-molecule imaging, but also for ultrasensitive medical diagnostics.”

Source: [[Astronomy Technology Brings Nanoparticle Probes into Sharper Focus|http://www.gatech.edu/newsroom/release.html?id=1728]]
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Nanoparticles are atmospheric materials so small that they can’t be seen with the naked eye, but they can very visibly affect both weather patterns and human health all over the world – and not in a good way, according to a study by a team of researchers at Texas A&M University.

Researchers say that nanoparticles appear to be growing in many parts of the world, but how they do so remains a mystery.

The team looked at ''how nanoparticles are formed and their relationship with certain organic vapors responsible for additional growth. “This is one of the most poorly understood of all atmospheric processes,”'' Zhang says. “But we found that certain types of organics tend to grow very rapidly. When this happens, they scatter light back into space, and that definitely has a cooling effect – sort of a reverse ‘greenhouse effect.’ It can alter Earth’s weather patterns and it also tends to have a negative effect on human health.”

Persons with breathing problems, such as those who suffer from asthma, emphysema or other lung ailments, can be at risk, he notes.

Zhang says the team used new methods of measuring nanoparticles and formed new models to determine their impact on atmospheric conditions.

“These changes on our weather systems appear to be the most dramatic consequences of these nanoparticles,” he adds. “Once these form, they can change cloud formations, which in turn can affect weather all over the world, so this can become a global problem to deal with. We’re trying to get a better understanding of these particles work and grow. “They can form near areas that have petrochemical plants, such as Houston, which also has high amounts of aerosols from traffic emissions and other numerous factories. But we’re still trying to learn how they form and interact with the atmosphere.”

Many types of trees and plants also contribute to the formation of nanoparticles, which are natural processes, Zhang says, and certain forms of organic materials can also speed up the development of the particles. But all of these ultimately affect the atmosphere, and very often, cloud formation, where the aerosols scatter light and radiation back into space and provide the “seeds” of cloud droplets and development.

“These nanoparticles are very small – about one million times smaller than a typical raindrop,” Zhang says. “But what they do can have a huge effect on our weather.”

Source: [[Texas A&M News & Information Services » Blog Archive » Atmospheric Nanoparticles Impact Health, Weather Prof Says|http://tamunews.tamu.edu/2010/02/28/atmospheric-nanoparticles-impact-health-weather-prof-says/]]. This work is detailed in the paper ''[[Atmospheric nanoparticles formed from heterogeneous reactions of organics|http://www.nature.com/ngeo/journal/v3/n4/full/ngeo778.html]]'' by Lin Wang, Alexei F. Khalizov, Jun Zheng, Wen Xu, Yan Ma, Vinita Lal & Renyi Zhang.

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[<img[In an atom pinhole camera, atoms pass through pinholes in a mask and generate a scaled-down nanostructure of the mask’s pattern onto a substrate. (Credit: sci publication)|http://www.en.nanonewsnet.ru/sites/en.nanonewsnet.ru/files/users/u1331/PinholeCameraNanolythography1_060209.jpg]] Scientists from the [[Institute of Spectroscopy|http://www.isan.troitsk.ru/]], Russian Academy of Sciences have developed a method of nanofabrication using an atom pinhole camera. For the first time, the researchers, along with coauthors from the [[Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology|http://phystech.edu/]], have experimentally demonstrated ''how to use the camera obscura to manufacture an array of identical atomic nanostructures of controlled shapes and sizes''. The technique could produce individual nanostructures down to 30 nm, a size reduction of 10,000 times compared with the original object.

As the scientists explain, the atom pinhole camera they designed is based on the idea of an optical [[pinhole camera|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pinhole_camera]], which is often used in optics when creation of a focusing lens is difficult. Instead of light traveling through a lens, light travels through a pinhole on a mask, and creates an inverted image on a substrate on the other side. Optical pinhole cameras can produce high-quality images with high resolution that depends on the diameter of the pinhole.

In an atom pinhole camera, atoms act like photons in an optical pinhole camera, and so the main principles are the same in both versions. In their experimental setup, the scientists used ion beam milling to poke a pinhole in a mask. After the atoms passed through the pinhole, they created an atomic nanostructure on a silicon substrate. As the atom pinhole camera provides a way to replicate micro-sized objects as nano-sized ones, the camera is an example of <html><b><a href="http://www.scribd.com/doc/1451541/Feynman-1983" title="Infinitesimal Machines by Richard Feynman. 1983">Feynman’s scalable manufacturing system</a></b></html>

The scientists also created another mask with a large array of pinholes. In this “atom multiple pinhole camera,” each pinhole could generate its own image, which does not intersect with neighboring images. As the scientists noted, a camera with up to 10 million pinholes could open up opportunities for simultaneous generation of large numbers of identical (or diverse) nanostructures.

Using an atom pinhole camera to fabricate nanostructures offers several advantages compared to other nanofabrication techniques, which include optical photolithography (in which a photosensitive material is molded by light), nanolithography (in which focused particle beams mold objects), and atom optics methods that use lenses, which are limited by diffraction.

The atom pinhole camera is a novel type of lens-less atom optics technique, which uses diffraction to its advantage. While it might seem that resolution in atom pinhole camera would be limited to the diameter of the pinhole, the researchers show in an upcoming study that the image spot diameter can be three times smaller than the pinhole diameter, which is due to diffraction effects.

The new method can be used with a variety of materials for nanostructures (e.g. atoms, molecules, and clusters) and a variety of substrates, which could make it useful for diverse applications such as electronics and biological uses. The scientists predict that the method could have applications in metamaterials, plasmonics, spintronics, MEMS/NEMS, and more.

Source: From [[Atom pinhole camera for nanolithography from the Institute of Spectroscopy, Russian Academy of Sciences|http://www.en.nanonewsnet.ru/news/2009/atom-pinhole-camera-nanolithography-institute-spectroscopy-russian-academy-sciences]]. Nano News Net, nanotechnology news from Russia. Submitted by birger. This work is detailed in the paper [[Nanolithography based on an atom pinhole camera|http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0957-4484/20/23/235301]] by P.N. Melentiev, A.V. Aablotskiy, [[D.A. Lapshin|http://www.isan.troitsk.ru/dls/lapshin/homepage_start.htm]], E.P. Sheshin, A.S. Baturin, and [[V.I. Balykin|http://www.isan.troitsk.ru/dls/balykin.htm]]

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A chronicle of the first effort to move individual atoms. [[Positioning single atoms with a scanning tunnelling microscope]] by D. M. Eigler & E. K. Schweizer (Nature, April 5, 1990)

"In 1989, three years after joining IBM’s Almaden Research Center, [[Don Eigler|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Don_Eigler]] and colleague Erhard Schweitzer demonstrated the ability to position individual atoms with atomic precision using a low-temperature [[Scanning Tunneling Microscope|http://www.almaden.ibm.com/vis/stm/gallery.html]]".<html><object width="620" height="500"><param name="movie" value="http://www.youtube.com/v/57QQqbziiFs&hl=en&fs=1"></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><embed src="http://www.youtube.com/v/57QQqbziiFs&hl=en&fs=1" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowfullscreen="true" width="620" height="500"></embed></object></html>
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{{twocolumns{
University of Queensland scientists have earned their place alongside artists in a new exhibition that promotes sustainability through creative practice.

An animation and images created by [[Dr David Poger and Professor Alan Mark|http://www.bio-diverse-cityproject.com/participants.php]] from the School of Chemistry & Molecular Biosciences are featured in the [[Bio-diverse-city exhibition|http://www.bio-diverse-cityproject.com/]].

The animation shows how phospholipid molecules, the main component of cell membranes, will spontaneously self-assemble to form a well-ordered functional membrane from a random mixture in water.

The water molecules are depicted in blue, the lipid "tails" are drawn as grey sticks while the yellow and green balls represent the "head group" of the lipid molecules. The animation is the result of computer simulations that are being used by Professor Mark and his laboratory to understand how cells operate at an atomic level.

''"Molecular self-assembly is one of the most fundamental properties of life,"'' [[Professor Mark|http://www.uq.edu.au/uqresearchers/researcher/marka.html]] said.

"Understanding this process is not only a major scientific challenge but is also central to unravelling the origins of conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and the rational design of nano-materials modelled on biological systems.

"The great thing about the exhibition is that it can help convey the sense of amazement you get when studying life in atomic detail."

''The Bio-diverse-city project aims to explore new concepts around building social and environmental resilience through diversity.''

The work of [[Dr Poger|http://compbio.chemistry.uq.edu.au/~david/]] and Professor Mark was selected for the exhibition not only because it is striking but also because it represents one of the most fundamental processes involved in building and sustaining life.

The Bio-diverse-city exhibition forms part of the Sunshine Coast Regional Council's Treeline Project – a series of environmentally focused art events being staged between January and July 2010. Source: [[Atomic art promotes sustainability|http://www.uq.edu.au/news/?article=21310]]

Bio-diverse-city: the Treeline Project 2010: One of Australia's most innovative art exhibition concepts is entering its second phase. In tune with the United Nations International Year of Biodiversity, the Bio-diverse-city project explores new concepts around building social and environmental <html><a href="http://www.resalliance.org/576.php" title="Ecosystem resilience is the capacity of an ecosystem to tolerate disturbance without collapsing into a qualitatively different state that is controlled by a different set of processes. A resilient ecosystem can withstand shocks and rebuild itself when necessary">resilience</a></html> through diversity by putting visual artists, scientists, architects, urban planners and social scientists together in the 'white cube', setting up unique visual dialogues about the emerging future. 

Why 'Bio-diverse-city' ? This is a way of forcing the two ideas together - the idea of the 'city' and the idea of 'biodiversity'.  There is an obvious play around the word 'biodiversity' of course. Beyond that, hyphenating the components of the title implies a deconstruction into individual parts that nevertheless still belong to the whole. Thus 'bio' might suggest the natural world, or 'organic' rather than 'mechanical', while  'diverse' suggests a spread of characteristics and increased complexity. The city is the preferred ecological niche now for Homo sapiens and inevitably will be where much of the focus is directed for planning human futures in the face of great environmental change. Fusing the ideas of biodiversity and the city reflects <html><a href="http://transitiontowns.org/TransitionNetwork/TransitionNetwork" title="Transition Network's role is to inspire, encourage, connect, support and train communities as they self-organise around the transition model, creating initiatives that rebuild resilience and reduce CO2 emissions.">a growing world view</a></html> of the importance of containing one within the other in planning. From [[Bio-diverse-city site project|http://www.bio-diverse-cityproject.com/]]

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<img src="http://www.uq.edu.au/news/images/media/Sustainable-art.jpg"  alt="A still from the animation created by Dr David Poger and Professor Alan Mark " title="A still from the animation created by Dr David Poger and Professor Alan Mark" width="100%"/>
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The Royal Society, the UK’s independent academy for science, has announced the recipients of its  2010 Awards, Medals, Royal Medals and Lectures. The scientists receive the awards in recognition of their achievements in a wide variety of fields of research - the uniting factor is the excellence of their work and the profound implications their findings have had for others working in their relevant fields and wider society. From [[Royal Society recognises excellence in science|http://royalsociety.org/Royal-Society-recognises-excellence-in-science/]]

The Royal Society awarded Professor Andre Geim the Hughes Medal for his revolutionary discovery of graphene, and explanation of its remarkable properties.

The director of the [[Manchester Centre for Mesoscience and Nanotechnology|http://intranet.cs.man.ac.uk/nanotechnology/]] adds the medal to his long list of awards [1] which reflect his stature in the world of scientific research after ''the discovery of graphene – the world’s thinnest material – in 2004''.

For his award, Professor Geim paid tribute to his colleagues, saying: "I am honoured to receive this award that recognises original discoveries in the physical sciences.

“''Graphene is a supreme representative of a new class of materials that are one-atom-thick and until recently remained missing from our perception of the universe''. During the last five years, graphene has become one of the hottest research topics, and the interest shows no sign of receding.

“The area continues deliver a new exciting science, and the applications are no longer wishful thinking. Our work previously attracted a number of awards, and the recognition by the Royal Society is of course a great source of personal pride.

“Also, it is testament to the hard work and dedication taking place here at the University of Manchester, with my many colleagues contributing to this achievement." Source: [[Professors honoured by Royal Society for excellence in science|http://www.manchester.ac.uk/aboutus/news/display/?id=5818]]

The original paper with the discovery: ''[[Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films|http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/306/5696/666]]'' by K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, A. A. Firsov. "We describe monocrystalline graphitic films, which are a few atoms thick but are nonetheless stable under ambient conditions, metallic, and of remarkably high quality. The films are found to be a two-dimensional semimetal with a tiny overlap between valence and conductance bands, and they exhibit a strong ambipolar electric field effect such that electrons and holes in concentrations up to 10^^13^^ per square centimeter and with room-temperature mobilities of 10,000 square centimeters per volt-second can be induced by applying gate voltage."

<html><img src="http://onnes.ph.man.ac.uk/~geim/index_files/slide0614_image001.jpg"  alt="Professor Andre Geim" title="Professor Andre Geim, awarded for the discovery of graphene" align="middle" width="75%"/></html>

''References:''
^^<html><h2><a name="awards">[1] Awards:</a></h2></html>
[[2010 NAS John J Carty Award|http://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=01202010b]] for “realization and investigation of graphene, the two-dimensional form of carbon”
[[2009 Körber Science Prize|http://www.koerber-stiftung.de/en/science/koerber-prize/presse/pressemeldungen/presse-details-koerber-preis/artikel/the-2009-koerber-european-science-award-goes-to-andre-geim.html]] for “developing the first two-dimensional crystals made of carbon atoms”
[[2008 Europhysics Prize|http://www.eps.org/news/news-files/Awards%20from%202008%20on%20-%20EPSeurophys.%20Prize.pdf/view]] “for discovering and isolating a single free-standing atomic layer of carbon (graphene) and elucidating its remarkable electronic properties“ (shared with [[Kostya Novoselov|http://www.condmat.physics.manchester.ac.uk/people/academic/novoselov/]])
[[2007 Mott Prize|http://www.iop.org/News/Community_News_Archive/2006/news_8650.html]] “for the discovery of a new class of materials – 2D atomic crystals – particularly graphene^^

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<br>Alexie M. Kolpak and Jeffrey C. Grossman. 2011. ''ACS Nano Letters. doi:10.1021/nl201357n''

//Solar thermal fuels, which reversibly store solar energy in molecular bonds, are a tantalizing prospect for clean, renewable, and transportable energy conversion/storage. However, large-scale adoption requires enhanced energy storage capacity and thermal stability. Here we present a novel solar thermal fuel, composed of azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes, with the volumetric energy density of Li-ion batteries. Our work also demonstrates that the inclusion of nanoscale templates is an effective strategy for design of highly cyclable, thermally stable, and energy-dense solar thermal fuels.//
{{twocolumns{
Researchers from UNSW have cautioned that ''more work is needed to understand how micro-organisms respond to the disinfecting properties of silver nano-particles'', increasingly used in consumer goods, and for medical and environmental applications.

''Although nanosilver has effective antimicrobial properties against certain pathogens, overexposure to silver nano-particles can cause other potentially harmful organisms to rapidly adapt and flourish'', a UNSW study reveals.   

This result could have wide-reaching implications for the future use of nanosilver as an antimicrobial agent with biomedical and environmental applications.

“We found an important natural ability of a widely occurring bacteria to adapt quite rapidly to the antimicrobial action of nanosilver. This is the first unambiguous evidence of this induced adaptation,” says co-author Dr [[Cindy Gunawan|https://research.unsw.edu.au/people/ms-cindy-gunawan]], from the UNSW School of Chemical Engineering.

Using an experimental culture, UNSW researchers observed that nanosilver was effective in suppressing a targeted bacteria (Escherichia coli), but that its presence initiated the unexpected emergence, adaptation and abnormally fast growth of another bacteria species (Bacillus). 

The efficacy of nanosilver to suppress certain disease-causing pathogens has been well-documented, and as a result, it has become widely used in medicine to coat bandages and wound dressings. It also has environmental uses in water and air purification systems, and is used in cosmetics and detergents, and as a surface coating for things like toys and tupperware. 

But the researchers say this exploitation of nanosilver’s antimicrobial properties have “gained momentum due in part to a lack of evidence for the potential development of resistant microorganisms”.

“Antimicrobial action of nanosilver is not universal and the widespread use of these products should take into consideration the potential for longer-term adverse outcomes,” says Gunawan.

The researchers say these adverse impacts could be more pronounced given the near-ubiquitous nature of the Bacillus bacteria, which originate from airborne spores, and because the resistance trait can potentially be transferred to the genes of other micro-organisms.

“For the medical use of nanosilver, this implies the potential for reduced efficacy and the development of resistant populations in clinical settings,” says co-author Dr Christopher Marquis, a senior lecturer from the UNSW School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences.

“This work suggests caution in the widespread use of nanosilver and the requirement for much deeper research into the antimicrobial mechanisms, the extent of adaptability and the molecular basis or genetics of cell defence against the antimicrobial activity.” Source: From [[Bacteria adapt and evade nanosilver’s sting|http://newsroom.unsw.edu.au/news/science-technology/bacteria-adapt-and-evade-nanosilver%E2%80%99s-sting]]. This work is detailed in the paper ''[["Induced Adaptation of Bacillus sp. to Antimicrobial Nanosilver"|http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/smll.201300761/abstract]]'' by Cindy Gunawan, Wey Yang Teoh, Christopher P. Marquis, Rose Amal.

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Forget computer viruses - magnet-making bacteria could be used to build tomorrow’s computers with larger hard drives and speedier connections. Researchers at the University of Leeds have used a type of bacterium which 'eats' iron to create a surface of magnets, similar to those found in traditional hard drives, and wiring. As the bacterium ingests the iron it creates tiny magnets within itself.

<html><img style="float:left; margin-right:10px; margin-bottom:5px" src="img/biomagnets.jpg" title="Biomagnets. Credit: University of Leeds" class="photo"  width="60%"/></html>The team has also begun to understand how the proteins inside these bacteria collect, shape and position these "nanomagnets" inside their cells and can now replicate this behaviour outside the bacteria.

Led by Dr Sarah Staniland from the University's School of Physics and Astronomy, in a longstanding collaboration with the Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, the team hope to develop a 'bottom-up' approach for creating cheaper, more environmentally-friendly electronics of the future.

Dr Staniland said: "We are quickly reaching the limits of traditional electronic manufacturing as computer components get smaller. The machines we've traditionally used to build them are clumsy at such small scales. Nature has provided us with the perfect tool to circumvent this problem."

The magnetic array was created by Leeds PhD student Johanna Galloway using a protein which creates perfect nanocrystals of magnetite inside the bacterium Magnetospirilllum magneticum. In a process akin to potato-printing on a much smaller scale, this protein is attached to a gold surface in a checkerboard pattern and placed in a solution containing iron.

At a temperature of 80°C, similarly-sized crystals of magnetite form on the sections of the surface covered by the protein. The team are now working to reduce the size of these islands of magnets, in order to make arrays of single nanomagnets. They also plan to vary the magnetic materials that this protein can control. These next steps would allow each of these nanomagnets to hold one bit of information allowing the construction of better hard drives.

"Using today's 'top-down' method - essentially sculpting tiny magnets out of a big magnet - it is increasingly difficult to produce the small magnets of the same size and shape which are needed to store data," said Johanna Galloway. "Using the method developed here at Leeds, the proteins do all the hard work; they gather the iron, create the most magnetic compound, and arrange it into regularly-sized cubes."

<html><img style="float:left; margin-right:10px" src="img/biowires.jpg" title="'Nanowires' are made of 'quantum dots' and are encased by fat molecules, or lipids. Credit: University of Leeds" class="photo"  width="60%"/></html>A different protein has been used to create tiny electrical wires by Dr Masayoshi Tanaka, during a secondment to Leeds from Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology. These 'nanowires' are made of 'quantum dots' - particles of copper indium sulphide and zinc sulphide which glow and conduct electricity - and are encased by fat molecules, or lipids.

The magnetic bacteria contain a protein that moulds mini compartments for the nanomagnets to be formed in using the cell membrane lipids. Dr Tanaka used a similar protein to make tubes of fat containing quantum dots - biological-based wiring.

"It is possible to tune these biological wires to have a particular electrical resistance. In the future, they could be grown connected to other components as part of an entirely biological computer," said Dr Tanaka.

The research group and the team at Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, led by Prof. Tadashi Matsunaga, now plan to examine the biological processes behind the behaviour of these proteins. "Our aim is to develop a toolkit of proteins and chemicals which could be used to grow computer components from scratch," adds Dr Staniland. Source: From ''[[Bacterial builders on site for computer construction|http://www.leeds.ac.uk/news/article/3181/bacterial_builders_on_site_for_computer_construction]]''. This work is detailed in the papers [["Biotemplated Magnetic Nanoparticle Arrays"|http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/smll.201101627/abstract]] by Galloway, J. M., Bramble, J. P., Rawlings, A. E., Burnell, G., Evans, S. D. and Staniland, S. S. and [["Fabrication of Lipid Tubules with Embedded Quantum Dots by Membrane Tubulation Protein"|http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/smll.201102446/abstract]] by Tanaka, M., Critchley, K., Matsunaga, T., Evans, S. D. and Staniland, S. S. 

''Context:''
[[Death Valley Microbe May Spark Novel Nanotech Uses]]
[[How bacterial magnetosomes form]]

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The selection of these images question and move us to a playground where it is possible to disclose what apparently seems to be hidden and where we can experience the convergence of art and science. Knowledge, reflection, aesthetic enjoyment, and beauty find here their own place.

The playground opened in front of us is not predefined, neither for the scientist nor for the receiver, if any of these figures could ever be independent one from the other. In fact it is a space where incontigency, what is for itself, it appears in front of us contingently like an //objet trouvé//. 

It is absolutely possible to establish a link between the representation of certain nanotechnological images and their perception by the spectator in a way that can evoke an aesthetic experience leading to sensory-cognitive connections.

I am going to mention two quotes from the article "Balancing the promises" very appropriate for this introduction to the aesthetics of the nanotechnology images: "nanoparticles conjugate composed by an inorganic core coated by a thin layer of organic matter" and "How do we go from chemistry to biology? Nanotechnology". In this way is configured a double corollary, the one of 'covering-uncovering' and the one of 'bridge-path'.

The interpretation and the playground will be opened if we are able to accept the invitation to unwrap and cross //objet trouvé//,that means, these
images from the nanometric world, with their own potentialities, as if we were contemplating a simple Haiku from Matsuo Basho or a caligram from Apollinaire. 

Is not by chance that as first plate it appears a sample of human in an alert position, walking stealthily on tiptoe across 'Nanoland' balancing the promises. The character (main figure) I guess is there, in order to be our guide through this territory full of winding curves, intricate paths, complex nets, floral landscape and bright stars escaped from the Van Gogh picture 'Starry night' It is useless to expect that maps could help us in this trip because maps themselves are part of that magnificent territory. At the end of this enriching walk our tiny guide points us cubic shapes that remind us dice, an then comes to our mind the Mallarme's poem 'A throw of the dice will never abolish chance' concluding that any interpretation along this trek could only be, even tough we have a guide, a matter of chance. Source: ''Balancing the promises plates by Anna Rierola, [[Transcultural|http://www.transcultural.es/]]''

''Context:'' The book [[Nanotechnology: balancing the promises]] includes 42 original plates of nanoparticles

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Researchers with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab’s Molecular Foundry) have discovered a universal technique for stripping nanocrystals of tether-like molecules that until now have posed as obstacles for their integration into devices. These findings could provide scientists with a clean slate for developing new nanocrystal-based technologies for energy storage, photovoltaics, smart windows, solar fuels and light-emitting diodes.

Nanocrystals are typically prepared in a chemical solution using stringy molecules called ligands chemically tethered to their surface. These hydrocarbon-based or organometallic molecules help stabilize the nanocrystal, but also form an undesirable insulating shell around the structure. Efficient and clean removal of these surface ligands is challenging and has eluded researchers for decades.

<html><img style="float:left; margin-right:10px; margin-bottom:10px" src="img/bare_nanocrystals_vials.jpg" title="Vials of ligand-free nanocrystals dispersed in solution for various applications, including energy storage, smart windows and LEDs." class="photo"  width="100%"/></html> [[The Molecular Foundry|http://foundry.lbl.gov/]] is one of five DOE Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs), national user facilities for interdisciplinary research at the nanoscale, supported by the DOE Office of Science.  Together the NSRCs comprise a suite of complementary facilities that provide researchers with state-of-the-art capabilities to fabricate, process, characterize and model nanoscale materials, and constitute the largest infrastructure investment of the National Nanotechnology Initiative. Source: From [[Nanocrystals Go Bare:|http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2011/12/08/nanocrystals-go-bare/]]Berkeley Lab Researchers Strip Material’s Tiny Tethers by Aditi Risbud. This work was detailed in the paper [[“Exceptionally mild reactive stripping of native ligands from nanocrystal surfaces using Meerwein’s salt”|http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/anie.201105996/abstract]].

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{{twocolumns{
Bayer MaterialScience intends to focus its development activities more intently on topics that are closely linked to its core business. For that reason the company will bring its work on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to a close. Precisely how the research results and know-how for the production and application CNT will be used further will be determined shortly.

Researchers from [[Bayer MaterialScience|http://www.materialscience.bayer.com/en/Company/Overview.aspx]] had collaborated with external partners in recent years to resolve complex issues related to the safe production of specific carbon nanotubes. Methods for scaling up the production processes were developed, as were new generations of catalysts and new types of products.

Important know-how developed

Much of the knowledge gleaned over recent years was made available to other companies and research institutions within the [[Innovation Alliance Carbon Nanotubes (Inno.CNT)|http://www.inno-cnt.de/en/]], which counts Bayer MaterialScience among its roughly 90 members.

“We remain convinced that carbon nanotubes have huge potential,” says Patrick Thomas, Chief Executive Officer of Bayer MaterialScience. It has been found, however, that the potential areas of application that once seemed promising from a technical standpoint are currently either very fragmented or have few overlaps with the company's core products and their application spectrum.

“For Bayer MaterialScience, groundbreaking applications for the mass market relating to our own portfolio and therefore comprehensive commercialization are not likely in the foreseeable future,” says Thomas. Nonetheless, this know-how provides an important basis for a possible later use of CNT, for example in the optimization of lithium ion batteries, Thomas says. “We are currently in contact with potential interested parties regarding the specific application of the know-how generated,” Thomas adds.

The conclusion of the nano projects has no impact on the headcount. All 30 people employed in this sector will be transferred to other suitable positions within the Group.

About Bayer MaterialScience: With 2012 sales of EUR 11.5 billion, Bayer MaterialScience is among the world’s largest polymer companies. Business activities are focused on the manufacture of high-tech polymer materials and the development of innovative solutions for products used in many areas of daily life. The main segments served are the automotive, electrical and electronics, construction and the sports and leisure industries. At the end of 2012, Bayer MaterialScience had 30 production sites and employed approximately 14,500 people around the globe. Bayer MaterialScience is a Bayer Group company. Source: From Development know-how is made available to collaboration partners: [[Bayer MaterialScience brings nano projects to a close|http://news.bayer.de/baynews/baynews.nsf/id/Bayer-MaterialScience-brings-nano-projects-to-a-close]]. See also [[Baytubes® website|http://www.baytubes.com/index.html]].

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''Context:''
May 18, 2013. ''[[Nanotube Supply Glut Claims First Victim|http://spectrum.ieee.org/nanoclast/semiconductors/nanotechnology/carbon-nanotube-supply-glut-claims-its-first-victim]]'' by Dexter Johnson, IEEE Spectrum. //“While this steep ramping up of production capacity reduced pricing from $700/kg in 2006 to below $100/kg in 2009—with some estimates putting the price at $50/kg as of last year—the problem seemed to be that no matter how cheap you made the stuff nobody was buying it because there were no applications for it.”//
May 9, 2013. ''[[Nano-products Here to Stay|http://www.sacbee.com/2013/05/09/5407271/nano-products-here-to-stay.html]]'' by Germany Trade and Invest. //“Germany ranks number three in the world in global nanotechnology patent applications, having splashed EUR 1.3bn on nanotechnology R&D in 2010 (some 10% of the annual turnover). According to the German Nanotechnology Association (DVN), that figure rose to EUR 1.4bn in 2011. Half of Europe's nanotechnology companies are German - the number of key German players in the nanotechnology industry has increased by 50% since 2008, with a huge 61,000 employees in the sector at the end of 2010.”//
May 8, 2013. [[Bayer MaterialScience exits carbon nanotube business|http://www.plasticstoday.com/articles/bayer-materialscience-exits-carbon-nanotube-business0508201301]] by Doug Smock, Plastics Today. //“Bayer's capacity was soon surpassed by a Chinese competitor, CNano Technology. Number 2 is Belgian company Nanocyl.... One long-time industry observer told that the move is not believed to be reflective of a loss of confidence in the overall carbon nanotube industry, but rather in the company's own technical position (...) There's no question, though, that the bloom is somewhat off the rose in the carbon nanotube business. The pace of expansion has slowed dramatically in the last three years since a gold rush kind of atmosphere in 2008 to 2010.”//
May 3, 2013. ''Nanomedicine in a turning point? A growing number of top drug companies seem to think so.'' [[Big drugmakers think small with nanomedicine deals|http://www.foxnews.com/health/2013/05/03/big-drugmakers-think-small-with-nanomedicine-deals/]]

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One Chicago skyline is dazzling enough. Now imagine 15,000 of them. A Northwestern University research team has done just that -- drawing 15,000 identical skylines with tiny beams of light using an innovative nanofabrication technology called beam-pen lithography (BPL). ''The new method could do for nanofabrication what the desktop printer has done for printing and information transfer.'' The Northwestern technology offers a means to rapidly and inexpensively make and prototype circuits, optoelectronics and medical diagnostics and promises many other applications in the electronics, photonics and life sciences industries.

"It's all about miniaturization," said ''[[Chad A. Mirkin|http://mccormick.northwestern.edu/news/archives/691]]'', George B. Rathmann Professor of Chemistry in the Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences and director of Northwestern's [[International Institute for Nanotechnology|http://www.iinano.org/]]. "Rapid and large-scale transfer of information drives the world. But conventional micro- and nanofabrication tools for making structures are very expensive. We are trying to change that with this new approach to photolithography and nanopatterning."

''Beam-pen lithography is the third type of "pen" in Mirkin's nanofabrication arsenal. He developed [[polymer-pen lithography (PPL)|http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/321/5896/1658]] in 2008 and [[Dip-Pen Nanolithography (DPN)|http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/283/5402/661]] in 1999'', both of which deliver chemical materials to a surface and have since been commercialized into research-grade nanofabrication tools that are now used in 23 countries around the world. Like PPL, beam-pen lithography uses an array of tiny pens made of a polymer to print patterns over large areas with nanoscopic through macroscopic resolution. But instead of using an "ink" of molecules, BPL draws patterns using light on a light-sensitive material.

Beam-pen lithography could lead to the development of a desktop printer of sorts for nanofabrication, giving individual researchers a great deal of control of their work. "Such an instrument would allow researchers at universities and in the electronics industry around the world to rapidly prototype -- and possibly produce -- high-resolution electronic devices and systems right in the lab," Mirkin said. "They want to test their patterns immediately, not have to wait for a third-party to produce prototypes, which is what happens now." Source: From [[15,000 beams of light|http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2010-08/nu-1bo073010.php]]. This work is detailed in the paper [[Beam-pen Nanolithography|http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nnano.2010.161.html]] by  Fengwei Huo, Gengfeng Zheng, Xing Liao, Louise R. Giam, Jinan Chai, Xiaodong Chen and Wooyoung Shim &  Chad A. Mirkin

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|Name|BetterTimelineMacro|
|Created by|SaqImtiaz|
|Location|http://tw.lewcid.org/#BetterTimelineMacro|
|Version|0.5 beta|
|Requires|~TW2.x|
!!!Description:
A replacement for the core timeline macro that offers more features:
*list tiddlers with only specfic tag
*exclude tiddlers with a particular tag
*limit entries to any number of days, for example one week
*specify a start date for the timeline, only tiddlers after that date will be listed.

!!!Installation:
Copy the contents of this tiddler to your TW, tag with systemConfig, save and reload your TW.
Edit the ViewTemplate to add the fullscreen command to the toolbar.

!!!Syntax:
{{{<<timeline better:true>>}}}
''the param better:true enables the advanced features, without it you will get the old timeline behaviour.''

additonal params:
(use only the ones you want)
{{{<<timeline better:true  onlyTag:Tag1 excludeTag:Tag2 sortBy:modified/created firstDay:YYYYMMDD maxDays:7 maxEntries:30>>}}}

''explanation of syntax:''
onlyTag: only tiddlers with this tag will be listed. Default is to list all tiddlers.
excludeTag: tiddlers with this tag will not be listed.
sortBy: sort tiddlers by date modified or date created. Possible values are modified or created.
firstDay: useful for starting timeline from a specific date. Example: 20060701 for 1st of July, 2006
maxDays: limits timeline to include only tiddlers from the specified number of days. If you use a value of 7 for example, only tiddlers from the last 7 days will be listed.
maxEntries: limit the total number of entries in the timeline.


!!!History:
*28-07-06: ver 0.5 beta, first release

!!!Code
***/
//{{{
// Return the tiddlers as a sorted array
TiddlyWiki.prototype.getTiddlers = function(field,excludeTag,includeTag)
{
          var results = [];
          this.forEachTiddler(function(title,tiddler)
          {
          if(excludeTag == undefined || !tiddler.tags.contains(excludeTag))
                        if(includeTag == undefined || tiddler.tags.contains(includeTag))
                                      results.push(tiddler);
          });
          if(field)
                   results.sort(function (a,b) {if(a[field] == b[field]) return(0); else return (a[field] < b[field]) ? -1 : +1; });
          return results;
}



//this function by Udo
function getParam(params, name, defaultValue)
{
          if (!params)
          return defaultValue;
          var p = params[0][name];
          return p ? p[0] : defaultValue;
}

window.old_timeline_handler= config.macros.timeline.handler;
config.macros.timeline.handler = function(place,macroName,params,wikifier,paramString,tiddler)
{
          var args = paramString.parseParams("list",null,true);
          var betterMode = getParam(args, "better", "false");
          if (betterMode == 'true')
          {
          var sortBy = getParam(args,"sortBy","modified");
          var excludeTag = getParam(args,"excludeTag",undefined);
          var includeTag = getParam(args,"onlyTag",undefined);
          var tiddlers = store.getTiddlers(sortBy,excludeTag,includeTag);
          var firstDayParam = getParam(args,"firstDay",undefined);
          var firstDay = (firstDayParam!=undefined)? firstDayParam: "00010101";
          var lastDay = "";
          var field= sortBy;
          var maxDaysParam = getParam(args,"maxDays",undefined);
          var maxDays = (maxDaysParam!=undefined)? maxDaysParam*24*60*60*1000: (new Date()).getTime() ;
          var maxEntries = getParam(args,"maxEntries",undefined);
          var last = (maxEntries!=undefined) ? tiddlers.length-Math.min(tiddlers.length,parseInt(maxEntries)) : 0;
          for(var t=tiddlers.length-1; t>=last; t--)
                  {
                  var tiddler = tiddlers[t];
                  var theDay = tiddler[field].convertToLocalYYYYMMDDHHMM().substr(0,8);
                  if ((theDay>=firstDay)&& (tiddler[field].getTime()> (new Date()).getTime() - maxDays))
                     {
                     if(theDay != lastDay)
                               {
                               var theDateList = document.createElement("ul");
                               place.appendChild(theDateList);
                               createTiddlyElement(theDateList,"li",null,"listTitle",tiddler[field].formatString(this.dateFormat));
                               lastDay = theDay;
                               }
                  var theDateListItem = createTiddlyElement(theDateList,"li",null,"listLink",null);
                  theDateListItem.appendChild(createTiddlyLink(place,tiddler.title,true));
                  }
                  }
          }

          else
              {
              window.old_timeline_handler.apply(this,arguments);
              }
}
//}}}
{{twocolumns{
For decades, electronic devices have been getting smaller, and smaller, and smaller. It’s now possible—even routine—to place millions of transistors on a single silicon chip. But transistors based on semiconductors can only get so small. “At the rate the current technology is progressing, in 10 or 20 years, they won’t be able to get any smaller,” said physicist [[Yoke Khin Yap|http://phy.mtu.edu/yap/]] of Michigan Technological University. “Also, semiconductors have another disadvantage: they waste a lot of energy in the form of heat.”

Scientists have experimented with different materials and designs for transistors to address these issues, always using semiconductors like silicon. Back in 2007, Yap wanted to try something different that might open the door to a new age of electronics.

“The idea was to make a transistor using a nanoscale insulator with nanoscale metals on top,” he said. “In principle, you could get a piece of plastic and spread a handful of metal powders on top to make the devices, if you do it right. But we were trying to create it in nanoscale, so we chose a nanoscale insulator, boron nitride nanotubes, or BNNTs  for the substrate.”

<html><img style="float:left; margin-bottom:10px" src="img/quantum-tunneling_device.jpg" title="Electrons flash across a series of gold quantum dots on boron nitride nanotubes. Michigan Tech scientists made the quantum-tunneling device, which acts like a transistor at room temperature, without using semiconducting materials. Credit:  Yoke Khin Yap" class="photo"  width="100%"/></html>Yap’s team had figured out how to make virtual carpets of BNNTs,which happen to be insulators and thus highly resistant to electrical charge. Using lasers, the team then placed quantum dots (QDs) of gold as small as three nanometers across on the tops of the BNNTs, forming QDs-BNNTs. BNNTs are the perfect substrates for these quantum dots due to their small, controllable, and uniform diameters, as well as their insulating nature. BNNTs confine the size of the dots that can be deposited.

In collaboration with scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), they fired up electrodes on both ends of the QDs-BNNTs at room temperature, and something interesting happened. Electrons jumped very precisely from gold dot to gold dot, a phenomenon known as quantum tunneling.

“Imagine that the nanotubes are a river, with an electrode on each bank. Now imagine some very tiny stepping stones across the river,” said Yap. “The electrons hopped between the gold stepping stones. The stones are so small, you can only get one electron on the stone at a time. Every electron is passing the same way, so the device is always stable.”

''Yap’s team had made a transistor without a semiconductor''. When sufficient voltage was applied, it switched to a conducting state. When the voltage was low or turned off, it reverted to its natural state as an insulator. ''Furthermore, there was no “leakage”'': no electrons from the gold dots escaped into the insulating BNNTs, thus keeping the tunneling channel cool. In contrast, silicon is subject to leakage, which wastes energy in electronic devices and generates a lot of heat.

Other people have made transistors that exploit quantum tunneling, says Michigan Tech physicist John Jaszczak, who has developed the theoretical framework for Yap’s experimental research. However, those tunneling devices have only worked in conditions that would discourage the typical cellphone user. “They only operate at liquid-helium temperatures,” said Jaszczak.

The secret to Yap’s gold-and-nanotube device is its submicroscopic size: one micron long and about 20 nanometers wide. ”The gold islands have to be on the order of nanometers across to control the electrons at room temperature,” Jaszczak said. “If they are too big, too many electrons can flow.” In this case, smaller is truly better: “Working with nanotubes and quantum dots gets you to the scale you want for electronic devices.” Source: From [[Beyond Silicon: Transistors without Semiconductors|http://www.mtu.edu/news/stories/2013/june/story92119.html]] by  Marcia Goodrich. This work is detailed in the paper ''[["Room-Temperature Tunneling Behavior of Boron Nitride Nanotubes Functionalized with Gold Quantum Dots"|http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/adma.201301339/abstract]]'' by Chee Huei Lee, Shengyong Qin, Madhusudan A. Savaikar, Jiesheng Wang, Boyi Hao, Dongyan Zhang, Douglas Banyai, John A. Jaszczak, Kendal W. Clark, Juan-Carlos Idrobo, An-Ping Li, Yoke Khin Yap.

''Related news'' list by date, most recent first: <<matchTags popup sort:-createdmilestone>><<matchTags popup sort:-created nanoelectronics>><<matchTags popup sort:-created nanotubes>><<matchTags popup sort:-created [[quantum dots]]>><<matchTags popup sort:-created nanoelectronics>><<matchTags popup sort:-created nanoparticles>>

<<tiddler Twitter>>
}}}
^^Permalink of this post: http://nanowiki.info/#%5B%5BBeyond%20Silicon%3A%20Transistors%20without%20Semiconductors%5D%5D^^
^^Short link: http://goo.gl/6ceT6^^
<<tiddler [[random suggestion]]>>
Gold is for ever… is inert and not biodegradable, the most noble of the noble metals. That is why it is used in medicine (stents) or dental restoration. However, if you look very close, with your nanoglasses, ''gold'' dissolves in biological environments. This metabolization of inorganic “non-biodegradable” matter is slow and it has been usually neglected. However, nanoparticles are also small and the dissolution rates become significant when your entity has few thousand of atoms. Mainly if the immune system is involved. See [[Gold ions bio-released from metallic gold particles reduce inflammation and apoptosis and increase the regenerative responses in focal brain injury|http://www.springerlink.com/content/a127670376840111/]]. 

Metabolization of magnetite/maghemite ''iron oxide'' ~NPs has also been described recently. See [[Bioinorganic transformations of liver iron deposits observed by tissue magnetic characterisation in a rat model|http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6TGG-4KB6YV2-6&_user=1517286&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000053449&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=1517286&md5=b224b4272d490a17a278f6c74483b03f]]

''~CdSe nanoparticles'' have also been reported to corrode and dissolve in biological environments in a matter of 24-48 hours. See [[Cytotoxicity of Colloidal CdSe and CdSe/ZnS Nanoparticles|http://www.nanion.de/pdf/NanoLetters_Cytotoxicity.pdf]]

Thus, if ~CdSe, iron oxide, Au dissolve in biological environments, one may expect that many other materials will do so (may be not carbon nanostructures, as carbon nanotubes or fullerenes, will be diamonds for ever even in the nanometer? Or very stable oxides as ~SiO2, will it dissolve?) ''and this will have an enormous impact on the risk evaluation of nanoparticles'' since it will determine their accumulation potential and therefore the doses, regulations, toxicities… 

''Related news'' list by date, most recent first: <<matchTags popup sort:-created nanoparticles>><<matchTags popup sort:-created nanotoxicology>><<matchTags popup sort:-created nanobiotechnology>><<matchTags popup sort:-created [[Victor Puntes]]>>
{{twocolumns{
Researchs uses self-assembling blood, milk, and mucus proteins to build next generation technology. Silicon, a semi-conducting element, is the basis of most modern technology, including cellular phones and computers. But according to Tel Aviv University researchers, this material is quickly becoming outdated in an industry producing ever-smaller products that are less harmful to the environment.

Now, a team of TAU's Department of Chemistry and [[The Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology|http://nano.tau.ac.il/]], with supervisor [[Dr. Shachar Richter|http://www.tau.ac.il/~srichter/]], has brought together cutting-edge techniques from multiple fields of science to create ''protein-based transistors — semi-conductors used to power electronic devices — from organic materials found in the human body''. They could become the basis of a new generation of nano-sized technologies that are both flexible and biodegradable.

Working with blood, milk, and mucus proteins which have the ability to self-assemble into a semi-conducting film, the researchers have already succeeded in taking the first step towards biodegradable display screens, and they aim to use this method to develop entire electronic devices.

One of the challenges of using silicon as a semi-conductor is that a transistor must be created with a "top down" approach. Manufacturers start with a sheet of silicon and carve it into the shape that is needed, like carving a sculpture out of a rock. This method limits the capabilities of transistors when it comes to factors such as size and flexibility.

The TAU researchers turned to biology and chemistry for a different approach to building the ideal transistor. When they appled various combinations of blood, milk, and mucus proteins to any base material, ''the molecules self-assembled to create a semi-conducting film on a nano-scale''. In the case of blood protein, for example, the film is approximately four nanometers high. The current technology in use now is 18 nanometers, says Mentovich.

Together, the three different kinds of proteins create a complete circuit with electronic and optical capabilities, each bringing something unique to the table. Blood protein has the ability to absorb oxygen, Mentovich says, which permits the "doping" of semi-conductors with specific chemicals in order to create specific technological properties. Milk proteins, known for their strength in difficult environments, form the fibers which are the building blocks of the transistors, while the mucosal proteins have the ability to keep red, green and, blue fluorescent dyes separate, together creating the white light emission that is necessary for advanced optics.

Overall, ''the natural abilities of each protein give the researchers "unique control" over the resulting organic transistor, allowing adjustments for conductivity, memory storage, and fluorescence among other characteristics''.

Technology is now shifting from a silicon era to a carbon era, notes Mentovich, and this new type of transistor could play a big role. Transistors built from these proteins will be ideal for smaller, flexible devices that are made out of plastic rather than silicon, which exists in wafer form that would shatter like glass if bent. The breakthrough could lead to a new range of flexible technologies, such as screens, cell phones and tablets, biosensors, and microprocessor chips.

Just as significant, because the researchers are using natural proteins to build their transistor, the products they create will be biodegradable. It's a far more environmentally friendly technology that addresses the growing problem of electronic waste, which is overflowing landfills worldwide. Source: From ''[[Biodegradable Transistors -- Made from Us|http://www.aftau.org/site/News2?page=NewsArticle&id=16121]]''. This work is detailed in the papers: [["Resolving the Mystery of the Elusive Peak: Negative Differential Resistance in Redox Proteins"|http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jz200304s]] by [[Elad D. Mentovich|http://www.mrs.org/f11-gsa/]], Bogdan Belgorodsky, and Shachar Richter; and [["Efficient Separation of Dyes by Mucin: Toward Bioinspired White-Luminescent Devices"|http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/adma.201100529/abstract]] by Netta Hendler, Bogdan Belgorodsky, Elad D. Mentovich, Michael Gozin, Shachar Richter.

''Context:''
November 13, 2009. [[Biodegradable Transistors|https://www.technologyreview.es/biomedicine/23940/]].  MIT Technology Review, Katherine Bourzac. //"The Stanford group, led by chemical engineering professor [[Zhenan Bao|http://baogroup.stanford.edu/]], is the first to make electronics from fully biodegradable semiconducting materials"//

''Related news'' list by date, most recent first: <<matchTags popup sort:-created nanobiotechnology>><<matchTags popup sort:-created nanoelectronics>><<matchTags popup sort:-created computing>><<matchTags popup sort:-created self-assembly>><<matchTags popup sort:-created waste>>

<<tiddler Twitter>>
}}}
University of Pittsburgh researchers have developed ''the first natural, nontoxic method for biodegrading carbon nanotubes'', a finding that could help diminish the environmental and health concerns that mar the otherwise bright prospects of the super-strong materials commonly used in products, from electronics to plastics.

A Pitt research team has found that carbon nanotubes deteriorate when exposed to the natural enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP). These results open the door to further development of safe and natural methods-with HRP or other enzymes-of cleaning up carbon nanotube spills in the environment and the industrial or laboratory setting.

Carbon nanotubes are one-atom thick rolls of graphite 100,000 times smaller than a human hair yet stronger than steel and excellent conductors of electricity and heat. They reinforce plastics, ceramics, or concrete; conduct electricity in electronics or energy-conversion devices; and are sensitive chemical sensors, Alexander Star said. (Star created an [[early-detection device for asthma attacks|http://mac10.umc.pitt.edu/m/FMPro?-db=ma.fp5&-format=d.html&-lay=a&-sortfield=date&-sortorder=descend&keywords=asthma&-max=50&-recid=37156&-find=]] wherein carbon nanotubes detect minute amounts of nitric oxide preceding an attack)

"The many applications of nanotubes have resulted in greater production of them, but their toxicity remains controversial," Star said. "Accidental spills of nanotubes are inevitable during their production, and the massive use of nanotube-based materials could lead to increased environmental pollution. We have demonstrated a nontoxic approach to successfully degrade carbon nanotubes in environmentally relevant conditions."

The team's work focused on nanotubes in their raw form as a fine, graphite-like powder, Valerian Kagan explained. In this form, nanotubes have caused severe lung inflammation in lab tests. Although small, nanotubes contain thousands of atoms on their surface that could react with the human body in unknown ways, Kagan said. Both he and Star are associated with a three-year-old Pitt initiative to investigate nanotoxicology.

"Nanomaterials aren't completely understood. Industries use nanotubes because they're unique-they are strong, they can be used as semiconductors. But do these features present unknown health risks? The field of nanotoxicology is developing to find out," Kagan said. "Studies have shown that they can be dangerous. We wanted to develop a method for safely neutralizing these very small materials should they contaminate the natural or working environment."

To break down the nanotubes, the team exposed them to a solution of HRP and a low concentration of hydrogen peroxide at 4 degrees Celcius (39 degrees Fahrenheit) for 12 weeks. Once fully developed, this method could be administered as easily as chemical clean-ups in today's labs, Kagan and Star said.

Source: [[Pitt Researchers Create Nontoxic Clean-up Method for Common, Potentially Toxic Nano Materials|http://www.news.pitt.edu/m/FMPro?-db=ma&-lay=a&-format=d.html&id=3552&-Find]]. This work is detailed in the paper [[Biodegradation of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes through Enzymatic Catalysis|http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/nl802315h?prevSearch=Alexander+Star&searchHistoryKey=]] by Brett L. Allen, Padmakar D. Kichambare, Pingping Gou, Irina I. Vlasova, Alexander A. Kapralov, Nagarjun Konduru, Valerian E. Kagan and Alexander Star

<<matchTags popup sort:-created  [[green chemistry]]>><<matchTags popup sort:-created  nanotoxicology>><<matchTags popup sort:-created  [[carbon nanotubes]]>>
{{twocolumns{
<html><img style="float:left; margin-right:10px" src="img/quantumdot_in_bacteria.jpeg" title="The quantum dot-tainted bacteria stop digestion in the protozoan, and food vacuoles with undigested material accumulate, seen in the right image. This is in contrast to the normal condition of protozoa eating untreated bacteria, seen in the left image" class="photo"  width="50%"/></html> An interdisciplinary team of researchers at UC Santa Barbara has produced ''a groundbreaking study of how nanoparticles are able to biomagnify in a simple microbial food chain''.

"This was a simple scientific curiosity," said [[Patricia Holden|http://www.bren.ucsb.edu/people/Faculty/patricia_holden.htm]], professor in UCSB's Bren School of Environmental Science & Management and the corresponding author of the study. "But it is also ''of great importance to this new field of looking at the interface of nanotechnology and the environment''."

The research was partially funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) STAR Program, and by the UC Center for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology ([[UC CEIN|http://www.cein.ucsb.edu/]]), based at UCLA, with researchers from UCSB, UC Davis, UC Riverside, Columbia University, and other national and international partners. UC CEIN is funded by the National Science Foundation and the EPA.

The fact that the ratio of cadmium and selenide was preserved throughout the course of the study indicates that the nanoparticles were themselves biomagnified. "Biomagnification –– the increase in concentration of cadmium as the tracer for nanoparticles from prey into predator –– this is the first time this has been reported for nanomaterials in an aquatic environment, and furthermore involving microscopic life forms, which comprise the base of all food webs," Holden said.

An implication is that nanoparticles inside the protozoa could then be available to the next level of predators in the food chain, which could lead to broader ecological effects. "These protozoa are greatly enriched in nanoparticles because of feeding on quantum dot-laced bacteria," Hold said. "Because there were toxic effects on the protozoa in this study, there is a concern that there could also be toxic effects higher in the food chain, especially in aquatic environments."

One of the missions of UC CEIN is to try to understand the effects of nanomaterials in the environment, and how scientists can prevent any possible negative effects that might pose a threat to any form of life. "In this context, one might argue that if you could ‘design out' whatever property of the quantum dots causes them to enter bacteria, then we could avoid this potential consequence," Holden said. "That would be a positive way of viewing a study like this. ''Now scientists can look back and say, ‘How do we prevent this from happening?' "'' Source: [[UCSB Scientists Demonstrate Biomagnification of Nanomaterials in Simple Food Chain|http://www.ia.ucsb.edu/pa/display.aspx?pkey=2391]]. This work was detailed in the paper [[“Biomagnification of cadmium selenide quantum dots in a simple experimental microbial food chain”|http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2010.251]] by R. Werlin, J. H. Priester, R. E. Mielke, S. Krämer, S. Jackson, P. K. Stoimenov, G. D. Stucky, G. N. Cherr, [[E. Orias|http://www.lifesci.ucsb.edu/mcdb/emeriti/orias/index.html]] & P. A. Holden <<slider chkSldr [[Biomagnification of cadmium selenide quantum dots in a simple experimental microbial food chain]]  [[Abstract»]] [[read abstract of the paper]]>>

''Related news'' list by date, most recent first: <<matchTags popup sort:-created nanoparticles>><<matchTags popup sort:-created nanotoxicology>><<matchTags popup sort:-created [[quantum dots]]>>
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}}}
<br>//Previous studies have shown that engineered nanomaterials can be transferred from prey to predator, but the ecological impacts of this are mostly unknown. In particular, it is not known if these materials can be biomagnified—a process in which higher concentrations of materials accumulate in organisms higher up in the food chain. Here, we show that bare CdSe quantum dots that have accumulated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria can be transferred to and biomagnified in the Tetrahymena thermophila protozoa that prey on the bacteria. Cadmium concentrations in the protozoa predator were approximately five times higher than their bacterial prey. Quantum-dot-treated bacteria were differentially toxic to the protozoa, in that they inhibited their own digestion in the protozoan food vacuoles. Because the protozoa did not lyse, largely intact quantum dots remain available to higher trophic levels. The observed biomagnification from bacterial prey is significant because bacteria are at the base of environmental food webs. Our findings illustrate the potential for biomagnification as an ecological impact of nanomaterials.//
{{twocolumns{
''Evidence is mounting that the development and spread of cancer, long attributed to gene expression and chemical signaling gone awry, involves a biomechanical component as well''. Researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) have added to this body of evidence by demonstrating that the malignant activity of a critical cellular protein system can arise from what essentially are protein traffic jams.

Using a unique artificial membrane imbued with an obstacle course of gold nanodots, a research team led by chemist [[Jay Groves|http://groveslab.cchem.berkeley.edu/]] studied the transport of the protein signaling complex EphA2/ephrin-A1 across the surfaces of 10 different breast epithelial cancer cell lines displaying a wide range of disease characteristics. The researchers found that transport of this receptor-ligand complex was normal in healthier cell lines but became jammed in diseased cell lines, with the worst jamming taking place in the cells that were the most diseased.

Groves is a leading authority in the emerging field of ''mechanobiology'', which ''seeks to understand how cells sense and respond to mechanical forces.'' To investigate for a possible mechanical factor in EphA2’s link to breast cancer, Groves used a technique his group developed in which artificial membranes made up of a fluid bilayer of lipid molecules are embedded with fixed arrays of gold nanodots. This allows researchers to control the spacing or transport of proteins and other cellular molecules placed on the membranes.

<html><img style="float:left; margin-bottom:10px" src="img/groves.jpg" title="n artificial membranes embedded with gold nanodots, non-invasive cancer cells bind only to the nanodots and become immobilized while invasive cells bind to the membrane as well as the nanodots creating mobile clusters that contribute to metastasis. Credit: Groves  Lab, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory" class="photo"  width="100%"/></html>For this study, Groves and his colleagues used arrays of gold nanodots to present defined obstacles to the movement and assembly of EphA2/ephrin-A1 clusters. The ephrin-A1 ligands could bind to the membrane, which allowed the clusters to be mobile, or to the nanodots, which immobilized the clusters, or to both. The researchers worked with lines of breast cancer cells that have similar levels of EphA2 expression and included MDA-MB-231, a highly invasive and tumorigenic line, and MCF10A, a relatively benign and non-tumorigenic line.

“When we see cells that have the same levels of EphA2 but the MDA-MB-231 is jammed while the MCF10A is not, then we can say it is something beyond just the numbers of EphA2 that matters, something about the way EphA2 is plugged into the rest of the cell that is misrelated,” Groves says. ''“Our observations suggest the cytoskeleton is the culprit and that drugs modulating the cytoskeleton might also therapeutically modulate EphA2 clustering, thereby reducing pathological behavior.”'' Source: From [[Cancerous Traffic Jams: Biomechanical Factor in Malignancies Identified|http://newscenter.lbl.gov/science-shorts/2013/07/01/cancerous-traffic-jams/]] by Lynn Yarris. This work is detailed in the paper ''[["Nanoscale Obstacle Arrays Frustrate Transport of EphA2–Ephrin-A1 Clusters in Cancer Cell Lines"|http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/nl400874v]]'' by Theobald Lohmüller, Qian Xu, and Jay T. Groves.

''Related news'' list by date, most recent first: <<matchTags popup sort:-created nano-oncology>><<matchTags popup sort:-created nanomedicine>>

<<tiddler Twitter>>
}}}
^^Permalink of this post: http://nanowiki.info/#%5B%5BBiomechanical%20factor%20in%20malignancies%20identified%5D%5D^^
^^Short link: http://goo.gl/vR3im^^
<<tiddler [[random suggestion]]>>
Berkeley Lab scientists have developed a nano-sized synthetic polymer bundle that can fold in half and trap a zinc molecule between its jaws, ''a first-of-its-kind feat that mimics how proteins conduct life’s vital functions''.

//“Our goal is to take proteins’ catalysis and molecular-recognition capabilities, and add them to a material that is more rugged and less prone to degradation,”// said Ron Zuckermann, who is the Facility Director of the Biological Nanostructures Facility in Berkeley Lab’s Molecular Foundry.  “Proteins are precisely folded linear polymer chains of amino acids. So we thought, why not make a similar polymer chain by linking together non-natural amino acids?”

The scientists’ research is detailed in a study entitled [[“Biomimetic Nanostructures: Creating a High-Affinity Zinc-Binding Site in a Folded Nonbiological Polymer”|http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi/jacsat/2008/130/i27/abs/ja802125x.html]].

Source: [[Nanosized Jaws Perform Like Proteins|http://www.lbl.gov/publicinfo/newscenter/features/2008/MSD-nano-jaws.html]]
^^Via [[Joan Esteve|http://www.ub.edu/gcfes/index_es.htm]]^^
{{twocolumns{
Just months after setting a [[record for detecting the smallest single virus in solution|http://www.poly.edu/press-release/2012/08/28/nyu-poly-researchers-set-record-detecting-smallest-virus-opening-new-possib]], researchers at the Polytechnic Institute of New York University (NYU-Poly) have announced a new breakthrough: They used a nano-enhanced version of their patented microcavity biosensor to detect a single cancer marker protein, which is one-sixth the size of the smallest virus, and even smaller molecules below the mass of all known markers. This achievement shatters the previous record, setting a new benchmark for the most sensitive limit of detection, and may significantly advance early disease diagnostics. Unlike current technology, which attaches a fluorescent molecule, or label, to the antigen to allow it to be seen, the new process detects the antigen without an interfering label.

In 2012, [[Stephen Arnold|http://www.mp3l.org/]], university professor of applied physics and member of the Othmer-Jacobs Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, and his team were able to detect in solution the smallest known RNA virus, MS2, with a mass of 6 attograms. Now, with experimental work by postdoctoral fellow Venkata Dantham and former student David Keng, two proteins have been detected: a human cancer marker protein called Thyroglobulin, with a mass of just 1 attogram, and the bovine form of a common plasma protein, serum albumin, with a far smaller mass of 0.11 attogram. “An attogram is a millionth of a millionth of a millionth of a gram,” said Arnold, “and we believe that our new limit of detection may be smaller than 0.01 attogram.”

This latest milestone builds on a technique pioneered by Arnold and collaborators from NYU-Poly and Fordham University.  In 2012, the researchers set the first sizing record by treating a novel biosensor with plasmonic gold nano-receptors, enhancing the electric field of the sensor and allowing even the smallest shifts in resonant frequency to be detected. Their plan was to design a medical diagnostic device capable of identifying a single virus particle in a point-of-care setting, without the use of special assay preparations.

At the time, the notion of detecting a single protein—phenomenally smaller than a virus—was set forth as the ultimate goal. 

“Proteins run the body,” explained Arnold. “When the immune system encounters virus, it pumps out huge quantities of antibody proteins, and all cancers generate protein markers. ''A test capable of detecting a single protein would be the most sensitive diagnostic test imaginable''.”

<html><img style="float:left; margin-bottom:10px" src="img/nano_marker.jpg" title="Researchers illustrate the novel way they detected the BSA protein found in blood -- even smaller than a single cancer marker. As the BSA protein lands on the gold nanoshell that is attached to a microcavity, the bumpy gold sphere acts as a nano-amplifier of the interaction, leading to an enhanced shift in the cavity's resonance frequency. The charted waves show how the light wavelength shifts (red) once the BSA molecule lands on the nanoshell. Credit: Polytechnic Institute of New York University" class="photo"  width="100%"/></html>To the surprise of the researchers, examination of their nanoreceptor under a transmission electron microscope revealed that its gold shell surface was covered with random bumps roughly the size of a protein. Computer mapping and simulations created by [[Stephen Holler|http://www.fordham.edu/academics/programs_at_fordham_/physics/faculty__staff/stephen_holler_80240.asp]], once Arnold’s student and now assistant professor of physics at Fordham University, showed that these irregularities generate their own highly reactive local sensitivity field extending out several nanometers, amplifying the capabilities of the sensor far beyond original predictions. “A virus is far too large to be aided in detection by this field,” Arnold said. “Proteins are just a few nanometers across—exactly the right size to register in this space.”

''The implications of single protein detection are significant and may lay the foundation for improved medical therapeutics''.  Among other advances, Arnold and his colleagues posit that the ability to follow a signal in real time—to actually witness the detection of a single disease marker protein and track its movement—may yield new understanding of how proteins attach to antibodies.

Arnold named the novel method of label-free detection “whispering gallery-mode biosensing” because light waves in the system reminded him of the way that voices bounce around the whispering gallery under the dome of St. Paul’s Cathedral in London. A laser sends light through a glass fiber to a detector. When a microsphere is placed against the fiber, certain wavelengths of light detour into the sphere and bounce around inside, creating a dip in the light that the detector receives. When a molecule like a cancer marker clings to a gold nanoshell attached to the microsphere, the microsphere’s resonant frequency shifts by a measureable amount. Source: From [[NYU-Poly Nano Scientists Reach the Holy Grail in Label-Free Cancer Marker Detection: Single Molecules|http://www.poly.edu/press-release/2013/07/24/nyu-poly-nano-scientists-reach-holy-grail-label-free-cancer-marker-detectio]]. This work is detailed in the paper ''[["Label-Free Detection of Single Protein Using a Nanoplasmonic-Photonic Hybrid Microcavity"|http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/nl401633y]]'' by Venkata R. Dantham, Stephen Holler, Curtis Barbre, David Keng, Vasily Kolchenko, and Stephen Arnold.

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Testing for diseases such as cancer and multiple sclerosis could soon be as simple as using a pregnancy testing kit. A team led by scientists at the University of Leeds has developed ''a biosensor technology that uses antibodies to detect biomarkers'' - molecules in the human body which are often a marker for disease – much faster than current testing methods (provides results in 15 minutes or less).

The technology could be used in doctors’ surgeries for more accurate referral to consultants, and in hospitals for rapid diagnosis. Tests have shown that the biosensors can detect a wide range of analytes (substances being measured), including biomarkers present in prostate and ovarian cancer, stroke, multiple sclerosis, heart disease and fungal infections. The team also believes that the biosensors are versatile enough to test for diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV.

The technology was developed through a European collaboration of researchers and commercial partners in a 2.7 million Euro project called [[ELISHA|http://www.immunosensors.com]] (~Electro-Immunointerfaces and Surface Nanobiotechnology: A Heterodoxical Approach).

ELISHA was co-ordinated by Dr Paul Millner from the Faculty of Biological Sciences at the [[University of Leeds|http://www.fbs.leeds.ac.uk]], and managed by colleague Dr Tim Gibson. Says Dr Millner: “''We believe this to be the next generation diagnostic testing''. We can now detect almost any analyte faster, cheaper and more easily than the current accepted testing methodology.“

Currently blood and urine are tested for disease markers using a method called ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay). Developed in the 1970s, the process takes an average of two hours to complete, is costly and can only be performed by highly trained staff.

The Leeds team are confident their new technology could be developed into a small device the size of a mobile phone into which different sensor chips could be inserted, depending on the disease being tested for. “We’ve designed simple instrumentation to make the biosensors easy to use and understand,” says Dr Millner. “They’ll work in a format similar to the glucose biosensor testing kits that diabetics currently use.”

Says Dr Gibson: “''The analytes used in our research only scratch the surface of the potential applications. We’ve also shown that it can be used in environmental applications'', for example to test for herbicides or pesticides in water and antibiotics in milk.”

Source: [[Disease diagnosis in just 15 minutes|http://www.leeds.ac.uk/media/press_releases/current/15minutes.htm]]

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''Photovoltaic panels made from plant material could become a cheap, easy alternative to traditional solar cells''. Within a few years, people in remote villages in the developing world may be able to make their own solar panels, at low cost, using otherwise worthless agricultural waste as their raw material. That’s the vision of MIT researcher Andreas Mershin, whose work appears in the open-access journal Scientific Reports. 

<html><img style="float:left; margin-bottom:10px" src="img/biosolar.jpg" title="Solar panels made of photosynthetic molecules found in plants and bacteria can generate electricity. To boost their efficiency, nanowires like these can increase the surface area of a substrate and expose more of the molecules to sunlight. SEM of nanostructured TiO2 and ZnO photoanodes and schematic of an ideal ultra-low cost biophotovoltaic arrangement" class="photo"  width="100%"/></html>The work is an extension of a project begun eight years ago by Shuguang Zhang, a principal research scientist and associate director at MIT’s Center for Biomedical Engineering. Zhang was senior author of the new paper along with [[Michael Graetzel|Millennium Prize for Grätzel cells]] of Switzerland’s École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. In his original work, Zhang ''was able to enlist a complex of molecules known as photosystem-I (PS-I), the tiny structures within plant cells that carry out photosynthesis''. Zhang and colleagues derived the PS-I from plants, stabilized it chemically and formed a layer on a glass substrate that could — like a conventional photovoltaic cell — produce an electric current when exposed to light.  

''But that early system had some drawbacks''. Assembling and stabilizing it required expensive chemicals and sophisticated lab equipment. What’s more, the resulting solar cell was weak: Its efficiency was several orders of magnitude too low to be of any use, meaning it had to be blasted with a high-power laser to produce any current at all.

''Now Mershin says the process has been simplified to the point that virtually any lab could replicate it'' — including college or even high school science labs — allowing researchers around the world to start exploring the process and making further improvements. The new system’s efficiency is 10,000 times greater than in the previous version — although in converting just 0.1 percent of sunlight’s energy to electricity, it still needs to improve another tenfold or so to become useful, he says.

The key to achieving this huge improvement in efficiency, Mershin explains, was finding a way to expose much more of the PS-I complex per surface area of the device to the sun. Zhang’s earlier work simply produced a thin flat layer of the material; Mershin’s inspiration for the new advance was pine trees in a forest.

Mershin, a research scientist in the MIT Center for Bits and Atoms, noticed that while most of the pines had bare trunks and a canopy of branches only at the very top, a few had small branches all the way down the length of the trunk, capturing any sunlight that trickled down from above. He decided to create a microscopic forest on a chip, with PS-I coating his “trees” from top to bottom.

Turning that insight into a practical device took years of work, but in the end Mershin was able to create a tiny forest of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires as well as a sponge-like titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanostructure coated with the light-collecting material derived from bacteria. The nanowires not only served as a supporting structure for the material, but also as wires to carry the flow of electrons generated by the molecules down to the supporting layer of material, from which it could be connected to a circuit. “It’s like an electric nanoforest.”

As an bonus, both zinc oxide and titanium dioxide — the main ingredient in many sunscreens — are very good at absorbing ultraviolet light. That’s helpful in this case because ultraviolet tends to damage PS-I, but in these structures that damaging light gets absorbed by the support structure.

Mershin thinks that because he and his colleagues have now lowered the barrier to entry for further work on these materials, progress toward improving their efficiency should be rapid. Ultimately, once the efficiency reaches 1 or 2 percent, he says, that will be good enough to be useful, because the ingredients are so cheap and the processing so simple.

“You can use anything green, even grass clippings” as the raw material, he says — in some cases, waste that people would otherwise pay to have hauled away. While centrifuges were used to concentrate the PS-I molecules, the team has proposed a way to achieve this concentration by using inexpensive membranes for filtration. No special laboratory conditions are needed, Mershin says: “It can be very dirty and it still works, because of the way nature has designed it. Nature works in dirty environments — it’s the result of billions of experiments over billions of years.”

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Because the system is so cheap and simple, he hopes this will become a “way of getting low-tech electricity to people who have never been thought of as consumers or producers of solar-power technology.” He hopes the instructions for making a solar cell will be simple enough to be reduced to “one sheet of cartoon instructions, with no words.” The only ingredient to be purchased would be chemicals to stabilize the PS-I molecules, which could be packaged inexpensively in a plastic bag.

Essentially, Mershin says, within a few years a villager in a remote, off-grid location could “take that bag, mix it with anything green and paint it on the roof” to start producing power, which could then charge cellphones or lanterns. Today, the most widely used source of lighting in such locations is kerosene lanterns — “the most expensive, most unhealthy” form of lighting there is, he says. “Nighttime illumination is the number one way to get out of poverty,” he adds, because it enables people who work in the fields all day to read at night and get an education. Source: From ''[[Harnessing nature’s solar cells|http://www.mit.edu/press/2012/biosolar.html]]''. This work is detailed in the paper [["Self-assembled photosystem-I biophotovoltaics on nanostructured TiO2 and ZnO"|http://www.nature.com/srep/2012/120202/srep00234/full/srep00234.html]] by Andreas Mershin, Kazuya Matsumoto Liselotte Kaiser, Daoyong Yu, Michael Vaughn, Md. K. Nazeeruddin, [[Barry D. Bruce|http://www.utk.edu/tntoday/2012/02/02/biosolar-breakthrough/]], [[Michael Graetzel|http://actu.epfl.ch/news/how-to-turn-leaves-into-solar-panels/]] & Shuguang Zhang.

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[<img[The nanostructures that produce some birds’ brightly colored plumage, such as the blue feathers of the male Eastern Bluebird, have a sponge-like structure (Photo: Ken Thomas)|http://opa.yale.edu/images/articles/6559-58758972.jpg]] Some of the brightest colors in nature are created by tiny nanostructures with a structure similar to beer foam or a sponge, according to Yale University researchers.

Most colors in nature—from the color of our skin to the green of trees—are produced by pigments. But the bright blue feathers found in many birds, such as Bluebirds and Blue Jays, are instead produced by nanostructures. Under an electron microscope, these structures look like sponges with air bubbles.

Now an interdisciplinary team of Yale engineers, physicists and evolutionary biologists has taken a step toward uncovering how these structures form. They compared the nanostructures to examples of materials undergoing phase separation, in which mixtures of different substances become unstable and separate from one another, such as the carbon-dioxide bubbles that form when the top is popped off a bubbly drink. They found that the color-producing structures in feathers appear to self-assemble in much the same manner. Bubbles of water form in a protein-rich soup inside the living cell and are replaced with air as the feather grows.

The research, which appears online in the journal Soft Matter, provides new insight into how organisms use self-assembly to produce color, and has important implications for the role color plays in birds’ plumage, as the color produced depends entirely on the precise size and shape of these nanostructures.

“Many biologists think that plumage color can encode information about quality – basically, that a bluer male is a better mate,” said [[Richard Prum|http://www.yale.edu/eeb/prum]], chair of the [[Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology|http://www.yale.edu/eeb]] and one of the paper’s authors. “Such information would have to be encoded in the feather as the bubbles grow. I think our hypothesis that phase separation is involved provides less opportunity for encoding information about quality than most biologists thought. At the same time, it’s exciting to think about other ways birds might be using phase separation.”

[[Eric Dufresne|http://www.seas.yale.edu/faculty-detail.php?id=31]], lead author of the paper, is also interested in the potential technological applications of the finding. “We have found that nature elegantly self assembles intricate optical structures in bird feathers. We are now mimicking this approach to make a new generation of optical materials in the lab,” said Dufresne, assistant professor of mechanical engineering, chemical engineering and physics.

Prum believes it was the interdisciplinary approach the team took that led to their success – a result he plans on celebrating “with another practical application of phase separation: champagne!”

Other authors of the paper include Heeso Noh, Vinodkumar Saranathan, Simon Mochrie Hui Cao (all of Yale University).

Source: [[Bird Feathers Produce Color Through Structure Similar to Beer Foam|http://opa.yale.edu/news/article.aspx?id=6559&s=t]]. 

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<html><img style="float:left; margin-right:10px" src="https://www.ameslab.gov/files/imagepicker/k/kgibson/Citrate.jpg" title="This diagram shows the effect of citrate concentration on the size of hydroxyapatite crystals fabricated with self-assembling block copolymer templates. Just as it does with actual bone structure, as the concentration of citrate increases, the thickness of the nanocrystals decreases and the thinner nanocrystals appear to make the bone more resistant to stress cracking. Credit: U.S. Dept. of Energy's Ames Laboratory" class="photo"  width="50%"/></html>Bone is one of nature’s surprising “building materials.” Pound-for-pound it’s stronger than steel, tough yet resilient.  Scientists ''have identified the composition that gives bone its outstanding properties'' and the important role citrate plays, work that may help science better understand and treat or prevent bone diseases such as osteoporosis.

Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, U.S. Department of Energy’s Ames Laboratory scientist and Iowa State University chemistry professor [[Klaus Schmidt-Rohr|http://www.ameslab.gov/dmse/srohr]] and his colleagues studied ''bone, an organic-inorganic nanocomposite whose stiffness is provided by thin nanocrystals of carbonated apatite, a calcium phosphate, imbedded in an organic matrix of mostly collagen, a fibrous protein''.

By understanding the nanostructure of naturally occurring materials, researchers may be able to develop new light-weight, high-strength materials that will require less energy to manufacture and that could make the products in which they are used more energy efficient.

“The organic, collagen matrix is what makes bones tough,” Schmidt-Rohr said, “while the inorganic apatite nanocrystals provide the stiffness. And the small thickness – about 3 nanometers – of these nanocrystals appears to provide favorable mechanical properties, primarily in prevention of crack propagation.” While bone structure has been studied extensively, ''how these apatite nanocrystals form and what prevents them from growing thicker was a mystery''. 

After studying bone structure over a five-year period, it was actually serendipitous that Schmidt-Rohr came across a signature that appeared to match what he was seeing. “We had gotten some crystalline collagen samples to study,” he said, “and it turned out that the supplier had used citrate to dissolve the collagen. And the citrate signature in the collagen samples matched the signature we were seeing in bone.”

According to Schmidt-Rohr, the role of citrate in bone had been studied up until about 1975, but since that time, no mention was made in any of the newer literature on bone.  So in essence, his research team had to rediscover it.

“We feel that citrate probably also has a role in the biomineralization of the apatite,”  Schmidt-Rohr said. “It’s also been noted in the literature that as an organism ages, the nanocrystal thickness increases and the citrate concentration goes down,” Schmidt-Rohr said, “and there’s also support from clinical studies that citrate is good for bones,” adding that one of the leading supplements for bone strength contains calcium citrate. “While calcium loss is a major symptom in osteoporosis, the decline of citrate concentration may also contribute to bone brittleness,” he said. Source: From ''[[Citrate Key in Bone's Nanostructure|http://www.ameslab.gov/news/news-releases/citrate-key-bones-nanostructure]]''.

See also [[The calcification at a nanometer scale|Early atherosclerosis imaged: the calcification at a nanometer scale]]. "Unravelling the processes of calcium phosphate formation is important in our understanding of both bone and tooth formation, and also of pathological mineralization, for example in cardiovascular disease."
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<html><img style="float:left; margin-right:10px; margin-bottom:10px" src="img/glycine.png" title="ORNL researchers detected for the first time ferroelectric domains (seen as red stripes) in the simplest known amino acid – glycine" class="photo"  width="50%"/></html>The boundary between electronics and biology is blurring with the ''first detection of ferroelectric properties in an amino acid called glycine''.

A multi-institutional research team led by Andrei Kholkin of the University of Aveiro, Portugal, used a combination of experiments and modeling to identify and explain the presence of [[ferroelectricity|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferroelectricity]], a property where materials switch their polarization when an electric field is applied, in the simplest known amino acid—glycine.

"The discovery of ferroelectricity opens new pathways to novel classes of bioelectronic logic and memory devices, where polarization switching is used to record and retrieve information in the form of ferroelectric domains," said coauthor and senior scientist at Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) Sergei Kalinin.

''Although certain biological molecules like glycine are known to be piezoelectric, a phenomenon in which materials respond to pressure by producing electricity, ferroelectricity is relatively rare in the realm of biology''. Thus, scientists are still unclear about the potential applications of ferroelectric biomaterials.

"This research helps paves the way toward building memory devices made of molecules that already exist in our bodies," Kholkin said.

For example, making use of the ability to switch polarization through tiny electric fields may help build nanorobots that can swim through human blood. Kalinin cautions that such nanotechnology is still a long way in the future.

"Clearly there is a very long road from studying electromechanical coupling on the molecular level to making a nanomotor that can flow through blood," Kalinin said. "But unless you have a way to make this motor and study it, there will be no second and third steps. Our method can offer an option for quantitative and reproducible study of this electromechanical conversion."

The study builds on previous research at ORNL's CNMS, where Kalinin and others are developing ''new tools such as the piezoresponse force microscopy used in the experimental study of glycine''.

"It turns out that piezoresponse force microsopy is perfectly suited to observe the fine details in biological systems at the nanoscale," Kalinin said. "With this type of microscopy, you gain the capability to study electromechanical motion on the level of a single molecule or small number of molecular assemblies. This scale is exactly where interesting things can happen."

Kholkin's lab grew the crystalline samples of glycine that were studied by his team and by the ORNL microscopy group. In addition to the experimental measurements, the team's theorists verified the ferroelectricity with molecular dynamics simulations that explained the mechanisms behind the observed behavior. Source: From [[ORNL microscopy yields first proof of ferroelectricity in simplest amino acid|http://www.ornl.gov/info/press_releases/get_press_release.cfm?ReleaseNumber=mr20120419-00]] by Morgan McCorkle. This work is detailed in the paper ''[["Nanoscale Ferroelectricity in Crystalline γ-Glycine"|http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/adfm.201103011/abstract]]'' by Alejandro Heredia, Vincent Meunier, Igor K. Bdikin, José Gracio, Nina Balke, Stephen Jesse, Alexander Tselev, Pratul K. Agarwal, Bobby G. Sumpter, Sergei V. Kalinin, Andrei L. Kholkin.

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//"Today, our scientists are mapping the human brain to unlock the answers to Alzheimer’s; developing drugs to regenerate damaged organs; devising new material to make batteries 10 times more powerful. ... Now is the time to reach a level of research and development not seen since the height of the Space Race."// — President Barack Obama, Feb. 12, 2013

It was one phrase in one sentence midway through the State of the Union address last month. But President Barack Obama’s reference to "mapping the human brain" elicited keen attention from researchers around the nation — including a large contingent of scientists at UCLA. The president’s statement is being envisioned as a preamble to a concerted national effort to better understand the structure and function of the human brain.

Neuroscientists are already comparing the initiative’s scope and ambition to those of the U.S. race to the moon in the 1960s and the Human Genome Project in the 1990s and 2000s — and hoping that it could help them solve some of the mysteries behind depression, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, among many others.

"This initiative is more comprehensive than anything I've ever seen," said Professor John Mazziotta, chair of UCLA’s department of neurology and director of the UCLA Brain Mapping Center. "Understanding the brain and how it functions would go far beyond the things we’re able to do today in medicine and neuroscience. This effort will be both the stimulus and the challenge to work and collaborate in ways we haven’t done before, but always have wanted to."

And UCLA, where Mazziotta coined the term "brain mapping" in 1993, is well-positioned to play a significant role in the effort and to capture funding that will support such an initiative. For one thing, the campus is already home to the Ahmanson Lovelace Brain Mapping Center.

For another, UCLA’s excellence in nanoscience and nanotechnology gives the campus a tremendous strategic advantage.

''"The important function and activity of the brain take place at the synapses,"'' said Paul Weiss, director of the California NanoSystems Institute headquartered at UCLA, who believes ''synapses are best studied using nanoscience''. "In addition, we have made more than 10 years of enormous investment in nanoscience, which, we believe, will provide tools that will accelerate — by decades — the advances in neuroscience."

UCLA’s neuroscience community also ranks among the largest anywhere: Mazziotta estimates that more than 500 UCLA faculty members are engaged in studying the brain from a wide variety of perspectives. Even before the national initiative was announced, efforts were already underway here to encourage more cross-disciplinary cooperation within that community, a move that would help attract philanthropy and grants to support brain research. That effort, called UCLA Neuroscience, is being chaired by Professor Kelsey Martin, who also chairs UCLA’s biological chemistry department.

"This [national effort] will require an understanding of the emergent properties of the brain — how all of the pieces of the puzzle work — but from a broader perspective, so we can see how it all fits together," Martin said. "That will definitely require a large interdisciplinary effort."

Martin, Mazziotta and Weiss all maintain that the close proximity of UCLA’s medical enterprise to engineering, basic sciences, nanoscience and social sciences — an asset that few other research universities can claim — will be a major boon when it comes to encouraging faculty to work together.

Unlike the space race, with its clearly defined goal to put a man on the moon, the national brain activity–mapping effort may not be limited to a single objective or endpoint. Beyond working toward possible cures for neurological disorders and treatments for brain injury, the research it spurs could yield unexpected discoveries along the way. "That was true of NASA as well," Mazziotta said. "Things were invented and provided to society as a result of the space program long before the moon landing.

Although scientists might not know exactly where brain activity–mapping research is going to take them, they do have concrete ideas about how they’ll get there. "We’re at a loss right now because there are no testable theories of brain function of these scales," said Weiss, the CNSI chief who is also a distinguished professor of chemistry and biochemistry and of materials science and engineering, and holds the Fred Kavli Chair in Nanosystems Sciences. "What we’ll be able to do is record the activity of thousands of neurons and be able to manipulate and probe those circuits to test people’s ideas on how they work.

"The idea is to open up the brain without physically opening it up, and to understand how it works and how it fails when it doesn’t." Source: From [[UCLA at forefront, ready to take part in national brain activity–mapping initiative|http://www1.cnsi.ucla.edu/news/item?item_id=2118330]] by Sean Brenner.

''Context:''
March 7, 2013. ''[[The Brain Activity Map|http://www.sciencemag.org/content/early/2013/03/06/science.1236939]]'' by A. Paul Alivisatos, Miyoung Chun, George M. Church, Karl Deisseroth, John P. Donoghue, Ralph J. Greenspan, Paul L. McEuen, Michael L. Roukes, Terrence J. Sejnowski, Paul S. Weis
June, 2012. ''[[The Brain Activity Map Project and the Challenge of Functional Connectomics|http://download.cell.com/neuron/pdf/PIIS0896627312005181.pdf?intermediate=true]]'' by A. Paul Alivisatos, Miyoung Chun, George M. Church, Ralph J. Greenspan, Michael L. Roukes, and Rafael Yuste. //"In addition to promoting basic research, we anticipate that the BAM Project will have medical benefits... Many technological breakthroughs are bound to arise from the BAM Project, as it is positioned at the convergence of biotechnology and nanotechnology."//

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!!!!!Configuration
<<<
<<option chkCreateDefaultBreadcrumbs>> automatically create breadcrumbs display (if needed)
<<option chkShowBreadcrumbs>> show/hide breadcrumbs display
<<option chkReorderBreadcrumbs>> re-order breadcrumbs when visiting a previously viewed tiddler
<<option chkBreadcrumbsHideHomeLink>> omit 'Home' link from breadcrumbs display
<<option chkBreadcrumbsSave>> prompt to save breadcrumbs when 'Home' link is pressed
<<option chkShowStartupBreadcrumbs>> show breadcrumbs for 'startup' tiddlers
<<option chkBreadcrumbsReverse>> show breadcrumbs in reverse order (most recent first)
<<option chkBreadcrumbsLimit>> limit breadcrumbs display to {{twochar{<<option txtBreadcrumbsLimit>>}}} items
<<option chkBreadcrumbsLimitOpenTiddlers>> limit open tiddlers to {{twochar{<<option txtBreadcrumbsLimitOpenTiddlers>>}}} items

<<<
!!!!!Revisions
<<<
2012.06.10 2.1.5 refactored default options to eliminate global variable and use init() handling
| Please see [[BreadcrumbsPluginInfo]] for previous revision details |
2006.02.01 1.0.0 initial release
<<<
!!!!!Code
***/
//{{{
version.extensions.BreadcrumbsPlugin = { major: 2, minor: 1, revision: 5, date: new Date(2012,6,10) };
config.macros.breadcrumbs = {
	crumbs: [], // the list of current breadcrumbs
	askMsg: "Save current breadcrumbs before clearing?\n"
		+"Press OK to save, or CANCEL to continue without saving.",
	saveMsg: 'Enter the name of a tiddler in which to save the current breadcrumbs',
	saveTitle: 'SavedBreadcrumbs',
	options: {
		chkShowBreadcrumbs:		true,
		chkReorderBreadcrumbs:		true,
		chkCreateDefaultBreadcrumbs:	true,
		chkShowStartupBreadcrumbs:	false,
		chkBreadcrumbsReverse:		false,
		chkBreadcrumbsLimit:		false,
		txtBreadcrumbsLimit:		5,
		chkBreadcrumbsLimitOpenTiddlers:false,
		txtBreadcrumbsLimitOpenTiddlers:5,
		chkBreadcrumbsHideHomeLink:	false,
		chkBreadcrumbsSave:		false,
		txtBreadcrumbsHomeSeparator:	' | ',
		txtBreadcrumbsCrumbSeparator:	' > '
	},
	init: function() {
		merge(config.options,this.options,true);
	},
	handler: function(place,macroName,params,wikifier,paramString,tiddler) {
		var area=createTiddlyElement(place,"span",null,"breadCrumbs",null);
		area.setAttribute("homeSep",params[0]||config.options.txtBreadcrumbsHomeSeparator);
		area.setAttribute("crumbSep",params[1]||config.options.txtBreadcrumbsCrumbSeparator);
		this.render(area);
	},
	add: function (title) {
		var thisCrumb = title;
		var ind = this.crumbs.indexOf(thisCrumb);
		if(ind === -1)
			this.crumbs.push(thisCrumb);
		else if (config.options.chkReorderBreadcrumbs)
			this.crumbs.push(this.crumbs.splice(ind,1)[0]); // reorder crumbs
		else
			this.crumbs=this.crumbs.slice(0,ind+1); // trim crumbs
		if (config.options.chkBreadcrumbsLimitOpenTiddlers)
			this.limitOpenTiddlers();
		this.refresh();
		return false;
	},
	getAreas: function() {
		var crumbAreas=[];
		// find all DIVs with classname=="breadCrumbs"
		var all=document.getElementsByTagName("*");
		for (var i=0; i<all.length; i++)
			try{ if (hasClass(all[i],"breadCrumbs")) crumbAreas.push(all[i]); } catch(e) {;}
		// or, find single DIV w/fixed ID (backward compatibility)
		var byID=document.getElementById("breadCrumbs")
		if (byID && !hasClass(byID,"breadCrumbs")) crumbAreas.push(byID);
		if (!crumbAreas.length && config.options.chkCreateDefaultBreadcrumbs) {
			// no crumbs display... create one
			var defaultArea = createTiddlyElement(null,"span",null,"breadCrumbs",null);
		 	defaultArea.style.display= "none";
			var targetArea= document.getElementById("tiddlerDisplay");
		 	targetArea.parentNode.insertBefore(defaultArea,targetArea);
			crumbAreas.push(defaultArea);
		}
		return crumbAreas;
	},
	refresh: function() {
		var crumbAreas=this.getAreas();
		for (var i=0; i<crumbAreas.length; i++) {
			crumbAreas[i].style.display = config.options.chkShowBreadcrumbs?"inline":"none";
			removeChildren(crumbAreas[i]);
			this.render(crumbAreas[i]);
		}
	},
	render: function(here) {
		var co=config.options; var out=""
		if (!co.chkBreadcrumbsHideHomeLink) {
			createTiddlyButton(here,"Home",null,this.home,"tiddlyLink tiddlyLinkExisting");
			out+=here.getAttribute("homeSep")||config.options.txtBreadcrumbsHomeSeparator;
		}
		for (c=0; c<this.crumbs.length; c++) // remove non-existing tiddlers from crumbs
			if (!store.tiddlerExists(this.crumbs[c]) && !store.isShadowTiddler(this.crumbs[c]))
				this.crumbs.splice(c,1);
		var count=this.crumbs.length;
		if (co.chkBreadcrumbsLimit && co.txtBreadcrumbsLimit<count) count=co.txtBreadcrumbsLimit;
		var list=[];
		for (c=this.crumbs.length-count; c<this.crumbs.length; c++) list.push('[['+this.crumbs[c]+']]');
		if (co.chkBreadcrumbsReverse) list.reverse();
		out+=list.join(here.getAttribute("crumbSep")||config.options.txtBreadcrumbsCrumbSeparator);
		wikify(out,here);
	},
	home: function() {
		var cmb=config.macros.breadcrumbs;
		if (config.options.chkBreadcrumbsSave && confirm(cmb.askMsg)) cmb.saveCrumbs();
		story.closeAllTiddlers(); restart();
		cmb.crumbs = []; var crumbAreas=cmb.getAreas();
		for (var i=0; i<crumbAreas.length; i++) crumbAreas[i].style.display = "none";
		return false;
	},
	saveCrumbs: function() {
		var tid=prompt(this.saveMsg,this.saveTitle); if (!tid||!tid.length) return; // cancelled by user
		var t=store.getTiddler(tid);
		if(t && !confirm(config.messages.overwriteWarning.format([tid]))) return;
		var who=config.options.txtUserName;
		var when=new Date();
		var text='[['+this.crumbs.join(']]\n[[')+']]';
		var tags=t?t.tags:[]; tags.pushUnique('story');
		var fields=t?t.fields:{};
		store.saveTiddler(tid,tid,text,who,when,tags,fields);
		story.displayTiddler(null,tid);
		story.refreshTiddler(tid,null,true);
		displayMessage(tid+' has been '+(t?'updated':'created'));
	},
	limitOpenTiddlers: function() {
		var limit=config.options.txtBreadcrumbsLimitOpenTiddlers; if (limit<1) limit=1;
		for (c=this.crumbs.length-1; c>=0; c--) {
			var tid=this.crumbs[c];
			var elem=story.getTiddler(tid);
			if (elem) { // tiddler is displayed
				if (limit <=0) { // display limit has been reached
					if (elem.getAttribute("dirty")=="true") { // tiddler is being edited
						var msg= "'"+tid+"' is currently being edited.\n\n"
							+"Press OK to save and close this tiddler\n"
							+"or press Cancel to leave it opened";
						if (confirm(msg)) {
							story.saveTiddler(tid);
							story.closeTiddler(tid);
						}
					}
					else story.closeTiddler(this.crumbs[c]);
				}
				limit--;
			}
		}
	}
};
//}}}
// // PreviousTiddler ('back') command and macro
//{{{
config.commands.previousTiddler = {
	text: 'back',
	tooltip: 'view the previous tiddler',
	handler: function(event,src,title) {
		var crumbs=config.macros.breadcrumbs.crumbs;
		if (crumbs.length<2) config.macros.breadcrumbs.home();
		else story.displayTiddler(story.findContainingTiddler(src),crumbs[crumbs.length-2]);
		return false;
	}
};
config.macros.previousTiddler= {
	label: 'back',
	prompt: 'view the previous tiddler',
	handler: function(place,macroName,params,wikifier,paramString,tiddler) {
		var label=params.shift(); if (!label) label=this.label;
		var prompt=params.shift(); if (!prompt) prompt=this.prompt;
		createTiddlyButton(place,label,prompt,function(ev){
			return config.commands.previousTiddler.handler(ev,this)
		});
	}
}
//}}}
// // HIJACKS
//{{{
// update crumbs when a tiddler is displayed
if (Story.prototype.breadCrumbs_coreDisplayTiddler==undefined)
	Story.prototype.breadCrumbs_coreDisplayTiddler=Story.prototype.displayTiddler;
Story.prototype.displayTiddler = function(srcElement,tiddler) {
	var title=(tiddler instanceof Tiddler)?tiddler.title:tiddler;
	this.breadCrumbs_coreDisplayTiddler.apply(this,arguments);
	if (!startingUp || config.options.chkShowStartupBreadcrumbs)
		config.macros.breadcrumbs.add(title);
}

// update crumbs when a tiddler is deleted
if (TiddlyWiki.prototype.breadCrumbs_coreRemoveTiddler==undefined)
	TiddlyWiki.prototype.breadCrumbs_coreRemoveTiddler=TiddlyWiki.prototype.removeTiddler;
TiddlyWiki.prototype.removeTiddler= function() {
	this.breadCrumbs_coreRemoveTiddler.apply(this,arguments);
	config.macros.breadcrumbs.refresh();
}
//}}}
/***
|Name|BreadcrumbsPlugin|
|Author|Eric Shulman|
|Source|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#BreadcrumbsPlugin|
|Documentation|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#BreadcrumbsPluginInfo|
|Version|2.1.2|
|License|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#LegalStatements|
|~CoreVersion|2.1|
|Type|plugin|
|Description|list/jump to tiddlers viewed during this session plus "back" button/macro|
This plugin provides a list of links to all tiddlers opened during the session, creating a "trail of breadcrumbs" from one tiddler to the next, allowing you to quickly navigate to any previously viewed tiddler, or select 'home' to reset the display to the initial set of tiddlers that were open at the start of the session (i.e., when the document was loaded into the browser).
!!!!!Documentation
<<<
see [[BreadcrumbsPluginInfo]]
<<<
!!!!!Configuration
<<<
<<option chkCreateDefaultBreadcrumbs>> automatically create breadcrumbs display (if needed)
<<option chkShowBreadcrumbs>> show/hide breadcrumbs display
<<option chkReorderBreadcrumbs>> re-order breadcrumbs when visiting a previously viewed tiddler
<<option chkBreadcrumbsHideHomeLink>> omit 'Home' link from breadcrumbs display
<<option chkBreadcrumbsSave>> prompt to save breadcrumbs when 'Home' link is pressed
<<option chkShowStartupBreadcrumbs>> show breadcrumbs for 'startup' tiddlers
<<option chkBreadcrumbsReverse>> show breadcrumbs in reverse order (most recent first)
<<option chkBreadcrumbsLimit>> limit breadcrumbs display to {{twochar{<<option txtBreadcrumbsLimit>>}}} items
<<option chkBreadcrumbsLimitOpenTiddlers>> limit open tiddlers to {{twochar{<<option txtBreadcrumbsLimitOpenTiddlers>>}}} items

<<<
!!!!!Revisions
<<<
2009.10.19 [2.1.2] code reduction
| Please see [[BreadcrumbsPluginInfo]] for previous revision details |
2006.02.01 [1.0.0] initial release
<<<
!!!!!Code
***/
//{{{
version.extensions.BreadcrumbsPlugin= {major: 2, minor: 1, revision: 2, date: new Date(2009,10,19)};

var defaults={
	chkShowBreadcrumbs:		true,
	chkReorderBreadcrumbs:		true,
	chkCreateDefaultBreadcrumbs:	true,
	chkShowStartupBreadcrumbs:	false,
	chkBreadcrumbsReverse:		false,
	chkBreadcrumbsLimit:		false,
	txtBreadcrumbsLimit:		5,
	chkBreadcrumbsLimitOpenTiddlers:false,
	txtBreadcrumbsLimitOpenTiddlers:3,
	chkBreadcrumbsHideHomeLink:	false,
	chkBreadcrumbsSave:		false,
	txtBreadcrumbsHomeSeparator:	' | ',
	txtBreadcrumbsCrumbSeparator:	' > '
};
for (var id in defaults) if (config.options[id]===undefined)
	config.options[id]=defaults[id];

config.macros.breadcrumbs =  {
	crumbs: [], // the list of current breadcrumbs
	askMsg: "Save current breadcrumbs before clearing?\n"
		+"Press OK to save, or CANCEL to continue without saving.",
	saveMsg: 'Enter the name of a tiddler in which to save the current breadcrumbs',
	saveTitle: 'SavedBreadcrumbs',
	handler: function(place,macroName,params,wikifier,paramString,tiddler) {
		var area=createTiddlyElement(place,"span",null,"breadCrumbs",null);
		area.setAttribute("homeSep",params[0]||config.options.txtBreadcrumbsHomeSeparator);
		area.setAttribute("crumbSep",params[1]||config.options.txtBreadcrumbsCrumbSeparator);
		this.render(area);
	},
	add: function (title) {
		var thisCrumb = title;
		var ind = this.crumbs.indexOf(thisCrumb);
		if(ind === -1)
			this.crumbs.push(thisCrumb);
		else if (config.options.chkReorderBreadcrumbs)
			this.crumbs.push(this.crumbs.splice(ind,1)[0]); // reorder crumbs
		else
			this.crumbs=this.crumbs.slice(0,ind+1); // trim crumbs
		if (config.options.chkBreadcrumbsLimitOpenTiddlers)
			this.limitOpenTiddlers();
		this.refresh();
		return false;
	},
	getAreas: function() {
		var crumbAreas=[];
		// find all DIVs with classname=="breadCrumbs"
		var all=document.getElementsByTagName("*");
		for (var i=0; i<all.length; i++)
			try{ if (hasClass(all[i],"breadCrumbs")) crumbAreas.push(all[i]); } catch(e) {;}
		// or, find single DIV w/fixed ID (backward compatibility)
		var byID=document.getElementById("breadCrumbs")
		if (byID && !hasClass(byID,"breadCrumbs")) crumbAreas.push(byID);
		if (!crumbAreas.length && config.options.chkCreateDefaultBreadcrumbs) {
			// no crumbs display... create one
			var defaultArea = createTiddlyElement(null,"span",null,"breadCrumbs",null);
		 	defaultArea.style.display= "none";
			var targetArea= document.getElementById("tiddlerDisplay");
		 	targetArea.parentNode.insertBefore(defaultArea,targetArea);
			crumbAreas.push(defaultArea);
		}
		return crumbAreas;
	},
	refresh: function() {
		var crumbAreas=this.getAreas();
		for (var i=0; i<crumbAreas.length; i++) {
			crumbAreas[i].style.display = config.options.chkShowBreadcrumbs?"block":"none";
			removeChildren(crumbAreas[i]);
			this.render(crumbAreas[i]);
		}
	},
	render: function(here) {
		var co=config.options; var out=""
		if (!co.chkBreadcrumbsHideHomeLink) {
			createTiddlyButton(here,"Home",null,this.home,"tiddlyLink tiddlyLinkExisting");
			out+=here.getAttribute("homeSep")||config.options.txtBreadcrumbsHomeSeparator;
		}
		for (c=0; c<this.crumbs.length; c++) // remove non-existing tiddlers from crumbs
			if (!store.tiddlerExists(this.crumbs[c]) && !store.isShadowTiddler(this.crumbs[c]))
				this.crumbs.splice(c,1);
		var count=this.crumbs.length;
		if (co.chkBreadcrumbsLimit && co.txtBreadcrumbsLimit<count) count=co.txtBreadcrumbsLimit;
		var list=[];
		for (c=this.crumbs.length-count; c<this.crumbs.length; c++) list.push('[['+this.crumbs[c]+']]');
		if (co.chkBreadcrumbsReverse) list.reverse();
		out+=list.join(here.getAttribute("crumbSep")||config.options.txtBreadcrumbsCrumbSeparator);
		wikify(out,here);
	},
	home: function() {
		var cmb=config.macros.breadcrumbs;
		if (config.options.chkBreadcrumbsSave && confirm(cmb.askMsg)) cmb.saveCrumbs();
		story.closeAllTiddlers(); restart();
		cmb.crumbs = []; var crumbAreas=cmb.getAreas();
		for (var i=0; i<crumbAreas.length; i++) crumbAreas[i].style.display = "none";
		return false;
	},
	saveCrumbs: function() {
		var tid=prompt(this.saveMsg,this.saveTitle); if (!tid||!tid.length) return; // cancelled by user
		var t=store.getTiddler(tid);
		if(t && !confirm(config.messages.overwriteWarning.format([tid]))) return;
		var who=config.options.txtUserName;
		var when=new Date();
		var text='[['+this.crumbs.join(']]\n[[')+']]';
		var tags=t?t.tags:[]; tags.pushUnique('story');
		var fields=t?t.fields:{};
		store.saveTiddler(tid,tid,text,who,when,tags,fields);
		story.displayTiddler(null,tid);
		story.refreshTiddler(tid,null,true);
		displayMessage(tid+' has been '+(t?'updated':'created'));
	},
	limitOpenTiddlers: function() {
		var limit=config.options.txtBreadcrumbsLimitOpenTiddlers; if (limit<1) limit=1;
		for (c=this.crumbs.length-1; c>=0; c--) {
			var tid=this.crumbs[c];
			var elem=document.getElementById(story.idPrefix+tid);
			if (elem) { // tiddler is displayed
				if (limit <=0) { // display limit has been reached
					if (elem.getAttribute("dirty")=="true") { // tiddler is being edited
						var msg= "'"+tid+"' is currently being edited.\n\n"
							+"Press OK to save and close this tiddler\n"
							+"or press Cancel to leave it opened";
						if (confirm(msg)) {
							story.saveTiddler(tid);
							story.closeTiddler(tid);
						}
					}
					else story.closeTiddler(this.crumbs[c]);
				}
				limit--;
			}
		}
	}
};
//}}}
// // PreviousTiddler ('back') command and macro
//{{{
config.commands.previousTiddler = {
	text: 'back',
	tooltip: 'view the previous tiddler',
	handler: function(event,src,title) {
		var here=story.findContainingTiddler(src); if (!here) return;
		var crumbs=config.macros.breadcrumbs.crumbs;
		if (crumbs.length<2) config.macros.breadcrumbs.home();
		else story.displayTiddler(here,crumbs[crumbs.length-2]);
		return false;
	}
};
config.macros.previousTiddler= {
	label: 'back',
	prompt: 'view the previous tiddler',
	handler: function(place,macroName,params,wikifier,paramString,tiddler) {
		var label=params.shift(); if (!label) label=this.label;
		var prompt=params.shift(); if (!prompt) prompt=this.prompt;
		createTiddlyButton(place,label,prompt,function(ev){
			return config.commands.previousTiddler.handler(ev,this)
		});
	}
}
//}}}
// // HIJACKS
//{{{
// update crumbs when a tiddler is displayed
if (Story.prototype.breadCrumbs_coreDisplayTiddler==undefined)
	Story.prototype.breadCrumbs_coreDisplayTiddler=Story.prototype.displayTiddler;
Story.prototype.displayTiddler = function(srcElement,tiddler) {
	var title=(tiddler instanceof Tiddler)?tiddler.title:tiddler;
	this.breadCrumbs_coreDisplayTiddler.apply(this,arguments);
	if (!startingUp || config.options.chkShowStartupBreadcrumbs)
		config.macros.breadcrumbs.add(title);
}

// update crumbs when a tiddler is deleted
if (TiddlyWiki.prototype.breadCrumbs_coreRemoveTiddler==undefined)
	TiddlyWiki.prototype.breadCrumbs_coreRemoveTiddler=TiddlyWiki.prototype.removeTiddler;
TiddlyWiki.prototype.removeTiddler= function() {
	this.breadCrumbs_coreRemoveTiddler.apply(this,arguments);
	config.macros.breadcrumbs.refresh();
}
//}}}
{{twocolumns{
Cancer painfully ends more than 500,000 lives in the United States each year, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The scientific crusade against cancer recently achieved a victory under the leadership of University of Missouri Curators’ Professor M. Frederick Hawthorne. Hawthorne’s team has developed ''a new form of radiation therapy that successfully put cancer into remission in mice''. This innovative treatment produced none of the harmful side-effects of conventional chemo and radiation cancer therapies. Clinical trials in humans could begin soon after Hawthorne secures funding.

“Since the 1930s, scientists have sought success with a cancer treatment known as boron neutron capture therapy ([[BNCT|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neutron_capture_therapy_of_cancer#Boron_neutron_capture_therapy]]),” said Hawthorne, a recent winner of the National Medal of Science awarded by President Obama in the White House. “Our team at MU’s [[International Institute of Nano and Molecular Medicine|http://nanomed.missouri.edu/]] finally ''found the way to make BNCT work by taking advantage of a cancer cell’s biology with nanochemistry''.”

Cancer cells grow faster than normal cells and in the process absorb more materials than normal cells. Hawthorne’s team took advantage of that fact by getting cancer cells to take in and store a boron chemical designed by Hawthorne. ''When those boron-infused cancer cells were exposed to neutrons, a subatomic particle, the boron atom shattered and selectively tore apart the cancer cells, sparing neighboring healthy cells''.

The physical properties of boron made Hawthorne’s technique possible. A particular form of boron will split when it captures a neutron and release lithium, helium and energy. Like pool balls careening around a billiards table, the helium and lithium atoms penetrate the cancer cell and destroy it from the inside without harming the surrounding tissues.

“A wide variety of cancers can be attacked with our BNCT technique,” Hawthorne said. “The technique worked excellently in mice. We are ready to move on to trials in larger animals, then people. However, before we can start treating humans, we will need to build suitable equipment and facilities. When it is built, MU will have the first radiation therapy of this kind in the world.”

<html><img style="float:left; margin-bottom:10px" src="img/bnct.jpg" title="Boron-Rich Nanoscale Delivery Agents for the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of Cancer. Credit: International Institute of Nano and Molecular Medicine" class="photo"  width="100%"/></html>Hawthorne believes that his discovery was possible only at the University of Missouri because MU has three features that separate it from other universities in the nation, the reason Hawthorne came to MU from the University of California, Los Angeles in 2006.

“First, it is an example of a small number of universities in the United States with a large number of science and engineering disciplines on the same campus,” said Hawthorne. “Second, the largest university research nuclear reactor is located at MU. Finally, it has strong, collegial biomedicine departments. This combination is unique.” Source: From [[Breakthrough Cancer-Killing Treatment Has No Side-Effects, Says MU Researcher|http://munews.missouri.edu/news-releases/2013/0403-breakthrough-cancer-killing-treatment-has-no-side-effects-says-mu-researcher/]]. This work is detailed in the paper ''[["Boron neutron capture therapy demonstrated in mice bearing EMT6 tumors following selective delivery of boron by rationally designed liposomes"|http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/03/27/1303437110]]'' by Peter J. Kueffer, Charles A. Maitz, Aslam A. Khan, Seth A. Schuster, Natalia I. Shlyakhtina, Satish S. Jalisatgi, John D. Brockman, David W. Nigg, and M. Frederick Hawthorne.

''Related news'' list by date, most recent first: <<matchTags popup sort:-created nano-oncology>><<matchTags popup sort:-created nanomedicine>>

<<tiddler Twitter>>
}}}
^^Permalink of this post: http://nanowiki.info/#%5B%5BBreakthrough%20cancer-killing%20treatment%20has%20no%20side-effects%5D%5D^^
^^Short link: http://goo.gl/JtuWY^^
<<tiddler [[random suggestion]]>>
Scientists unveiled a method for the industrial-scale processing of pure carbon-nanotube fibers that could lead to revolutionary advances in materials science, power distribution and nanoelectronics. The result of a nine-year program, the method builds upon tried-and-true processes that chemical firms have used for decades to produce plastics.

"Plastics is a $300 billion U.S. industry because of the massive throughput that's possible with fluid processing," said Rice University's [[Matteo Pasquali|http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~che/people/faculty/pasquali/pasquali.html]], a paper co-author. "The reason grocery stores use plastic bags instead of paper and the reason polyester shirts are cheaper than cotton is that polymers can be melted or dissolved and processed as fluids by the train-car load. Processing nanotubes as fluids opens up all of the fluid-processing technology that has been developed for polymers."

The report was co-authored by an 18-member team of scientists from Rice's <html><a href="http://cnst.rice.edu/" title="first nanotechnology center in the world">Richard E. Smalley Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology</a></html>, the University of Pennsylvania and the ~Technion-Israel Institute of Technology. Co-authors include Smalley Institute namesake [[Rick Smalley, the late Nobel laureate chemist|http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1996/smalley-autobio.html]] who developed the first high-throughput method for producing high-quality carbon nanotubes.

The new process builds upon the 2003 Rice discovery of a way to dissolve large amounts of pure nanotubes in strong acidic solvents like sulfuric acid. The research team subsequently found that nanotubes in these solutions aligned themselves, like spaghetti in a package, to form liquid crystals that could be spun into monofilament fibers about the size of a human hair.

"That research established an industrially relevant process for nanotubes that was analogous to the methods used to create Kevlar from rodlike polymers, except for the acid not being a true solvent," said Wade Adams, director of the Smalley Institute and co-author of the new paper. "The current research shows that we have a true solvent for nanotubes -- chlorosulfonic acid -- which is what we set out to find when we started this project nine years ago."

Following the 2003 breakthrough with acid solvents, the team methodically studied how nanotubes behaved in different types and concentrations of acids. By comparing and contrasting the behavior of nanotubes in acids with the literature on polymers and rodlike colloids, the team developed both the theoretical and practical tools that chemical firms will need to process nanotubes in bulk.

"[[Ishi Talmon|http://www.technion.ac.il/~ceritit/Ishi.html]] and his colleagues at Technion did the critical work required to help get direct proof that [[nanotubes were dissolving spontaneously in chlorosulfonic acid|http://pard.technion.ac.il/archives/presseng/Html/PR_breakthrough_11_11.Html]]," Pasquali said. "To do this, they had to develop new experimental techniques for direct imaging of vitrified fast-frozen acid solutions." Talmon said, "This was a very difficult study. Matteo's team not only had to pioneer new experimental techniques to achieve this, they also had to make significant extensions to the classical theories that were used to describe solutions of rods. The Technion team had to develop a new methodology to enable us to produce high-resolution images of the nanotubes dispersed in chlorosulfonic acid, a very corrosive fluid, by state-of-the-art electron microscopy at cryogenic temperatures."

Few technological breakthroughs have been hyped as much as carbon nanotubes. Since their discovery in 1991, nanotubes have been touted as everything from a cure for cancer to a solution for the world's energy crisis. The hype is all the more remarkable given that nanotubes are notoriously difficult to work with and that chemists worldwide struggled for years even to make them. So why the hype? Put simply, carbon nanotubes are remarkable. While they are roughly the same size and shape as some rodlike polymer molecules, nanotubes can conduct electricity as well as copper, and they can be either metals or semiconductors. They can be tagged with antibodies to diagnose diseases or heated with radio waves to destroy cancer. They've been used to make transistors far smaller than those in today's finest microchips. Nanotubes also weigh about one-sixth as much as steel but can be up to 100 times stronger.

"Kevlar, the polymer fiber used in bulletproof vests, is about five to 10 times stronger than our strongest nanotube fibers today, but in principle we should be able to make our fibers about 100 times stronger," Pasquali said. "If we can realize even 20 percent of our potential, we will have a great material, perhaps the strongest ever known. "The electrical conductivity is already pretty good," he said. "It's about the same of the best-conducting carbon-carbon fibers, and that could be improved 200 times if better production methods for metallic nanotubes can be found."

The new research appears just as the Smalley Institute prepared for a 10th anniversary celebration Nov. 5 of the creation of [[Smalley's "HiPco" reactor|http://smalley.rice.edu/content.aspx?id=174]], the first system capable of producing high-quality nanotubes in bulk. ~HiPco, short for high-pressure carbon monoxide process, broke the logjam on nanotube production and cleared the way for more scientific study and for industry to begin using them in some materials. Industrial nanotube reactors today generate several tons of low-quality carbon nanotubes per year, and the worldwide market for nanotubes is expected to top $2 billion annually within the next decade.

But a final breakthrough remains before the true potential of high-quality carbon nanotubes can be realized. That's because ~HiPco and all other methods of making high-end, "single-walled" nanotubes generate a hodgepodge of nanotubes with different diameters, lengths and molecular structures. Scientists worldwide are scrambling to find a process that will generate just one kind of nanotube in bulk, like the best-conducting metallic varieties, for instance.

"One good thing about the process that we have right now is that if anybody could give us one gram of pure metallic nanotubes, we could give them one gram of fiber within a few days," Pasquali said. Source: From [[Breakthrough in industrial-scale nanotube processing. Rice pioneers method for processing carbon nanotubes in bulk fluids|http://www.media.rice.edu/media/NewsBot.asp?MODE=VIEW&ID=13294&SnID=80899504]] . This work is detailed in the paper [[True solutions of single-walled carbon nanotubes for assembly into macroscopic materials|http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nnano.2009.302.html]] by Virginia A. Davis, A. Nicholas G. ~Parra-Vasquez, Micah J. Green, Pradeep K. Rai, Natnael Behabtu, Valentin Prieto, Richard D. Booker, Judith Schmidt, Ellina Kesselman, Wei Zhou, Hua Fan, W. Wade Adams, Robert H. Hauge, John E. Fischer, Yachin Cohen, Yeshayahu Talmon, Richard E. Smalley & Matteo Pasquali 

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Today's technological innovation enables smartphone users to diagnose serious diseases such as diabetes or lung cancer quickly and effectively by simply breathing into a small gadget, ''a nanofiber breathing sensor, mounted on the phones''.

[[Il-Doo Kim|http://advnano.kaist.ac.kr/new/sp_main/main.php]], Associate Professor of Materials Science and Engineering Department at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), and his research team have recently published a cover paper on the development of ''a highly sensitive exhaled breath sensor by using hierarchical SnO2 fibers'' that are assembled from wrinkled thin SnO2 nanotubes.

In the paper, the research team presented a morphological evolution of SnO2 fibers, called micro phase-separations, which takes place between polymers and other dissolved solutes when varying the flow rate of an electrospinning solution feed and applying a subsequent heat treatment afterward.

<html><img style="float:left; margin-bottom:10px" src="img/SnO2_nanofibers.jpg" title="SEM Images of SnO2 Nanofibers. This is the microstructural evolution of SnO2 nanofibers as a function of flow rate during electrospinning. Credit: KAIST" class="photo"  width="100%"/></html>The morphological change results in nanofibers that are shaped like an open cylinder inside which thin-film SnO2 nanotubes are layered and then rolled up. A number of elongated pores ranging from 10 nanometers (nm) to 500 nm in length along the fiber direction were formed on the surface of the SnO2 fibers, allowing exhaled gas molecules to easily permeate the fibers. The inner and outer wall of SnO2 tubes is evenly coated with catalytic platinum (Pt) nanoparticles. According to the research team, highly porous SnO2 fibers, synthesized by eletrospinning at a high flow rate, showed five-fold higher acetone responses than that of the dense SnO2 nanofibers created under a low flow rate. The catalytic Pt coating shortened the fibers' gas response time dramatically as well. 

The breath analysis for diabetes is largely based on an acetone breath test because acetone is one of the specific volatile organic compounds (VOC) produced in the human body to signal the onset of particular diseases. In other words, ''they are biomarkers to predict certain diseases such as acetone for diabetes, toluene for lung cancer, and ammonia for kidney malfunction''. Breath analysis for medical evaluation has attracted much attention because it is less intrusive than conventional medical examination, as well as fast and convenient, and environmentally friendly, leaving almost no biohazard wastes.

Various gas-sensing techniques have been adopted to analyze VOCs including gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), but these techniques are difficult to incorporate into portable real-time gas sensors because the testing equipment is bulky and expensive, and their operation is more complex. ''Metal-oxide based chemiresistive gas sensors'', however, offer greater usability for portable real-time breath sensors.

Il-Doo Kim said, "Catalyst-loaded metal oxide nanofibers synthesized by electrospinning have a great potential for future exhaled breath sensor applications. From our research, we obtained the results that Pt-coated SnO2 fibers are able to identify promptly and accurately acetone or toluene even at very low concentration less than 100 parts per billion (ppb)."

The exhaled acetone level of diabetes patients exceeds 1.8 parts per million (ppm), which is two to six-fold higher than that (0.3-0.9 ppm) of healthy people. Therefore, a highly sensitive detection that responds to acetone below 1 ppm, in the presence of other exhaled gases as well as under the humid environment of human breath, is important for an accurate diagnosis of diabetes. In addition, Professor Kim said, "a trace concentration of toluene (30 ppb) in exhaled breath is regarded to be a distinctive early symptom of lung cancer, which we were able to detect with our prototype breath tester."

The research team has now been developing an array of breathing sensors using various catalysts and a number of semiconducting metal oxide fibers, which will offer patients a real-time easy diagnosis of diseases. Source: From [[Nanofiber sensor detects diabetes or lung cancer faster and easier|http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2013-06/tkai-nsd061113.php]]. This work is detailed in the paper ''[["Thin-Wall Assembled SnO2 Fibers Functionalized by Catalytic Pt Nanoparticles and their Superior Exhaled Breath-Sensing Properties for the Diagnosis of Diabetes"|http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/adfm.201202729/abstract]]'' by Jungwoo Shin, Seon-Jin Choi, Inkun Lee, Doo-Young Youn, Chong Ook Park, Jong-Heun Lee, Harry L. Tuller, Il-Doo Kim.

''Context:''
June 6, 2013. ''[[The Diabetes ‘Breathalyzer’|http://www.news.pitt.edu/news/diabetes-breathalyzer]]''
May, 2010. [[Type 1 diabetes nanosensor and nanovaccine]]
May, 2009. [[Diagnosis through breath]]

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This booklet provides ''an introduction to informal science education and to science museum practice for nano and materials science researchers''. It advises researchers on ways to collaborate with science museums to increase the impact of their education outreach activities, and includes a rich bibliography.

"This booklet invites scientists and engineers who work in nanoscale science and engineering to collaborate with museums to present nanoscience and technology to the general public. ''It is writen by a resarcher for others researchers, and it's designated as an introduction to what museums call the "informal science education" field'' (...) Museums and researchers need each other. Museums often find themselves shorthanded when it comes to content expertise, presenters who are practicing scientists or engineers, and connections to larger networks within the scientific community. At the same time, researchers benefit from partnering with museums for a host of reasons — from ready access to public audiences who want to learn more about science, to the organizational infrastructure needed to address outreach goals for a federal grant.

It is challenging to develop new ways of inspiring wonder, creating a spectacle and making science and engineering concepts memorable for a broad audience. Whether one-time opportunities or large, ongoing programs, partnerships between museums and researchers have the capacity to break new ground and invent creative new strategies for communicating complex ideas to the general public.

''Nanoscale science and technology are perfect topics for museum/researcher partnerships''. The applications of nanoscale science are likely to have significant economic, social, and political implications, making them an important piece of science for the public to understand and explore. Museums will need help presenting these breakthroughs to the public, and you, as a nanoscale scientist or engineer, can help.

The NISE Network and the Materials Research Society are partnering to help create connections among museums and researchers to bring nanoscale science and engineering to the public. We hope that this booklet has given you some ideas about how you could get involved, and provided the motivation that will actually move you to contact your local museum, [[NISE Net|http://www.nisenet.org/resource]], or [[MRS|http://www.mrs.org/nise_survey]]. We look forward to making the connections that will help you share your scientific expertise and your excitement about science with people in your community." Source: ''[[Bringing Nano to the Public: A Collaboration Opportunity for Researchers and Museums|http://www.nisenet.org/catalog/topics/bringing_nano_public]]'' by [[Dr. Wendy C. Cron|http://mandm.engr.wisc.edu/faculty_pages/crone/main.htm]], edited by Susan E. Koch. This guidebook was prepared with funding from the National Science Foundation.

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With the joint release of [[Principles for the Oversight of Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials|http://www.icta.org/doc/Principles%20for%20the%20Oversight%20of%20Nanotechnologies%20and%20Nanomaterials_final.pdf]], a broad international coalition of consumer, public health, environmental, labor, and civil society organizations spanning six continents called for strong, comprehensive oversight of the new technology and its products.

Source: [[International Center for Technology Assessment (CTA): BROAD INTERNATIONAL COALITION ISSUES URGENT CALL FOR STRONG OVERSIGHT OF NANOTECHNOLOGY|http://www.icta.org/press/release.cfm?news_id=26]]
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<html><img title="For the first time, NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope has detected little spheres of carbon, called buckyballs, in a galaxy beyond our Milky Way galaxy. The space balls were detected in a dying star, called a planetary nebula, within the nearby galaxy, the Small Magellanic Cloud. What's more, huge quantities were found -- the equivalent in mass to 15 of our moons. An infrared photo of the Small Magellanic Cloud taken by Spitzer is shown here in this artist's illustration, with two callouts. The middle callout shows a magnified view of an example of a planetary nebula, and the right callout shows an even further magnified depiction of buckyballs, which consist of 60 carbon atoms arranged like soccer balls. In July 2010, astronomers reported using Spitzer to find the first confirmed proof of buckyballs. Since then, Spitzer has detected the molecules again in our own galaxy -- as well as in the Small Magellanic Cloud. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech" src="http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/jpegMod/PIA13551_modest.jpg"  width="95%"/>
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[[Fresh after finding buckyballs around an aging star|NASA telescope finds elusive buckyballs]], NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope has now detected these intriguing, miniature-soccer-ball-shaped molecules in interstellar space for the first time.

''With these new results, the buckyball claims the record for the largest molecule ever discovered floating between the stars''. The unique properties of [[buckyballs|C60: Buckminsterfullerene]] that have made these rounded particles such a hot area of research here on Earth also offer up some exciting possibilities for cosmic chemistry. 

Astronomers had long expected to find buckyballs in outer space. [[Kris Sellgren|http://www.astronomy.ohio-state.edu/~sellgren/]], a professor of astronomy at The Ohio State University, and her team, while on the hunt for buckyballs in infrared data collected by Spitzer, looked at two nebulae.

Hints of interstellar buckyballs had first come in 1994, when [[Foing and Ehrenfreund|http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v369/n6478/abs/369296a0.html]] detected absorption lines they attributed to buckyballs missing an electron <<slider chkSldr [[Comment by Bernard H. Foing]]  [[Comment by Bernard H. Foing»]] [["other references where we confirmed the evidence for interstellar C60+"]]>>. 

Then, in 2004, Sellgren and her colleagues serendipitously detected two light signatures indicative of the faceted mini-globes. The researchers knew they had caught a buckyball for sure this time around when they saw a predicted third signature in infrared light from the nebulae.

Carbon is the key building block for life as we know it; the possibility exists that some of the very carbon in ours or even extraterrestrials' bodies might well have been balled up once as a buckyball crafted in space. "Now that there are buckyballs confirmed in the interstellar medium and in circumstellar space, it's likely that chemists will get more interested in the astrobiological implications of these fascinating molecules," Sellgren said. From [[Spitzer Goes Buck Wild and Finds Buckyballs Floating Between the Stars|http://www.spitzer.caltech.edu/news/1212-feature10-18-Spitzer-Goes-Buck-Wild-and-Finds-Buckyballs-Floating-Between-the-Stars]] by Adam Hadhazy. This work is detailed in the paper [[C60 in Reflection Nebulae|http://iopscience.iop.org/2041-8205/722/1/L54]] by Kris Sellgren, Michael W. Werner, James G. Ingalls, J. D. T. Smith, T. M. Carleton and Christine Joblin <<slider chkSldr [[C60 in Reflection Nebulae]]  [[Abstract»]] [[read abstract of the paper]]>>


''Spitzer detected buckyballs around a fourth dying star in a nearby galaxy in staggering quantities'' -- the equivalent in mass to about 15 of our moons. "It turns out that buckyballs are much more common and abundant in the universe than initially thought," said astronomer [[Letizia Stanghellini|http://www.noao.edu/noao/staff/letizia/]] of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory in Tucson, Ariz. "Spitzer had recently found them in one specific location, but now we see them in other environments. This has implications for the chemistry of life. It's possible that buckyballs from outer space provided seeds for life on Earth."

Anibal García-Hernández of the [[Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias|http://www.iac.es/divulgacion.php?op1=16&id=653]], Spain, and his team found the buckyballs around three dying sun-like stars, called planetary nebulae, in our own Milky Way galaxy. ''The new research shows that all the planetary nebulae in which buckyballs have been detected are rich in hydrogen''. This goes against what researchers thought for decades. "We now know that fullerenes and hydrogen coexist in planetary nebulae, which is really important for telling us how they form in space," said García-Hernández. They also located buckyballs in a planetary nebula within a nearby galaxy called the Small Magellanic Cloud. This was particularly exciting to the researchers, because, in contrast to the planetary nebulae in the Milky Way, the distance to this galaxy is known. Knowing the distance to the source of the buckyballs meant that the astronomers could calculate their quantity -- twenty percent of Earth's mass, or the mass of 15 of our moons.

The other new study, from Sellgren and her team, demonstrates that buckyballs are also present in the space between stars, but not too far away from young solar systems. The cosmic balls may have been formed in a planetary nebula, or perhaps between stars. "It’s exciting to find buckyballs in between stars that are still forming their solar systems, just a comet’s throw away," Sellgren said. "This could be the link between fullerenes in space and fullerenes in meteorites."

[[The implications are far-reaching|C60 by Harry Kroto]]. Scientists have speculated in the past that ''buckyballs, which can act like cages for other molecules and atoms, might have carried substances to Earth that kick-started life''. Evidence for this theory comes from the fact that buckyballs have been found in meteorites carrying extraterrestial gases. "Buckyballs are sort of like diamonds with holes in the middle," said Stanghellini. "They are incredibly stable molecules that are hard to destroy, and they could carry other interesting molecules inside them. We hope to learn more about the important role they likely play in the death and birth of stars and planets, and maybe even life itself." From [[Space Buckyballs Thrive, Finds NASA Spitzer Telescope|http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.cfm?release=2010-351]]. This work is detailed in the paper [[Formation of Fullerenes in H-containing Planetary Nebulae|http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ApJ...724L..39G]] by García-Hernández, D. A.; Manchado, A.; García-Lario, P.; Stanghellini, L.; Villaver, E.; Shaw, R. A.; Szczerba, R.; Perea-Calderón, J. V. <<slider chkSldr [[Formation of Fullerenes in H-containing Planetary Nebulae]]  [[Abstract»]] [[read abstract of the paper]]>>

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''What is Buckypaper?''

    A novel easy-to-handle thin film formed using carbon nanotubes or fibers
    Composed of single-walled, multi-walled carbon nanotubes or carbon nanofibers that undergo a repeatable and scalable manufacturing process
    Extremely thin (~25 microns) and and lightweight (areal density: 0.0705 oz/ft²)
    Thermally conductive
    Electrically conductive
    High mechanical strength and modulus
    High strain rate
    Highly efficient field emission
    Self-actuation

It's a car, it's a plane, it's...paper? Watch and learn how this revolutionary new carbon nanotube material could change the world and lead us toward a highly advanced, sustainable future. Learn more about Buckypaper and the High Performance Materials Institute at Florida State University here: http://www.hpmi.net/

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Buildings are majorly funcional, but in some special cases they become icons, as the olympic stadiums, airports, train stations, museums or bridges. 

Interestingly now, this concept has also arrived to the nanotechnology research buildings and beyond, underlaying the increasing public impact of this developing technology. Like the coming building of the new [[Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory|http://www.pr-inside.com/m-w-zander-selected-to-design-iberian-r634975.htm]] in Braga (Portugal), where the format and the substance/content are related.

Related to that there is the by Herzog & de Meuron [[40 Bond Street|http://www.40bond.com/]] building in New York, where a nanostructured coating ([[Diamon-Fusion|http://www.diamonfusion.com/en/news/pr121906.html]]) keeps the glasses clean saving time and resources. Or [[Richard Meier|http://www.nytimes.com/2006/11/28/world/europe/28smog.html?n=Top/News/World/Countries%20and%20Territories/Italy]]'s Dives in [[Misericordia Church|http://www.richardmeier.com/Releases/Press_Jubilee_Text.htm]] in Rome (Italy) which has a ~TiO2 coating which in the presence of the UV light coming from the Sun, degrades combustion contaminants and maintain the walls clean and eats environmental smog too. This approach is also explored in a street in the town of Segrate, near Milan (Italy), using the same [[TX Active technology by Italcementi|http://www.italcementigroup.com/ENG/Research+and+Innovation/Innovative+Products/]]; the street with an average traffic of 1,000 cars per hour, has been repaved with the compound, and measures show a reduction in nitric oxides of around 60%
<br>Sanketh R. Gowda, Arava Leela Mohana Reddy, Xiaobo Zhan, and Pulickel M. Ajayan. 2011. ''ACS Nano Letters. doi:0.1021/nl2017042''

//Hybrid electrochemical energy storage devices combine the advantages of battery and supercapacitors, resulting in systems of high energy and power density. Using LiPF6 electrolyte, the Ni–Sn/PANI electrochemical system, free of Li-based electrodes, works on a hybrid mechanism based on Li intercalation at the anode and PF6– doping at the cathode. Here, we also demonstrate a composite nanostructure electrochemical device with the anode (Ni–Sn) and cathode (polyaniline, PANI) nanowires packaged within conformal polymer core–shell separator. Parallel array of these nanowire devices shows reversible areal capacity of 3 μAh/cm2 at a current rate of 0.03 mA/cm2. The work shows the ultimate miniaturization possible for energy storage devices where all essential components can be engineered on a single nanowire.//
//As our contribution to the celebration of [[25th Anniversary|10 October 2010]] of [[Buckminsterfullerene Discovery|C60: Buckminsterfullerene]] we publish an email by ''[[Harry Kroto|http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1996/kroto-autobio.html]]'' commenting on [[the discovery of buckyballs in space for the first time|NASA telescope finds elusive buckyballs]].//


from 	Harry Kroto
to     	josep saldana
date 	july 28, 2010 12:58
subject	C60
........................................................................
Hi Josep
Great isn't it and quite
nice for me as I predicted at this end of an Horizon Nova Programme
http://mediasite.apps.fsu.edu/Mediasite/Viewer/?peid=89aba1dfd9494329aff5122f129367f11d
This is the end of the 5th part on
http://www.cosmolearning.com/documentaries/molecules-with-sunglasses-364/

I was certain it would be present but quite amazed at its abundance I am now almost certain that C60 is ubiquitously distributed throughout many regions of the interstellar medium and if so this has some very interesting implications.

I have always said that Buckminsterfullerene the third form of carbon is a bit like Orson Welles in "the Third Man" see
http://www.facebook.com/video/video.php?v=1148765209280
NASA quote
"Sir Harry Kroto, who shared the Nobel Prize in 1996 with Bob Curl and Rick Smalley for their discovery of buckyballs, said about the recent finding, "This most exciting breakthrough, provides convincing evidence that the buckyball has, as I long suspected, existed since time immemorial in the dark recesses of our galaxy. I think of the buckyball -- which is the third form of carbon -- as being like Orson Welles' mysterious character in 'The Third Man," revealing itself only fleetingly."

My very best wishes
       harry

-- 
Harold Kroto
Francis Eppes Professor of Chemistry
Chemistry and Biochemistry Department
The Florida State University
Tallahassee
Florida 32306-4390

www.kroto.info
www.vega.org.uk
www.geoset.info


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<br>//The fullerene C~~60~~ has four infrared-active vibrational transitions at 7.0, 8.5, 17.4, and 18.9 μm. We have previously observed emission features at 17.4 and 18.9 μm in the reflection nebula NGC 7023 and demonstrated spatial correlations suggestive of a common origin. We now confirm our earlier identification of these features with C~~60~~ by detecting a third emission feature at 7.04 ± 0.05 μm in NGC 7023. We also report the detection of these three C~~60~~ features in the reflection nebula NGC 2023. Our spectroscopic mapping of NGC 7023 shows that the 18.9 μm C60 feature peaks on the central star and that the 16.4 μm emission feature due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons peaks between the star and a nearby photodissociation front. The observed features in NGC 7023 are consistent with emission from UV-excited gas-phase C~~60~~. We find that 0.1%-0.6% of interstellar carbon is in C~~60~~; this abundance is consistent with those from previous upper limits and possible fullerene detections in the interstellar medium (ISM). This is the first firm detection of neutral C~~60~~ in the ISM.//
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''How did viewing the stars lead to the discovery of a new form of Carbon? And why is it called a Buckyball?'' Interview with the 1996 Nobel Laureate in Chemistry, Sir Harold Kroto.

"During experiments aimed at understanding the mechanisms by which long-chain carbon molecules are formed in interstellar space and circumstellar shells, graphite has been vaporized by laser irradiation, producing a remarkably stable cluster consisting of 60 carbon atoms. Concerning the question of what kind of 60-carbon atom structure might give rise to a superstable species, we suggest a truncated icosahedron". From the paper ''[[C60: Buckminsterfullerene|http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v318/n6042/pdf/318162a0.pdf]]'' by H. W. Kroto, J. R. Heath, S. C. O'Brien, R. F. Curl & R. E. Smalley. Nature 318, 162 - 163 (14 November 1985)

"New forms of the element carbon - called [[fullerenes|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buckminsterfullerene]] - in which the atoms are arranged in closed shells was discovered in September 1985 by Robert F. Curl, [[Harold W. Kroto|http://www.kroto.info/]] and Richard E. Smalley." From ''[[The discovery of carbon atoms bound in the form of a ball is rewarded|http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1996/press.html]]''. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1996

Related news list by date, most recent first: <<matchTags popup sort:-created educational>><<matchTags popup sort:-created milestone>><<matchTags popup sort:-created fullerene>><<matchTags popup sort:-created astronomy>><<matchTags popup sort:-created video>>


}}}
{{twocolumns{
[[World Community Grid|http://www.worldcommunitygrid.org/]], a worldwide network of PC owners helping scientists solve humanitarian challenges, announced several computing projects aimed at developing techniques to produce cleaner and safer water, an increasingly scarce commodity eluding at least 1.2 billion people worldwide.

One new water-related project, called ''[["Computing For Clean Water,"|http://www.worldcommunitygrid.org/research/c4cw/overview.do]]'' is looking to produce more efficient and effective water filtering, and is now getting underway at [[Tsinghua University|http://www.tsinghua.edu.cn/eng/]]'s newly launched [[Centre for Novel Multidisciplinary Mechanics|http://cnmm.tsinghua.edu.cn/contents/1/89.html]] in China. The idea is to develop ways to filter and scrub polluted water, as well as convert saltwater into drinkable freshwater, with less expense, complexity, and energy than current techniques.

The effort will seek to reduce the pressure and energy required to force water through microscopic, nanometer-sized pores in tubes made of carbon, whose tiny holes prevent harmful organic material from being transmitted. ''Scientists need to produce millions of computer simulations to model how water molecules interact with one another and against the walls of these carbon nanotubes.''

Although led by China's Tsignhua University, researchers are participating from all over the world, including Australia's [[University of Sydney|http://www.usyd.edu.au/]] and [[Monash University|http://www.monash.edu.au/]]; as well as the [[Citizen Cyberscience Centre|http://www.citizencyberscience.net/]], based in Geneva, Switzerland. The project is the result of an initiative launched by the Chinese Academy of Sciences to promote volunteer participation in science. It is called CAS@home, and is hosted by the [[Institute of High Energy Physics|http://english.ihep.cas.cn/prs/ue/201002/t20100224_50975.html]] in Beijing. 

In the last 100 years, global water usage has increased at twice the rate of population growth. The United Nations predicts that nearly half the world’s population will experience critical water shortages by the year 2025.

''Individuals can donate time on their computers for these and many other humanitarian projects'' by registering on [[www.worldcommunitygrid.org|http://www.worldcommunitygrid.org]], and installing a free, unobtrusive and secure software program on their personal computers running either Linux, Microsoft Windows or Mac OS. When idle or between keystrokes on a lightweight task, the PCs request data from World Community Grid's server, which runs Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) software, maintained at Berkeley University and supported by the National Science Foundation. Source: [[IBM'S World Community Grid Unveils Research Projects on Three Continents to Improve Water Quality|http://www-03.ibm.com/press/us/en/pressrelease/32422.wss]]

''Related news'' list by date, most recent first: <<matchTags popup sort:-created water>><<matchTags popup sort:-created open>><<matchTags popup sort:-created video>>
''Share this content on Twitter:'' <html><a href="http://twitter.com/share" class="twitter-share-button" data-count="horizontal" data-via="nanowiki">Tweet</a></html><script src="http://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" show></script>

<html><object id="flashObj" width="100%" height="405" classid="clsid:D27CDB6E-AE6D-11cf-96B8-444553540000" codebase="http://download.macromedia.com/pub/shockwave/cabs/flash/swflash.cab#version=9,0,47,0"> <param name="movie" value="http://c.brightcove.com/services/viewer/federated_f9/1886158524?isVid=1&isUI=true" /> <param name="bgcolor" value="#FFFFFF" /> <param name="flashVars" value="videoId=603372389001&playerID=1886158524&domain=embed&autoStart=false&embedDate=Sun%20Sep%2012%202010&embedFromUrl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww-03.ibm.com%2Fpress%2Fus%2Fen%2Fpressrelease%2F32422.wss" /> <param name="base" value="http://admin.brightcove.com" /> <param name="seamlesstabbing" value="false" /> <param name="allowFullScreen" value="true" /> <param name="swLiveConnect" value="true" /> <param name="allowScriptAccess" value="never" /> <embed src="http://c.brightcove.com/services/viewer/federated_f9/1886158524?isVid=1&isUI=true" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" flashVars="videoId=603372389001&playerID=1886158524&domain=embed&autoStart=false&embedDate=Sun%20Sep%2012%202010&embedFromUrl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww-03.ibm.com%2Fpress%2Fus%2Fen%2Fpressrelease%2F32422.wss" base="http://admin.brightcove.com" name="flashObj" width="100%" height="405" seamlesstabbing="false" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowFullScreen="true" allowScriptAccess="never" swLiveConnect="true" pluginspage="http://www.macromedia.com/shockwave/download/index.cgi?P1_Prod_Version=ShockwaveFlash"></embed></object></html>
}}}
{{twocolumns{
The second chapter of [[Nano in my life]] educational package for students by Trinity College Dublin’s CRANN (Centre for Research on Adaptive Nanostructures and Nanodevices).

"The ‘Nano in My Life’ package, for the first time, bring nanoscience – an area of research at which Ireland excels and which is a key enabler for innovation and economic growth – to the Irish classroom. It encourage students to relate science subjects to innovative careers, with exciting and challenging applications. There are seven modules, each using a range of teaching and learning approaches, including video captured at CRANN, designed to engage students and encourage active learning."

''Related news'' list by date, most recent first: <<matchTags popup sort:-created educational>><<matchTags popup sort:-created nanocenter>><<matchTags popup sort:-created [[nano in my life]]>>
<<tiddler Twitter>>
<html><iframe class="youtube-player" type="text/html" width="100%" height="268" src="http://www.youtube.com/v/VaESQdSnlE8" frameborder="0"></iframe></html>
''[[Nano in my life]] - Chapter 2 CRANN''
}}}
<<tiddler [[random suggestion]]>>
<data>{"video_id":"VaESQdSnlE8"}</data>
{{twocolumns{
The third chapter of [[Nano in my life]] educational package for students by Trinity College Dublin’s CRANN ( Centre for Research on Adaptive Nanostructures and Nanodevices).

"The ‘Nano in My Life’ package, for the first time, bring nanoscience – an area of research at which Ireland excels and which is a key enabler for innovation and economic growth – to the Irish classroom. It encourage students to relate science subjects to innovative careers, with exciting and challenging applications. There are seven modules, each using a range of teaching and learning approaches, including video captured at CRANN, designed to engage students and encourage active learning."

''Related news'' list by date, most recent first: <<matchTags popup sort:-created educational>><<matchTags popup sort:-created microscope>><<matchTags popup sort:-created [[nano in my life]]>>

<<tiddler Twitter>>

<html><iframe class="youtube-player" type="text/html" width="100%" height="268" src="http://www.youtube.com/v/SPF-2zNDPWk" frameborder="0"></iframe></html>
''[[Nano in my life]] - Chapter 3 CRANN Advanced Microscopy Laboratory''
}}}
<<tiddler [[random suggestion]]>>
<data>{"video_id":"SPF-2zNDPWk"}</data>
~CytImmune, a clinical stage nanomedicine company focused on the development and commercialization of multifunctional, tumor-targeted therapies presented at the 43rd American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual meeting. The poster, entitled “Preliminary Results of a Phase 1 Clinical Trial of ~CYT-6091: A ~PEGylated colloidal gold-TNF nanomedicine,” announced the preliminary data of a National Cancer Institute conducted and ~CytImmune Sciences sponsored Phase 1 trial of ~CYT-6091 (Aurimune), ~CytImmune’s lead drug compound. The Phase 1 clinical trial was designed to investigate whether: (1) Aurimune will perform identically in humans as it did in preclinical studies and companion animals and (2) the fever side effect observed in preclinical studies can be easily managed and separated from hypotension – the dose limiting side effect of the active pharmaceutical ingredient.

“Presenting preliminary Phase 1 trial results to the leading body of international oncology experts helps pave the way for nanomedicines as the next generation of targeted cancer therapies and their use in improving the biodelivery of potent, but highly toxic therapeutics. We believe ~CYT-6091 has the potential to become a new, versatile therapeutic which may be used to treat a broad spectrum of solid tumors.” said Dr. Lawrence Tamarkin, CEO of ~CytImmune Sciences.

Source: [[CytImmune Presents Positive CYT-6091 Data|http://www.cytimmune.com/download/releases/CytImmune_ASCO_Release_Final6_3_061.pdf]]

This scientist use the fact that blood vessels surrounding the tumors are leaky due to their fast growth providing thus a way to passively target the tumor efficiently avoiding (or decreasing) deleterious secondary effects of antineoplastic drugs.

''Related news'' list by date, most recent first: <<matchTags popup sort:-created nanomedicine>><<matchTags popup sort:-created nano-oncology>><<matchTags popup sort:-created [[Victor Puntes]]>>
/***
|Name|CalendarPlugin|
|Source|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#CalendarPlugin|
|Version|1.5.1|
|Author|Eric Shulman|
|Original Author|SteveRumsby|
|License|unknown|
|~CoreVersion|2.1|
|Type|plugin|
|Description|display monthly and yearly calendars|
NOTE: For //enhanced// date popup display, optionally install:
*[[DatePlugin]]
*[[ReminderMacros|http://remindermacros.tiddlyspot.com/]]
!!!Usage:
<<<
|{{{<<calendar>>}}}|full-year calendar for the current year|
|{{{<<calendar year>>}}}|full-year calendar for the specified year|
|{{{<<calendar year month>>}}}|one month calendar for the specified month and year|
|{{{<<calendar thismonth>>}}}|one month calendar for the current month|
|{{{<<calendar lastmonth>>}}}|one month calendar for last month|
|{{{<<calendar nextmonth>>}}}|one month calendar for next month|
|{{{<<calendar +n>>}}}<br>{{{<<calendar -n>>}}}|one month calendar for a month +/- 'n' months from now|
<<<
!!!Configuration:
<<<
|''First day of week:''<br>{{{config.options.txtCalFirstDay}}}|<<option txtCalFirstDay>>|(Monday = 0, Sunday = 6)|
|''First day of weekend:''<br>{{{config.options.txtCalStartOfWeekend}}}|<<option txtCalStartOfWeekend>>|(Monday = 0, Sunday = 6)|

<<option chkDisplayWeekNumbers>> Display week numbers //(note: Monday will be used as the start of the week)//
|''Week number display format:''<br>{{{config.options.txtWeekNumberDisplayFormat }}}|<<option txtWeekNumberDisplayFormat >>|
|''Week number link format:''<br>{{{config.options.txtWeekNumberLinkFormat }}}|<<option txtWeekNumberLinkFormat >>|
<<<
!!!Revisions
<<<
2011.01.04 1.5.1 corrected parameter handling for {{{<<calendar year>>}}} to show entire year instead of just first month.  In createCalendarMonthHeader(), fixed next/previous month year calculation (use parseInt() to convert to numeric value).  Code reduction (setting options).
2009.04.31 1.5.0 rewrote onClickCalendarDate() (popup handler) and added config.options.txtCalendarReminderTags.  Partial code reduction/cleanup.  Assigned true version number (1.5.0)
2008.09.10 added '+n' (and '-n') param to permit display of relative months (e.g., '+6' means 'six months from now', '-3' means 'three months ago'.  Based on suggestion from Jean.
2008.06.17 added support for config.macros.calendar.todaybg
2008.02.27 in handler(), DON'T set hard-coded default date format, so that *customized* value (pre-defined in config.macros.calendar.journalDateFmt is used.
2008.02.17 in createCalendarYear(), fix next/previous year calculation (use parseInt() to convert to numeric value).  Also, use journalDateFmt for date linking when NOT using [[DatePlugin]].
2008.02.16 in createCalendarDay(), week numbers now created as TiddlyLinks, allowing quick creation/navigation to 'weekly' journals (based on request from Kashgarinn)
2008.01.08 in createCalendarMonthHeader(), 'month year' heading is now created as TiddlyLink, allowing quick creation/navigation to 'month-at-a-time' journals
2007.11.30 added 'return false' to onclick handlers (prevent IE from opening blank pages)
2006.08.23 added handling for weeknumbers (code supplied by Martin Budden (see 'wn**' comment marks).  Also, incorporated updated by Jeremy Sheeley to add caching for reminders (see [[ReminderMacros]], if installed)
2005.10.30 in config.macros.calendar.handler(), use 'tbody' element for IE compatibility.  Also, fix year calculation for IE's getYear() function (which returns '2005' instead of '105'). Also, in createCalendarDays(), use showDate() function (see [[DatePlugin]], if installed) to render autostyled date with linked popup.  Updated calendar stylesheet definition: use .calendar class-specific selectors, add text centering and margin settings
2006.05.29 added journalDateFmt handling
<<<
!!!Code
***/
//{{{
version.extensions.CalendarPlugin= { major: 1, minor: 5, revision: 1, date: new Date(2011,1,4)};

// COOKIE OPTIONS
var opts={
	txtCalFirstDay:				0,
	txtCalStartOfWeekend:		5,
	chkDisplayWeekNumbers:		false,
	txtCalFirstDay:				0,
	txtWeekNumberDisplayFormat:	'w0WW',
	txtWeekNumberLinkFormat:	'YYYY-w0WW',
	txtCalendarReminderTags:		'reminder'
};
for (var id in opts) if (config.options[id]===undefined) config.options[id]=opts[id];

// INTERNAL CONFIGURATION
config.macros.calendar = {
	monthnames:['Jan','Feb','Mar','Apr','May','Jun','Jul','Aug','Sep','Oct','Nov','Dec'],
	daynames:['M','T','W','T','F','S','S'],
	todaybg:'#ccccff',
	weekendbg:'#c0c0c0',
	monthbg:'#e0e0e0',
	holidaybg:'#ffc0c0',
	journalDateFmt:'DD MMM YYYY',
	monthdays:[31,28,31,30,31,30,31,31,30,31,30,31],
	holidays:[ ] // for customization see [[CalendarPluginConfig]]
};
//}}}
//{{{
function calendarIsHoliday(date)
{
	var longHoliday = date.formatString('0DD/0MM/YYYY');
	var shortHoliday = date.formatString('0DD/0MM');
	for(var i = 0; i < config.macros.calendar.holidays.length; i++) {
		if(   config.macros.calendar.holidays[i]==longHoliday
		   || config.macros.calendar.holidays[i]==shortHoliday)
			return true;
	}
	return false;
}
//}}}
//{{{
config.macros.calendar.handler = function(place,macroName,params) {
	var calendar = createTiddlyElement(place, 'table', null, 'calendar', null);
	var tbody = createTiddlyElement(calendar, 'tbody');
	var today = new Date();
	var year = today.getYear();
	if (year<1900) year+=1900;

 	// get journal format from SideBarOptions (ELS 5/29/06 - suggested by MartinBudden)
	var text = store.getTiddlerText('SideBarOptions');
	var re = new RegExp('<<(?:newJournal)([^>]*)>>','mg'); var fm = re.exec(text);
	if (fm && fm[1]!=null) { var pa=fm[1].readMacroParams(); if (pa[0]) this.journalDateFmt = pa[0]; }

	var month=-1;
	if (params[0] == 'thismonth') {
		var month=today.getMonth();
	} else if (params[0] == 'lastmonth') {
		var month = today.getMonth()-1; if (month==-1) { month=11; year--; }
	} else if (params[0] == 'nextmonth') {
		var month = today.getMonth()+1; if (month>11) { month=0; year++; }
	} else if (params[0]&&'+-'.indexOf(params[0].substr(0,1))!=-1) {
		var month = today.getMonth()+parseInt(params[0]);
		if (month>11) { year+=Math.floor(month/12); month%=12; };
		if (month<0)  { year+=Math.floor(month/12); month=12+month%12; }
	} else if (params[0]) {
		year = params[0];
		if(params[1]) {
			month=parseInt(params[1])-1;
			if (month>11) month=11; if (month<0) month=0;
		}
	}

	if (month!=-1) {
		cacheReminders(new Date(year, month, 1, 0, 0), 31);
		createCalendarOneMonth(tbody, year, month);
	} else {
		cacheReminders(new Date(year, 0, 1, 0, 0), 366);
		createCalendarYear(tbody, year);
	}
	window.reminderCacheForCalendar = null;
}
//}}}
//{{{
// cache used to store reminders while the calendar is being rendered
// it will be renulled after the calendar is fully rendered.
window.reminderCacheForCalendar = null;
//}}}
//{{{
function cacheReminders(date, leadtime)
{
	if (window.findTiddlersWithReminders == null) return;
	window.reminderCacheForCalendar = {};
	var leadtimeHash = [];
	leadtimeHash [0] = 0;
	leadtimeHash [1] = leadtime;
	var t = findTiddlersWithReminders(date, leadtimeHash, null, 1);
	for(var i = 0; i < t.length; i++) {
		//just tag it in the cache, so that when we're drawing days, we can bold this one.
		window.reminderCacheForCalendar[t[i]['matchedDate']] = 'reminder:' + t[i]['params']['title']; 
	}
}
//}}}
//{{{
function createCalendarOneMonth(calendar, year, mon)
{
	var row = createTiddlyElement(calendar, 'tr');
	createCalendarMonthHeader(calendar, row, config.macros.calendar.monthnames[mon]+' '+year, true, year, mon);
	row = createTiddlyElement(calendar, 'tr');
	createCalendarDayHeader(row, 1);
	createCalendarDayRowsSingle(calendar, year, mon);
}
//}}}
//{{{
function createCalendarMonth(calendar, year, mon)
{
	var row = createTiddlyElement(calendar, 'tr');
	createCalendarMonthHeader(calendar, row, config.macros.calendar.monthnames[mon]+' '+ year, false, year, mon);
	row = createTiddlyElement(calendar, 'tr');
	createCalendarDayHeader(row, 1);
	createCalendarDayRowsSingle(calendar, year, mon);
}
//}}}
//{{{
function createCalendarYear(calendar, year)
{
	var row;
	row = createTiddlyElement(calendar, 'tr');
	var back = createTiddlyElement(row, 'td');
	var backHandler = function() {
		removeChildren(calendar);
		createCalendarYear(calendar, parseInt(year)-1);
		return false; // consume click
	};
	createTiddlyButton(back, '<', 'Previous year', backHandler);
	back.align = 'center';
	var yearHeader = createTiddlyElement(row, 'td', null, 'calendarYear', year);
	yearHeader.align = 'center';
	yearHeader.setAttribute('colSpan',config.options.chkDisplayWeekNumbers?22:19);//wn**
	var fwd = createTiddlyElement(row, 'td');
	var fwdHandler = function() {
		removeChildren(calendar);
		createCalendarYear(calendar, parseInt(year)+1);
		return false; // consume click
	};
	createTiddlyButton(fwd, '>', 'Next year', fwdHandler);
	fwd.align = 'center';
	createCalendarMonthRow(calendar, year, 0);
	createCalendarMonthRow(calendar, year, 3);
	createCalendarMonthRow(calendar, year, 6);
	createCalendarMonthRow(calendar, year, 9);
}
//}}}
//{{{
function createCalendarMonthRow(cal, year, mon)
{
	var row = createTiddlyElement(cal, 'tr');
	createCalendarMonthHeader(cal, row, config.macros.calendar.monthnames[mon], false, year, mon);
	createCalendarMonthHeader(cal, row, config.macros.calendar.monthnames[mon+1], false, year, mon);
	createCalendarMonthHeader(cal, row, config.macros.calendar.monthnames[mon+2], false, year, mon);
	row = createTiddlyElement(cal, 'tr');
	createCalendarDayHeader(row, 3);
	createCalendarDayRows(cal, year, mon);
}
//}}}
//{{{
function createCalendarMonthHeader(cal, row, name, nav, year, mon)
{
	var month;
	if (nav) {
		var back = createTiddlyElement(row, 'td');
		back.align = 'center';
		back.style.background = config.macros.calendar.monthbg;

		var backMonHandler = function() {
			var newyear = year;
			var newmon = mon-1;
			if(newmon == -1) { newmon = 11; newyear = parseInt(newyear)-1;}
			removeChildren(cal);
			cacheReminders(new Date(newyear, newmon , 1, 0, 0), 31);
			createCalendarOneMonth(cal, newyear, newmon);
			return false; // consume click
		};
		createTiddlyButton(back, '<', 'Previous month', backMonHandler);
		month = createTiddlyElement(row, 'td', null, 'calendarMonthname')
		createTiddlyLink(month,name,true);
		month.setAttribute('colSpan', config.options.chkDisplayWeekNumbers?6:5);//wn**
		var fwd = createTiddlyElement(row, 'td');
		fwd.align = 'center';
		fwd.style.background = config.macros.calendar.monthbg; 

		var fwdMonHandler = function() {
			var newyear = year;
			var newmon = mon+1;
			if(newmon == 12) { newmon = 0; newyear = parseInt(newyear)+1;}
			removeChildren(cal);
			cacheReminders(new Date(newyear, newmon , 1, 0, 0), 31);
			createCalendarOneMonth(cal, newyear, newmon);
			return false; // consume click
		};
		createTiddlyButton(fwd, '>', 'Next month', fwdMonHandler);
	} else {
		month = createTiddlyElement(row, 'td', null, 'calendarMonthname', name)
		month.setAttribute('colSpan',config.options.chkDisplayWeekNumbers?8:7);//wn**
	}
	month.align = 'center';
	month.style.background = config.macros.calendar.monthbg;
}
//}}}
//{{{
function createCalendarDayHeader(row, num)
{
	var cell;
	for(var i = 0; i < num; i++) {
		if (config.options.chkDisplayWeekNumbers) createTiddlyElement(row, 'td');//wn**
		for(var j = 0; j < 7; j++) {
			var d = j + (config.options.txtCalFirstDay - 0);
			if(d > 6) d = d - 7;
			cell = createTiddlyElement(row, 'td', null, null, config.macros.calendar.daynames[d]);
			if(d == (config.options.txtCalStartOfWeekend-0) || d == (config.options.txtCalStartOfWeekend-0+1))
				cell.style.background = config.macros.calendar.weekendbg;
		}
	}
}
//}}}
//{{{
function createCalendarDays(row, col, first, max, year, mon) {
	var i;
	if (config.options.chkDisplayWeekNumbers){
		if (first<=max) {
			var ww = new Date(year,mon,first);
			var td=createTiddlyElement(row, 'td');//wn**
			var link=createTiddlyLink(td,ww.formatString(config.options.txtWeekNumberLinkFormat),false);
			link.appendChild(document.createTextNode(
				ww.formatString(config.options.txtWeekNumberDisplayFormat)));
		}
		else createTiddlyElement(row, 'td');//wn**
	}
	for(i = 0; i < col; i++)
		createTiddlyElement(row, 'td');
	var day = first;
	for(i = col; i < 7; i++) {
		var d = i + (config.options.txtCalFirstDay - 0);
		if(d > 6) d = d - 7;
		var daycell = createTiddlyElement(row, 'td');
		var isaWeekend=((d==(config.options.txtCalStartOfWeekend-0)
			|| d==(config.options.txtCalStartOfWeekend-0+1))?true:false);
		if(day > 0 && day <= max) {
			var celldate = new Date(year, mon, day);
			// ELS 10/30/05 - use <<date>> macro's showDate() function to create popup
			// ELS 05/29/06 - use journalDateFmt 
			if (window.showDate) showDate(daycell,celldate,'popup','DD',
				config.macros.calendar.journalDateFmt,true, isaWeekend);
			else {
				if(isaWeekend) daycell.style.background = config.macros.calendar.weekendbg;
				var title = celldate.formatString(config.macros.calendar.journalDateFmt);
				if(calendarIsHoliday(celldate))
					daycell.style.background = config.macros.calendar.holidaybg;
				var now=new Date();
				if ((now-celldate>=0) && (now-celldate<86400000)) // is today?
					daycell.style.background = config.macros.calendar.todaybg;
				if(window.findTiddlersWithReminders == null) {
					var link = createTiddlyLink(daycell, title, false);
					link.appendChild(document.createTextNode(day));
				} else
					var button = createTiddlyButton(daycell, day, title, onClickCalendarDate);
			}
		}
		day++;
	}
}
//}}}
//{{{
// Create a pop-up containing:
// * a link to a tiddler for this date
// * a 'new tiddler' link to add a reminder for this date
// * links to current reminders for this date
// NOTE: this code is only used if [[ReminderMacros]] is installed AND [[DatePlugin]] is //not// installed.
function onClickCalendarDate(ev) { ev=ev||window.event;
	var d=new Date(this.getAttribute('title')); var date=d.formatString(config.macros.calendar.journalDateFmt);
	var p=Popup.create(this);  if (!p) return;
	createTiddlyLink(createTiddlyElement(p,'li'),date,true);
	var rem='\\n\\<\\<reminder day:%0 month:%1 year:%2 title: \\>\\>';
	rem=rem.format([d.getDate(),d.getMonth()+1,d.getYear()+1900]);
	var cmd="<<newTiddler label:[[new reminder...]] prompt:[[add a new reminder to '%0']]"
		+" title:[[%0]] text:{{store.getTiddlerText('%0','')+'%1'}} tag:%2>>";
	wikify(cmd.format([date,rem,config.options.txtCalendarReminderTags]),p);
	createTiddlyElement(p,'hr');
	var t=findTiddlersWithReminders(d,[0,31],null,1);
	for(var i=0; i<t.length; i++) {
		var link=createTiddlyLink(createTiddlyElement(p,'li'), t[i].tiddler, false);
		link.appendChild(document.createTextNode(t[i]['params']['title']));
	}
	Popup.show(); ev.cancelBubble=true; if (ev.stopPropagation) ev.stopPropagation(); return false;
}
//}}}
//{{{
function calendarMaxDays(year, mon)
{
	var max = config.macros.calendar.monthdays[mon];
	if(mon == 1 && (year % 4) == 0 && ((year % 100) != 0 || (year % 400) == 0)) max++;
	return max;
}
//}}}
//{{{
function createCalendarDayRows(cal, year, mon)
{
	var row = createTiddlyElement(cal, 'tr');
	var first1 = (new Date(year, mon, 1)).getDay() -1 - (config.options.txtCalFirstDay-0);
	if(first1 < 0) first1 = first1 + 7;
	var day1 = -first1 + 1;
	var first2 = (new Date(year, mon+1, 1)).getDay() -1 - (config.options.txtCalFirstDay-0);
	if(first2 < 0) first2 = first2 + 7;
	var day2 = -first2 + 1;
	var first3 = (new Date(year, mon+2, 1)).getDay() -1 - (config.options.txtCalFirstDay-0);
	if(first3 < 0) first3 = first3 + 7;
	var day3 = -first3 + 1;

	var max1 = calendarMaxDays(year, mon);
	var max2 = calendarMaxDays(year, mon+1);
	var max3 = calendarMaxDays(year, mon+2);

	while(day1 <= max1 || day2 <= max2 || day3 <= max3) {
		row = createTiddlyElement(cal, 'tr');
		createCalendarDays(row, 0, day1, max1, year, mon); day1 += 7;
		createCalendarDays(row, 0, day2, max2, year, mon+1); day2 += 7;
		createCalendarDays(row, 0, day3, max3, year, mon+2); day3 += 7;
	}
}
//}}}
//{{{
function createCalendarDayRowsSingle(cal, year, mon)
{
	var row = createTiddlyElement(cal, 'tr');
	var first1 = (new Date(year, mon, 1)).getDay() -1 - (config.options.txtCalFirstDay-0);
	if(first1 < 0) first1 = first1+ 7;
	var day1 = -first1 + 1;
	var max1 = calendarMaxDays(year, mon);
	while(day1 <= max1) {
		row = createTiddlyElement(cal, 'tr');
		createCalendarDays(row, 0, day1, max1, year, mon); day1 += 7;
	}
}
//}}}
//{{{
setStylesheet('.calendar, .calendar table, .calendar th, .calendar tr, .calendar td { text-align:center; } .calendar, .calendar a { margin:0px !important; padding:0px !important; }', 'calendarStyles');
//}}}
/***
|Name|CalendarPlugin|
|Source|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#CalendarPlugin|
|Version|1.5.0|
|Author|Eric Shulman|
|Original Author|SteveRumsby|
|License|unknown|
|~CoreVersion|2.1|
|Type|plugin|
|Description|display monthly and yearly calendars|
NOTE: For //enhanced// date popup display, optionally install [[DatePlugin]] and [[ReminderMacros]]
!!!Usage:
<<<
|{{{<<calendar>>}}}|full-year calendar for the current year|
|{{{<<calendar year>>}}}|full-year calendar for the specified year|
|{{{<<calendar year month>>}}}|one month calendar for the specified month and year|
|{{{<<calendar thismonth>>}}}|one month calendar for the current month|
|{{{<<calendar lastmonth>>}}}|one month calendar for last month|
|{{{<<calendar nextmonth>>}}}|one month calendar for next month|
|{{{<<calendar +n>>}}}<br>{{{<<calendar -n>>}}}|one month calendar for a month +/- 'n' months from now|
<<<
!!!Configuration:
<<<
|''First day of week:''<br>{{{config.options.txtCalFirstDay}}}|<<option txtCalFirstDay>>|(Monday = 0, Sunday = 6)|
|''First day of weekend:''<br>{{{config.options.txtCalStartOfWeekend}}}|<<option txtCalStartOfWeekend>>|(Monday = 0, Sunday = 6)|

<<option chkDisplayWeekNumbers>> Display week numbers //(note: Monday will be used as the start of the week)//
|''Week number display format:''<br>{{{config.options.txtWeekNumberDisplayFormat }}}|<<option txtWeekNumberDisplayFormat >>|
|''Week number link format:''<br>{{{config.options.txtWeekNumberLinkFormat }}}|<<option txtWeekNumberLinkFormat >>|
<<<
!!!Revisions
<<<
2009.04.31 [1.5.0] rewrote onClickCalendarDate() (popup handler) and added config.options.txtCalendarReminderTags.  Partial code reduction/cleanup.  Assigned true version number (1.5.0)
2008.09.10 added '+n' (and '-n') param to permit display of relative months (e.g., '+6' means 'six months from now', '-3' means 'three months ago'.  Based on suggestion from Jean.
2008.06.17 added support for config.macros.calendar.todaybg
2008.02.27 in handler(), DON'T set hard-coded default date format, so that *customized* value (pre-defined in config.macros.calendar.journalDateFmt is used.
2008.02.17 in createCalendarYear(), fix next/previous year calculation (use parseInt() to convert to numeric value).  Also, use journalDateFmt for date linking when NOT using [[DatePlugin]].
2008.02.16 in createCalendarDay(), week numbers now created as TiddlyLinks, allowing quick creation/navigation to 'weekly' journals (based on request from Kashgarinn)
2008.01.08 in createCalendarMonthHeader(), 'month year' heading is now created as TiddlyLink, allowing quick creation/navigation to 'month-at-a-time' journals
2007.11.30 added 'return false' to onclick handlers (prevent IE from opening blank pages)
2006.08.23 added handling for weeknumbers (code supplied by Martin Budden (see 'wn**' comment marks).  Also, incorporated updated by Jeremy Sheeley to add caching for reminders (see [[ReminderMacros]], if installed)
2005.10.30 in config.macros.calendar.handler(), use 'tbody' element for IE compatibility.  Also, fix year calculation for IE's getYear() function (which returns '2005' instead of '105'). Also, in createCalendarDays(), use showDate() function (see [[DatePlugin]], if installed) to render autostyled date with linked popup.  Updated calendar stylesheet definition: use .calendar class-specific selectors, add text centering and margin settings
2006.05.29 added journalDateFmt handling
<<<
!!!Code
***/
//{{{
version.extensions.CalendarPlugin= { major: 1, minor: 5, revision: 0, date: new Date(2009,5,31)};
//}}}
//{{{
if(config.options.txtCalFirstDay == undefined)
	config.options.txtCalFirstDay = 0;
if(config.options.txtCalStartOfWeekend == undefined)
	config.options.txtCalStartOfWeekend = 5;
if(config.options.chkDisplayWeekNumbers == undefined)
	config.options.chkDisplayWeekNumbers = false;
if(config.options.chkDisplayWeekNumbers)
	config.options.txtCalFirstDay = 0;
if(config.options.txtWeekNumberDisplayFormat == undefined)
	config.options.txtWeekNumberDisplayFormat = 'w0WW';
if(config.options.txtWeekNumberLinkFormat == undefined)
	config.options.txtWeekNumberLinkFormat = 'YYYY-w0WW';
if(config.options.txtCalendarReminderTags == undefined)
	config.options.txtCalendarReminderTags = 'reminder';

config.macros.calendar = {
	monthnames:['Jan','Feb','Mar','Apr','May','Jun','Jul','Aug','Sep','Oct','Nov','Dec'],
	daynames:['M','T','W','T','F','S','S'],
	todaybg:'#ccccff',
	weekendbg:'#c0c0c0',
	monthbg:'#e0e0e0',
	holidaybg:'#ffc0c0',
	journalDateFmt:'DD MMM YYYY',
	monthdays:[31,28,31,30,31,30,31,31,30,31,30,31],
	holidays:[ ] // for customization see [[CalendarPluginConfig]]
};
//}}}
//{{{
function calendarIsHoliday(date)
{
	var longHoliday = date.formatString('0DD/0MM/YYYY');
	var shortHoliday = date.formatString('0DD/0MM');
	for(var i = 0; i < config.macros.calendar.holidays.length; i++) {
		if(   config.macros.calendar.holidays[i]==longHoliday
		   || config.macros.calendar.holidays[i]==shortHoliday)
			return true;
	}
	return false;
}
//}}}
//{{{
config.macros.calendar.handler = function(place,macroName,params) {
	var calendar = createTiddlyElement(place, 'table', null, 'calendar', null);
	var tbody = createTiddlyElement(calendar, 'tbody');
	var today = new Date();
	var year = today.getYear();
	if (year<1900) year+=1900;

 	// get journal format from SideBarOptions (ELS 5/29/06 - suggested by MartinBudden)
	var text = store.getTiddlerText('SideBarOptions');
	var re = new RegExp('<<(?:newJournal)([^>]*)>>','mg'); var fm = re.exec(text);
	if (fm && fm[1]!=null) { var pa=fm[1].readMacroParams(); if (pa[0]) this.journalDateFmt = pa[0]; }

	var month=-1;
	if (params[0] == 'thismonth') {
		var month=today.getMonth();
	} else if (params[0] == 'lastmonth') {
		var month = today.getMonth()-1; if (month==-1) { month=11; year--; }
	} else if (params[0] == 'nextmonth') {
		var month = today.getMonth()+1; if (month>11) { month=0; year++; }
	} else if (params[0]&&'+-'.indexOf(params[0].substr(0,1))!=-1) {
		var month = today.getMonth()+parseInt(params[0]);
		if (month>11) { year+=Math.floor(month/12); month%=12; };
		if (month<0)  { year+=Math.floor(month/12); month=12+month%12; }
	} else if (params[0]) {
		year = params[0];
		if(params[1]) month=parseInt(params[1])-1;
		if (month>11) month=11; if (month<0) month=0;
	}

	if (month!=-1) {
		cacheReminders(new Date(year, month, 1, 0, 0), 31);
		createCalendarOneMonth(tbody, year, month);
	} else {
		cacheReminders(new Date(year, 0, 1, 0, 0), 366);
		createCalendarYear(tbody, year);
	}
	window.reminderCacheForCalendar = null;
}
//}}}
//{{{
// cache used to store reminders while the calendar is being rendered
// it will be renulled after the calendar is fully rendered.
window.reminderCacheForCalendar = null;
//}}}
//{{{
function cacheReminders(date, leadtime)
{
	if (window.findTiddlersWithReminders == null) return;
	window.reminderCacheForCalendar = {};
	var leadtimeHash = [];
	leadtimeHash [0] = 0;
	leadtimeHash [1] = leadtime;
	var t = findTiddlersWithReminders(date, leadtimeHash, null, 1);
	for(var i = 0; i < t.length; i++) {
		//just tag it in the cache, so that when we're drawing days, we can bold this one.
		window.reminderCacheForCalendar[t[i]['matchedDate']] = 'reminder:' + t[i]['params']['title']; 
	}
}
//}}}
//{{{
function createCalendarOneMonth(calendar, year, mon)
{
	var row = createTiddlyElement(calendar, 'tr');
	createCalendarMonthHeader(calendar, row, config.macros.calendar.monthnames[mon]+' '+year, true, year, mon);
	row = createTiddlyElement(calendar, 'tr');
	createCalendarDayHeader(row, 1);
	createCalendarDayRowsSingle(calendar, year, mon);
}
//}}}
//{{{
function createCalendarMonth(calendar, year, mon)
{
	var row = createTiddlyElement(calendar, 'tr');
	createCalendarMonthHeader(calendar, row, config.macros.calendar.monthnames[mon]+' '+ year, false, year, mon);
	row = createTiddlyElement(calendar, 'tr');
	createCalendarDayHeader(row, 1);
	createCalendarDayRowsSingle(calendar, year, mon);
}
//}}}
//{{{
function createCalendarYear(calendar, year)
{
	var row;
	row = createTiddlyElement(calendar, 'tr');
	var back = createTiddlyElement(row, 'td');
	var backHandler = function() {
		removeChildren(calendar);
		createCalendarYear(calendar, parseInt(year)-1);
		return false; // consume click
	};
	createTiddlyButton(back, '<', 'Previous year', backHandler);
	back.align = 'center';
	var yearHeader = createTiddlyElement(row, 'td', null, 'calendarYear', year);
	yearHeader.align = 'center';
	yearHeader.setAttribute('colSpan',config.options.chkDisplayWeekNumbers?22:19);//wn**
	var fwd = createTiddlyElement(row, 'td');
	var fwdHandler = function() {
		removeChildren(calendar);
		createCalendarYear(calendar, parseInt(year)+1);
		return false; // consume click
	};
	createTiddlyButton(fwd, '>', 'Next year', fwdHandler);
	fwd.align = 'center';
	createCalendarMonthRow(calendar, year, 0);
	createCalendarMonthRow(calendar, year, 3);
	createCalendarMonthRow(calendar, year, 6);
	createCalendarMonthRow(calendar, year, 9);
}
//}}}
//{{{
function createCalendarMonthRow(cal, year, mon)
{
	var row = createTiddlyElement(cal, 'tr');
	createCalendarMonthHeader(cal, row, config.macros.calendar.monthnames[mon], false, year, mon);
	createCalendarMonthHeader(cal, row, config.macros.calendar.monthnames[mon+1], false, year, mon);
	createCalendarMonthHeader(cal, row, config.macros.calendar.monthnames[mon+2], false, year, mon);
	row = createTiddlyElement(cal, 'tr');
	createCalendarDayHeader(row, 3);
	createCalendarDayRows(cal, year, mon);
}
//}}}
//{{{
function createCalendarMonthHeader(cal, row, name, nav, year, mon)
{
	var month;
	if (nav) {
		var back = createTiddlyElement(row, 'td');
		back.align = 'center';
		back.style.background = config.macros.calendar.monthbg;

		var backMonHandler = function() {
			var newyear = year;
			var newmon = mon-1;
			if(newmon == -1) { newmon = 11; newyear = newyear-1;}
			removeChildren(cal);
			cacheReminders(new Date(newyear, newmon , 1, 0, 0), 31);
			createCalendarOneMonth(cal, newyear, newmon);
			return false; // consume click
		};
		createTiddlyButton(back, '<', 'Previous month', backMonHandler);
		month = createTiddlyElement(row, 'td', null, 'calendarMonthname')
		createTiddlyLink(month,name,true);
		month.setAttribute('colSpan', config.options.chkDisplayWeekNumbers?6:5);//wn**
		var fwd = createTiddlyElement(row, 'td');
		fwd.align = 'center';
		fwd.style.background = config.macros.calendar.monthbg; 

		var fwdMonHandler = function() {
			var newyear = year;
			var newmon = mon+1;
			if(newmon == 12) { newmon = 0; newyear = newyear+1;}
			removeChildren(cal);
			cacheReminders(new Date(newyear, newmon , 1, 0, 0), 31);
			createCalendarOneMonth(cal, newyear, newmon);
			return false; // consume click
		};
		createTiddlyButton(fwd, '>', 'Next month', fwdMonHandler);
	} else {
		month = createTiddlyElement(row, 'td', null, 'calendarMonthname', name)
		month.setAttribute('colSpan',config.options.chkDisplayWeekNumbers?8:7);//wn**
	}
	month.align = 'center';
	month.style.background = config.macros.calendar.monthbg;
}
//}}}
//{{{
function createCalendarDayHeader(row, num)
{
	var cell;
	for(var i = 0; i < num; i++) {
		if (config.options.chkDisplayWeekNumbers) createTiddlyElement(row, 'td');//wn**
		for(var j = 0; j < 7; j++) {
			var d = j + (config.options.txtCalFirstDay - 0);
			if(d > 6) d = d - 7;
			cell = createTiddlyElement(row, 'td', null, null, config.macros.calendar.daynames[d]);
			if(d == (config.options.txtCalStartOfWeekend-0) || d == (config.options.txtCalStartOfWeekend-0+1))
				cell.style.background = config.macros.calendar.weekendbg;
		}
	}
}
//}}}
//{{{
function createCalendarDays(row, col, first, max, year, mon) {
	var i;
	if (config.options.chkDisplayWeekNumbers){
		if (first<=max) {
			var ww = new Date(year,mon,first);
			var td=createTiddlyElement(row, 'td');//wn**
			var link=createTiddlyLink(td,ww.formatString(config.options.txtWeekNumberLinkFormat),false);
			link.appendChild(document.createTextNode(
				ww.formatString(config.options.txtWeekNumberDisplayFormat)));
		}
		else createTiddlyElement(row, 'td');//wn**
	}
	for(i = 0; i < col; i++)
		createTiddlyElement(row, 'td');
	var day = first;
	for(i = col; i < 7; i++) {
		var d = i + (config.options.txtCalFirstDay - 0);
		if(d > 6) d = d - 7;
		var daycell = createTiddlyElement(row, 'td');
		var isaWeekend=((d==(config.options.txtCalStartOfWeekend-0)
			|| d==(config.options.txtCalStartOfWeekend-0+1))?true:false);
		if(day > 0 && day <= max) {
			var celldate = new Date(year, mon, day);
			// ELS 10/30/05 - use <<date>> macro's showDate() function to create popup
			// ELS 05/29/06 - use journalDateFmt 
			if (window.showDate) showDate(daycell,celldate,'popup','DD',
				config.macros.calendar.journalDateFmt,true, isaWeekend);
			else {
				if(isaWeekend) daycell.style.background = config.macros.calendar.weekendbg;
				var title = celldate.formatString(config.macros.calendar.journalDateFmt);
				if(calendarIsHoliday(celldate))
					daycell.style.background = config.macros.calendar.holidaybg;
				var now=new Date();
				if ((now-celldate>=0) && (now-celldate<86400000)) // is today?
					daycell.style.background = config.macros.calendar.todaybg;
				if(window.findTiddlersWithReminders == null) {
					var link = createTiddlyLink(daycell, title, false);
					link.appendChild(document.createTextNode(day));
				} else
					var button = createTiddlyButton(daycell, day, title, onClickCalendarDate);
			}
		}
		day++;
	}
}
//}}}
//{{{
// Create a pop-up containing:
// * a link to a tiddler for this date
// * a 'new tiddler' link to add a reminder for this date
// * links to current reminders for this date
// NOTE: this code is only used if [[ReminderMacros]] is installed AND [[DatePlugin]] is //not// installed.
function onClickCalendarDate(ev) { ev=ev||window.event;
	var d=new Date(this.getAttribute('title')); var date=d.formatString(config.macros.calendar.journalDateFmt);
	var p=Popup.create(this);  if (!p) return;
	createTiddlyLink(createTiddlyElement(p,'li'),date,true);
	var rem='\\n\\<\\<reminder day:%0 month:%1 year:%2 title: \\>\\>';
	rem=rem.format([d.getDate(),d.getMonth()+1,d.getYear()+1900]);
	var cmd="<<newTiddler label:[[new reminder...]] prompt:[[add a new reminder to '%0']]"
		+" title:[[%0]] text:{{store.getTiddlerText('%0','')+'%1'}} tag:%2>>";
	wikify(cmd.format([date,rem,config.options.txtCalendarReminderTags]),p);
	createTiddlyElement(p,'hr');
	var t=findTiddlersWithReminders(d,[0,31],null,1);
	for(var i=0; i<t.length; i++) {
		var link=createTiddlyLink(createTiddlyElement(p,'li'), t[i].tiddler, false);
		link.appendChild(document.createTextNode(t[i]['params']['title']));
	}
	Popup.show(); ev.cancelBubble=true; if (ev.stopPropagation) ev.stopPropagation(); return false;
}
//}}}
//{{{
function calendarMaxDays(year, mon)
{
	var max = config.macros.calendar.monthdays[mon];
	if(mon == 1 && (year % 4) == 0 && ((year % 100) != 0 || (year % 400) == 0)) max++;
	return max;
}
//}}}
//{{{
function createCalendarDayRows(cal, year, mon)
{
	var row = createTiddlyElement(cal, 'tr');
	var first1 = (new Date(year, mon, 1)).getDay() -1 - (config.options.txtCalFirstDay-0);
	if(first1 < 0) first1 = first1 + 7;
	var day1 = -first1 + 1;
	var first2 = (new Date(year, mon+1, 1)).getDay() -1 - (config.options.txtCalFirstDay-0);
	if(first2 < 0) first2 = first2 + 7;
	var day2 = -first2 + 1;
	var first3 = (new Date(year, mon+2, 1)).getDay() -1 - (config.options.txtCalFirstDay-0);
	if(first3 < 0) first3 = first3 + 7;
	var day3 = -first3 + 1;

	var max1 = calendarMaxDays(year, mon);
	var max2 = calendarMaxDays(year, mon+1);
	var max3 = calendarMaxDays(year, mon+2);

	while(day1 <= max1 || day2 <= max2 || day3 <= max3) {
		row = createTiddlyElement(cal, 'tr');
		createCalendarDays(row, 0, day1, max1, year, mon); day1 += 7;
		createCalendarDays(row, 0, day2, max2, year, mon+1); day2 += 7;
		createCalendarDays(row, 0, day3, max3, year, mon+2); day3 += 7;
	}
}
//}}}
//{{{
function createCalendarDayRowsSingle(cal, year, mon)
{
	var row = createTiddlyElement(cal, 'tr');
	var first1 = (new Date(year, mon, 1)).getDay() -1 - (config.options.txtCalFirstDay-0);
	if(first1 < 0) first1 = first1+ 7;
	var day1 = -first1 + 1;
	var max1 = calendarMaxDays(year, mon);
	while(day1 <= max1) {
		row = createTiddlyElement(cal, 'tr');
		createCalendarDays(row, 0, day1, max1, year, mon); day1 += 7;
	}
}
//}}}
//{{{
setStylesheet('.calendar, .calendar table, .calendar th, .calendar tr, .calendar td { text-align:center; } .calendar, .calendar a { margin:0px !important; padding:0px !important; }', 'calendarStyles');
//}}}
{{twocolumns{
As the debate intensifies between those for and against nanotechnology, the Committee on Social Affairs, Health and Sustainable Development of the Parliamentary Assembly proposed that the <html><a href="http://www.coe.int/aboutCoe/index.asp?page=quisommesnous&l=en" title="The Council of Europe, based in Strasbourg (France), now covers virtually the entire European continent, with its 47 member countries. Founded on 5 May 1949 by 10 countries, the Council of Europe seeks to develop throughout Europe common and democratic principles based on the European Convention on Human Rights and other reference texts on the protection of individuals. ">Council of Europe</a></html> should draw up legal standards ''which would be designed to protect citizens, while encouraging the potential beneficial use of nanotechnology''.

In a draft report by [[Valeriy Sudarenkov|http://assembly.coe.int/ASP/AssemblyList/AL_MemberDetails.asp?MemberID=3720]] (Russian Federation, Socialist Group), the committee acknowledges the potential for enormous benefits (particularly in the medical field) but also expresses concern about the as yet little known threats to public health and the environment despite the fact that nanotechnology is already widely used in commercial applications (such as sunscreen products).

The draft report therefore recommends drawing up guidelines based on the precautionary principle. It should be possible to apply these guidelines systematically regardless of the origin of the nanomaterials concerned and help to harmonise the relevant regulations, particularly with regard to risk assessment and risk management methods, protection of researchers, consumer protection and information, and reporting and registration requirements. Source: From [[Nanotechnology – for or against? PACE Committee plans to draw up legal standards to protect European citizens|http://assembly.coe.int/ASP/NewsManager/EMB_NewsManagerView.asp?ID=8173]]. The draft report is ''[["Nanotechnology: balancing benefits and risks to public health and the environment"|http://www.assembly.coe.int/Communication/Asocdoc27rev_2012.pdf]]'' by [[Valeriy Sudarenkov|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XrgsdrtkY0I]].

''Related news'' list by date, most recent first: <<matchTags popup sort:-created regulation>><<matchTags popup sort:-created [[public opinion]]>><<matchTags popup sort:-created [[national initiatives]]>>
<<tiddler [[random suggestion]]>>

<<tiddler Twitter>>
}}}
{{twocolumns{
As co chair of the IMERA Art Science program I am pleased to bring to your attention

''IMERA, the Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies (http://www.imera.fr), has issued a call for proposals for art science residencies with a deadline of January 31 2011.''

We seek residencies by either artists ( all disciplines) or scientists (all disciplines, soft and hard) who wish to engage in collaborative art-science projects that result in joint outcomes ( publications, artworks, Exhibitions, patents) that address ‘the human conditions of the sciences”.

For the international year of chemistry ( http://www.chemistry2011.org/  ) we are particularly interested in  art science projects involving chemistry and nanoscience. Current residents include nano scientist Jim Gimzewski ( http://artsci.ucla.edu/?q=people/james_gimzewski  ) co director of the UCLA Art-Sci Lab. IMERA advisors include nano scientist Guy Lelay (http://sysweb.cinam.univ-mrs.fr/cinam/spip.php?rubrique35) and chemist Denis Bertin (http://www.lc-provence.fr/)

''Related news'' list by date, most recent first: <<matchTags popup sort:-created art>>
''Share this content on Twitter:'' <html><a href="http://twitter.com/share" class="twitter-share-button" data-count="horizontal" data-via="nanowiki">Tweet</a></html><script src="http://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" show></script>
}}}
{{twocolumns{
Biomaterials are increasingly being used to replace human organs and tissues. Since biomaterials are susceptible to microbial colonization, silver is often added to reduce the adhesion of bacteria to biomaterials and prevent infections. However, a recent study by researchers in Portugal suggests that – in one material – increasing levels of silver may indirectly promote bacterial adhesion.

The study examined how surface properties affect the adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria to silver-titanium carbonitride (Ag-TiCN) coatings used for hip implant applications.

Normally found on human skin and mucous membranes, Staphyloccus epidermidis is one of the main pathogens associated with prosthetic device infections. A nanocomposite thin film, titanium carbonitride is non-toxic to human cells and features excellent wear resistance, high hardness and good corrosion resistance.

<html><img style="float:left; margin-bottom:10px" src="img/Staphyloccocus_epidermidis.jpg" title="SEM micrographs of S. epidermidis IE186 adhered to Ag-TiCN coatings after 2 h and 24 h period of contact: adhesion and biofilm formation to Ag/Ti = 0 a1) and a2) respectively; to Ag/Ti = 0.37 b1) and b2) respectively; to Ag/Ti = 0.62 c1) and c2) respectively. Credit: I. Carvalho et al. Sci. " class="photo"  width="100%"/></html>Previous studies have shown that the adhesion of bacteria to biomaterials can be affected by the surface properties of bacteria, the surface properties of the material, and environmental conditions. In this study, Isabel Carvalho and her colleagues found that as the silver content of Ag-TiCN films increased from 0 to 15 percent, the surface roughness of the films decreased from 39 nm to 7 nm, while the hydrophobicity of the surface increased.

In addition, the study found that surfaces that were less rough and more hydrophobic were associated with greater bacterial adhesion. This suggests that increasing levels of silver in Ag-TiCN thin films may promote bacterial adhesion via a hydrophobic effect. Source: From [[Can silver promote the colonization of bacteria on medical devices?|http://www.researchsea.com/html/article.php/aid/7766/cid/3/research/can_silver_promote_the_colonization_of_bacteria_on_medical_devices_.html]]. This work is detailed in the paper ''[["Influence of surface features on the adhesion of Staphyloccocus epidermidis to Ag–TiCN thin films"|http://iopscience.iop.org/1468-6996/14/3/035009/]]'' by Isabel Carvalho, Mariana Henriques, João Carlos Oliveira, Cristiana Filipa Almeida Alves, Ana Paula Piedade and Sandra Carvalho.

''Context:''
May 16, 2013. [[Bacteria adapt to antimicrobial nanosilver]]

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A research group led by Professor Noriaki Ohuchi, Senior Assistant Professor Kohsuke Gonda at Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University and Professor Hideo Higuchi at Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo has developed an optical system to image with a spatial precision of 9 nanometer in vivo. The optical system enables to visualize protein and drug at single molecular level in tumor-bearing mice which is implanted with human breast cancer cells. The most terrible biological property of cancer is its ability to spread to other organs. The research group labeled the metastasis-promoting protein on the cell membrane with fluorescence particle and has analyzed the protein dynamics with the newly developed optical device. In this study, they firstly discovered following cancer mechanisms using mice:
1. A change of cell morphology is important for cancer metastasis.
2. Cancer cells showed increases in migration speed (diffusion speed) of membrane protein (over 1000-fold) with progression of metastasis. The change of migration speed is important for activation of cancer metastasis.

''A cancer metastasis mechanism at molecular level has long been unknown because a spatial precision of previous in vivo imaging was at micrometer level. This study enable to visualize the mechanism of cancer metastasis at molecular level''. The results are expected to clarify an activation mechanism of cancer metastasis, evaluate malignant grade by mesuring membrane protein migration speed, and develop a new treatment with improved anticancer drug. Source: [[Visualization of a cancer metastasis mechanism at nanometer level: Discovery of dramatic changes of membrane dynamics in cancer cells during metastasis|http://www.tohoku.ac.jp/english/2010/02/eng-achieve-20100203-01.html]]. This work is detailed in the paper [[“In vivo nano-imaging of membrane dynamics in metastatic tumor cells using quantum dots”|http://www.jbc.org/content/early/2009/11/16/jbc.M109.075374.abstract]] by Kohsuke Gonda, Tomonobu M. Watanabe, Noriaki Ohuchi and Hideo Higuchi.

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<html><img style="float:left; margin-right:10px" src="img/candle.jpg" title="Professor Wuzong Zhou seeing a candle. Credit: Courtesy of University of St Andrews" class="photo"  width="95%"/></html>The flickering flame of a candle has generated comparisons with the twinkling sparkle of diamonds for centuries, but new research has discovered the likeness owes more to science than the dreams of poets.

Professor Wuzong Zhou, Professor of Chemistry at the University of St Andrews has discovered tiny diamond particles exist in candle flames.

His research has made a scientific leap towards solving a mystery which has befuddled people for thousands of years.

Since the first candle was invented in ancient China more than 2,000 years ago, many have longed to know what hidden secrets its flames contained.

Professor Zhou's investigation revealed ''around 1.5 million diamond nanoparticles are created every second in a candle flame as it burns''.

The leading academic revealed he uncovered the secret ingredient after a challenge from a fellow scientist in combustion.

Professor Zhou said: "A colleague at another university said to me: "Of course no-one knows what a candle flame is actually made of."

"I told him I believed science could explain everything eventually, so I decided to find out."

Using a new sampling technique, assisted by his student Mr Zixue Su, he invented himself, he was able to remove particles from the centre of the flame – something never successfully achieved before – and found to his surprise that ''a candle flame contains all four known forms of carbon''.

Professor Zhou said: "This was a surprise because each form is usually created under different conditions."

At the bottom of the flame, it was already known that hydro-carbon molecules existed which were converted into carbon dioxide by the top of the flame.

But the process in between remained a mystery.

Now both diamond nanoparticles and fullerenic particles have been discovered in the centre of the flame, along with graphitic and amorphous carbon.

The discovery could lead to future research into how diamonds, a key substance in industry, could be created more cheaply, and in a more environmentally friendly way.

Professor Zhou added: "Unfortunately the diamond particles are burned away in the process, and converted into carbon dioxide, but this will change the way we view a candle flame forever."

The famous scientist Michael Faraday in his celebrated 19th century lectures on "The Chemical History of a Candle" said in an 1860 address to the light: "You have the glittering beauty of gold and silver, and the still higher lustre of jewels, like the ruby and diamond; but none of these rival the brilliancy and beauty of flame. What diamond can shine like flame?"

Rosey Barnet, Artistic Director of one of Scotland’s biggest candle manufacturers, Shearer Candles, described the finding as "exciting".

She said: "We were thrilled to hear about the discovery that diamond particles exist in a candle flame.

"Although currently there is no way of extracting these particles, it is still an exciting find and one that could change the way people view candles. The research at St Andrews University will be of interest to the entire candle making industry. We always knew candles added sparkle to a room but now scientific research has provided us with more insight into why." Source: [[Candle flames contain millions of tiny diamonds|http://www.st-andrews.ac.uk/news/archive/2011/Title,72748,en.html]]

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''Imagine a car which body also serves as a rechargeable battery. A battery that stores braking energy while you drive and that also stores energy when you plug in the car overnight to recharge''. At the moment this is just a fascinating idea, but tests are currently under way to see if the vision can be transformed into reality. Volvo Cars is one out of nine participants in an international materials development project.

Among the foremost challenges in the development of hybrids and electric cars are the size, weight and cost of the current generation of batteries. In order to deliver sufficient capacity using today's technology, it is necessary to fit large batteries, which in turn increases the car's weight.

Earlier this year, a [[materials development project was launched by Imperial College|http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/newsandeventspggrp/imperialcollege/newssummary/news_5-2-2010-10-26-39]] in London that brings together nine European companies and institutes. Volvo Cars is the only car manufacturer participating in the project. With the help of 35 million SEK (approx. 3.5 million EURO) in financial support from the European Union (EU), ''a composite blend of carbon fibres and polymer resin is being developed that can store and charge more energy faster than conventional batteries can. At the same time, the material is extremely strong and pliant, which means it can be shaped for use in building the car's body panels''. According to calculations, the car's weight could be cut by as much as 15 percent if steel body panels were replaced with the new material.

The project will continue for three years. In the first stage, work focuses both on developing the composite material so it can store more energy and on studying ways of producing the material on an industrial scale. Only in the final stage will the battery be fitted to a car.

"Our role is to contribute expertise on how this technology can be integrated in the future and to input ideas about the advantages and disadvantages in terms of cost and user-friendliness," says Per-Ivar Sellergren, development engineer at the Volvo Cars Materials Centre.

Initially, the car's spare wheel recess will be converted into a composite battery. "This is a relatively large structure that is easy to replace. Not sufficiently large to power the entire car, but enough to switch the engine off and on when the car is at a standstill, for instance at traffic lights," says Per-Ivar Sellergren.

If the project is successful, there are many possible application areas. For instance, mobile phones will be able to be as slim as credit cards and laptops will manage longer without needing to be recharged. Source: From [[Tomorrow's Volvo car: body panels serve as the car battery|https://www.media.volvocars.com/global/enhanced/en-gb/media/preview.aspx?mediaid=35026]]


The researchers say that the composite material that they are developing, which is made of carbon fibres and a polymer resin, will store and discharge large amounts of energy much more quickly than conventional batteries. In addition, ''the material does not use chemical processes, making it quicker to recharge than conventional batteries. Furthermore, this recharging process causes little degradation in the composite material, because it does not involve a chemical reaction, whereas conventional batteries degrade over time''.

For the first stage of the project, the scientists are planning to further develop their composite material so that it can store more energy. The team will improve the material’s mechanical properties by growing carbon nanotubes on the surface of the carbon fibres, which should also increase the surface area of the material, which would improve its capacity to store more energy. Source: From [[Cars of the future could be powered by their bodywork thanks to new battery technology|http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/newsandeventspggrp/imperialcollege/newssummary/news_5-2-2010-10-26-39]]

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Earth’s carbon cycle is overburdened. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a [[Berkeley Lab|http://www.lbl.gov/LBL-PID/LBL-Overview.html]] initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Lab’s diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future.

Carbon Cycle 2.0 means collaboration 2.0: tackling one of the greatest challenges facing the nation and world will require an urgent and more creative take on the kind of cross-disciplinary problem solving needed to bridge the gap between basic and applied research. In the spirit of what made Berkeley Lab great, the entire Lab community must take initiative and engage on CC2.0 for it to be a success. Source: [[Berkeley Lab - Carbon Cycle 2.0|http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/]]


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"With carbon, we know how to make things very small," said Ohldag. "On the other hand we know a lot about how to process and store information using magnetism. This opens up the door for future studies that will lead to improved magnetism in carbon that could one day we will be able to combine the ‘magnetic' and the ‘carbon' world."

Harnessing the magnetic properties of carbon could one day revolutionize a range of fields from nanotechnology to electronics. Carbon nanodevices could be built one atom at a time, leading to miniaturized machines and lightweight electronics. Magnetism, which forms the basis of information storage and processing in computer hard drives, could be employed in novel ways in tomorrow's electronic devices. 

Source: [[Carbon Joins the Magnetic Club|http://www.physorg.com/news98111007.html]]

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Next Alternative Inc. introduces Carbon Nanotube Technology with a car battery that has eight times the charge capacity of a regular battery and recharges in just minutes.

[[Next Alternative Inc.|http://www.next-alternative.com]] wants to steer the future of the electric car and the U.S. auto industry itself into greener, and much more distant, pastures. Destinations that were once unattainable by the most efficient battery-powered cars will be an easy road trip with one of the company's new [[Carbon Nano Tube|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_nanotube]] batteries (CNT Battery) under the hood.

With 8 times the Reserve Capacity (RC) of typical lead/acid batteries, ''CNT Battery technology allows cars to travel hundreds of miles between charges, up to an estimated 380 miles per charge. Even more impressive, CNT Batteries recharge in ten minutes from a regular electrical outlet'', about the time it takes for a highway road trip pit stop. An hour's worth of recharging could add up to a pollution-free, coast-to-coast trip through Capitol Hill. The battery can be modified to the specifications of existing batteries.

''CNT batteries provide the hybrid and electric car markets with a battery that far exceeds anything currently available to them at this time''. [[Micro Bubble Technology, Inc. (MBTI)|http://www.microbubbletech.com/CNTbattery.html]], based in South Korea, developed CNT Battery technology. Carbon Nanotubes are tiny tubular structures composed of a single layer of carbon atoms. MBTI developed a proprietary method of coating the anode, cathodes and modifying the electrolyte with Carbon Nano Tubes. The diminutive tubes hold 8 times as much energy as the lead in lead/acid batteries, and can hold a minimum of 2 times as much energy as rechargeable lithium batteries.

"CNT Batteries are superior to lead/acid batteries, lithium batteries and the silicone batteries powering electric cars today. Silicone based batteries perform better than current lead/acid batteries but do not allow electric vehicles to have a long range and require lengthy recharge times. Lithium-based batteries are expensive to produce and have lengthy recharge times. CNT technology will revolutionize the electric car industry, propelling it forward with battery that gives cars a much longer range and minimal recharge time." Next Alternative, Inc., President and CEO, Robert Ireland

As the U.S. government pushes for less dependence on fossil fuels through the development of alternative energy solutions, and leans on auto manufactures to create greener, more fuel efficient vehicles, the introduction of CNT batteries may just give the U.S. auto manufacturers the extra boost to help get their businesses back up to speed. Source: From ''[[Could Carbon Nano Tube Batteries Help Drive the Recovery of the Auto Manufacturers?|http://www.prweb.com/releases/2009/08/prweb2732154.htm]]''.

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Cables made of carbon nanotubes are inching toward electrical conductivities seen in metal wires, and that may light up interest among a range of industries, according to Rice University researchers. A Rice lab made such a cable from double-walled carbon nanotubes and powered a fluorescent light bulb at standard line voltage -- ''a true test of the novel material's ability to stake a claim in energy systems of the future''. 

<html><img style="float:left; margin-right:10px" src="img/cnt_wiring.jpg" title="Rice University researchers, from left, Robert Vajtai, Enrique Barrera and Yao Zhao have created a conductive cable from iodine-doped nanotubes capable of carrying household current. (Credit: Jeff Fitlow/Rice University)" class="photo"  width="50%"/></html>Highly conductive nanotube-based cables could be just as efficient as traditional metals at a sixth of the weight, said Enrique Barrera, a Rice professor of mechanical engineering and materials science. They may find wide use first in applications where weight is a critical factor, such as airplanes and automobiles, and in the future could even replace traditional wiring in homes.

The cables developed in the study are spun from pristine nanotubes and can be tied together without losing their conductivity. To increase conductivity of the cables, the team doped them with iodine and the cables remained stable. The conductivity-to-weight ratio (called specific conductivity) beats metals, including copper and silver, and is second only to the metal with highest specific conductivity, sodium.

Yao Zhao built the demo rig that let him toggle power through the nanocable and replace conventional copper wire in the light-bulb circuit. Zhao left the bulb burning for days on end, with no sign of degradation in the nanotube cable. He's also reasonably sure the cable is mechanically robust; tests showed the nanocable to be just as strong and tough as metals it would replace, and it worked in a wide range of temperatures. Zhao also found that tying two pieces of the cable together did not hinder their ability to conduct electricity.

The few centimeters of cable demonstrated in the present study seems short, but spinning billions of nanotubes (supplied by research partner Tsinghua University) into a cable at all is quite a feat, Barrera said. The chemical processes used to grow and then align nanotubes will ultimately be part of a larger process that begins with raw materials and ends with a steady stream of nanocable, he said. The next stage would be to make longer, thicker cables that carry higher current while keeping the wire lightweight. "We really want to go better than what copper or other metals can offer overall," he said. Source: From [[Nanocables light way to the future|http://www.media.rice.edu/media/NewsBot.asp?MODE=VIEW&ID=16123&SnID=857839210]]. Rice researchers power line-voltage light bulb with nanotube wire. This work was detailed in the paper [["Iodine doped carbon nanotube cables exceeding specific electrical conductivity of metals”|http://www.nature.com/srep/2011/110906/srep00083/full/srep00083.html]] <<slider chkSldr [[Iodine doped carbon nanotube cables exceeding specific electrical conductivity of metals]]  [[Abstract»]] [[read abstract of the paper]]>>

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The [[Stanford Nanoelectronics Lab|http://nano.stanford.edu/]] presents an 8-minute educational short, funded by the National Science Foundation, on Nanotechnology and Carbon Nanotubes.  The video content is completely student-created, from directing, casting, to even animation, with some technical assistance from Silicon Run Productions.

The Stanford Nanoelectronics Group was founded in September 2004 by [[H.-S. Philip Wong|http://www.stanford.edu/~hspwong/]]. The group's research interests are in nanoscale science and technology, semiconductor technology, solid state devices, and electronic imaging. The group is interested in exploring new materials, novel fabrication techniques, and novel device concepts for future nanoelectronic systems. These devices often require new concepts in circuit and system designs. The group's research also includes explorations into circuits and systems that are device-driven.

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Scientists has shown for the first time that carbon nanotubes can be broken down by an enzyme - myeloperoxidase (MPO) - found in white blood cells. ''Their discoveries contradict what was previously believed, that carbon nanotubes are not broken down in the body or in nature''. The scientists hope that this new understanding of how MPO converts carbon nanotubes into water and carbon dioxide can be of significance to medicine.

"Previous studies have shown that carbon nanotubes could be used for introducing drugs or other substances into human cells," says Bengt Fadeel, associate professor at the Swedish medical university Karolinska Institutet. ''"The problem has been not knowing how to control the breakdown of the nanotubes, which can caused unwanted toxicity and tissue damage. Our study now shows how they can be broken down biologically into harmless components."''

Carbon nanotubes are a material consisting of a single layer of carbon atoms rolled into a tube with a diameter of only a couple of nanometres (1 nanometer = 1 billionth of a metre) and a length that can range from tens of nanometres up to several micrometers. Carbon nanotubes are lighter and stronger than steel, and have exceptional heat-conductive and electrical properties. They are manufactured on an industrial scale, mainly for engineering purposes but also for some consumer products.

Carbon nanotubes were once considered biopersistent in that they did not break down in body tissue or in nature. In recent years, research has shown that laboratory animals exposed to carbon nanotubes via inhalation or through injection into the abdominal cavity develop severe inflammation. This and the tissue changes (fibrosis) that exposure causes lead to impaired lung function and perhaps even to cancer. For example, a year or two ago, alarming reports by other scientists suggested that carbon nanotubes are very similar to asbestos fibres, which are themselves biopersistent and which can cause lung cancer (mesothelioma) in humans a considerable time after exposure.

This current study thus represents a breakthrough in nanotechnology and nanotoxicology, since it clearly shows that endogenous MPO can break down carbon nanotubes. This enzyme is expressed in certain types of white blood cell (neutrophils), which use it to neutralise harmful bacteria. Now, however, the researchers have found that the enzyme also works on carbon nanotubes, breaking them down into water and carbon dioxide. The researchers also showed that carbon nanotubes that have been broken down by MPO no longer give rise to inflammation in mice.

"This means that there might be a way to render carbon nanotubes harmless, for example in the event of an accident at a production plant," says Dr Fadeel. "But the findings are also relevant to the future use of carbon nanotubes for medical purposes."

The work was conducted as part of the [[NANOMMUNE project|http://www.nanommune.eu/]], which is coordinated by associate professor [[Bengt Fadeel|http://ki.se/ki/jsp/polopoly.jsp?d=24857&a=20446&l=en]] of the Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, and which comprises a total of thirteen research groups in Europe and the USA.

Source: [[New study on carbon nanotubes gives hope for medical applications|http://ki.se/ki/jsp/polopoly.jsp?d=2637&a=98408&l=en&newsdep=2637]]. This work is detailed in the paper ''[[Carbon nanotubes degraded by neutrophil myeloperoxidase induce less pulmonary inflammation|http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/vaop/ncurrent/abs/nnano.2010.44.html]]'' by Valerian E. Kagan, Nagarjun V. Konduru, Weihong Feng, Brett L. Allen, Jennifer Conroy, Yuri Volkov, Irina I. Vlasova, Natalia A. Belikova, Naveena Yanamala, Alexander Kapralov, Yulia Y. Tyurina, Jingwen Shi, Elena R. Kisin, Ashley R. Murray, Jonathan Franks, Donna Stolz, Pingping Gou, Judith Klein-Seetharaman, Bengt Fadeel, Alexander Star, Anna Shvedova

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Research done by scientists in Italy and Switzerland has shown that ''carbon nanotubes may be the ideal “smart” brain material''. Their results are a promising step forward in the search to find ways to “bypass” faulty brain wiring.

The research shows that ''carbon nanotubes, which, like neurons, are highly electrically conductive, form extremely tight contacts with neuronal cell membranes''. Unlike the metal electrodes that are currently used in research and clinical applications, the nanotubes can create shortcuts between the distal and proximal compartments of the neuron, resulting in enhanced neuronal excitability.

The study was conducted in the [[Laboratory of Neural Microcircuitry|http://bmi.epfl.ch/page61216.html]] at EPFL in Switzerland and led by [[Michel Giugliano|http://www.giugliano.info/pro/]] (now an assistant professor at the University of Antwerp) and University of Trieste professor [[Laura Ballerini|http://www.neuronano.net/PeopleData.aspx?Action=Data&IdPartner=1&IdPeople=1]]. ''“This result is extremely relevant for the emerging field of neuro-engineering and neuroprosthetics,”'' explains Giugliano, who hypothesizes that the nanotubes could be used as a new building block of novel “electrical bypass” systems for treating traumatic injury of the central nervous system. Carbon nano-electrodes could also be used to replace metal parts in clinical applications such as deep brain stimulation for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease or severe depression. And they show promise as a whole new class of “smart” materials for use in a wide range of potential neuroprosthetic applications.

[[Henry Markram|http://people.epfl.ch/henry.markram]], head of the Laboratory of Neural Microcircuitry and an author on the paper, adds: “There are three fundamental obstacles to developing reliable neuroprosthetics: 1) stable interfacing of electromechanical devices with neural tissue, 2) understanding how to stimulate the neural tissue, and 3) understanding what signals to record from the neurons in order for the device to make an automatic and appropriate decision to stimulate. The new carbon nanotube-based interface technology discovered together with state of the art simulations of brain-machine interfaces is the key to developing all types of neuroprosthetics -- sight, sound, smell, motion, vetoing epileptic attacks, spinal bypasses, as well as repairing and even enhancing cognitive functions.”

Source: [[New “smart” materials for the brain|http://actualites.epfl.ch/presseinfo-com?id=693]]. This work is detailed in the paper [[Carbon nanotubes might improve neuronal performance by favouring electrical shortcuts|http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/vaop/ncurrent/abs/nnano.2008.374.html]] by Giada Cellot, Emanuele Cilia, Sara Cipollone, Vladimir Rancic, Antonella Sucapane, Silvia Giordani, Luca Gambazzi, Henry Markram, Micaela Grandolfo, Denis Scaini, Fabrizio Gelain, Loredana Casalis, Maurizio Prato, Michele Giugliano and Laura Ballerini

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Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have provided evidence in the laboratory that single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) may help protect DNA molecules from damage by oxidation. In nature, oxidation is a common chemical process in which a reactive chemical removes electrons from DNA and may increase the chance for mutations in cells. More studies are needed to see if the in vitro protective effect of nanotubes reported in the laboratory also occurs in vivo, that is, within a living organism.

"Our findings don't tell us whether carbon nanotubes are good or bad for people and the environment," says [[Elijah Petersen|http://www.nist.gov/mml/bbd/cell_systems/elijah_petersen.cfm]], one of the authors of the study. "However, ''the results do help us better understand the mechanisms by which nanotubes might interact with biomolecules''."

<html><img style="float:left; margin-right:10px; margin-bottom:5px" src="img/nanotubes_srm.jpg" title="Scanning electron microscope image of a typical sample of the NIST single-wall carbon nanotube soot standard reference material. Recent NIST research suggests that, at least in the laboratory, carbon nanotubes may help protect DNA molecules from damage by oxidation. The image shows an area just over a micrometer wide. (Color added for clarity.) Credit: Vladar, NIST" class="photo"  width="50%"/></html>Single-wall carbon nanotubes—tiny hollow rods that are one-atom-thick sheets of graphene rolled into cylinders 10,000 times smaller in diameter than a human hair—are prized for their extraordinary optical, mechanical, thermal and electronic properties. They are being used to produce lightweight and extremely strong materials, enhance the capabilities of devices such as sensors, and provide a novel means of delivering drugs with great specificity. However, as carbon nanotubes become increasingly incorporated into consumer and medical products, the public concern about their potential environmental, health and safety (EHS) risks has grown. Scientifically determining the level of risk associated with the carbon nanotubes has been challenging, with different studies showing conflicting results on cellular toxicity. One of the components lacking in these studies is an understanding of what physically happens at the molecular level.

In a recent paper, NIST researchers investigated the impact of ultrasonication on a solution of DNA fragments known as oligomers in the presence and absence of carbon nanotubes. Ultrasonication is a standard laboratory technique that uses high-frequency sound waves to mix solutions, break open cells or process slurries. The process can break water molecules into highly reactive agents such as hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide that are similar to the oxidative chemicals that commonly threaten mammalian cell DNA, although the experimental levels from sonication are much greater than those found naturally within cells. "In our experiment, we were looking to see if the nanotubes enhanced or deterred oxidative damage to DNA," Petersen says.

Contrary to the expectation that carbon nanotubes will damage biomolecules they contact, the researchers found that overall levels of accumulated DNA damage were significantly reduced in the solutions with nanotubes present. "This suggests that the nanotubes may provide a protective effect against oxidative damage to DNA," Petersen says.

A possible explanation for the surprising result, Petersen says, is that the carbon nanotubes may act as scavengers, binding up the oxidative species in solution and preventing them from interacting with DNA. "We also saw a decrease in DNA damage when we did ultrasonication in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a chemical compound known to be a hydroxyl radical scavenger," Petersen says.

Petersen says that a third experiment where ultrasonication was performed in the presence of DMSO and SWCNTs at the same time produced an additive effect, reducing the DNA damage levels more significantly than either treatment alone.

This research is part of NIST's work to help characterize the potential EHS risks of nanomaterials, and develop methods for identifying and measuring them. Source: From [[NIST Study Suggests Carbon Nanotubes May Protect DNA from Oxidation|http://www.nist.gov/mml/bbd/dna-111412.cfm]]. This work is detailed in the paper ''[["Protective roles of single-wall carbon nanotubes in ultrasonication-induced DNA base damage"|http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/smll.201201217/abstract]]'' by E.J. Petersen, X. Tu, M. Dizdaroglu, M. Zheng and B.C. Nelson.

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Carbon nanotubes offer a powerful new way to detect harmful gases in the environment. However, the methods typically used to build carbon nanotube sensors are hazardous and not suited for large-scale production.

A new fabrication method created by MIT chemists — as simple as drawing a line on a sheet of paper — may overcome that obstacle. MIT postdoc Katherine Mirica has designed a new type of pencil lead in which graphite is replaced with a compressed powder of carbon nanotubes. The lead, which can be used with a regular mechanical pencil, can inscribe sensors on any paper surface.

<html><img style="float:left; margin-bottom:10px" src="img/drawing-nanotubes.jpg" title="MIT chemists designed a new type of pencil lead consisting of carbon nanotubes, allowing them to draw carbon nanotube sensors onto sheets of paper. Photo: Jan Schnorr" class="photo"  width="100%"/></html>The sensor detects minute amounts of ammonia gas, an industrial hazard. [[Timothy Swager,|http://web.mit.edu/chemistry/www/faculty/swager.html]] the John D. MacArthur Professor of Chemistry and leader of the research team, says the sensors could be adapted to detect nearly any type of gas. “The beauty of this is we can start doing all sorts of chemically specific functionalized materials,” Swager says. “We think we can make sensors for almost anything that’s volatile.” Other authors of the paper are graduate student Jonathan Weis and postdocs Jan Schnorr and Birgit Esser.

''Pencil it in''

Carbon nanotubes are sheets of carbon atoms rolled into cylinders that allow electrons to flow without hindrance. Such materials have been shown to be effective sensors for many gases, which bind to the nanotubes and impede electron flow. However, creating these sensors requires dissolving nanotubes in a solvent such as dichlorobenzene, using a process that can be hazardous and unreliable.

Swager and Mirica set out to create a solvent-free fabrication method based on paper. Inspired by pencils on her desk, Mirica had the idea to compress carbon nanotubes into a graphite-like material that could substitute for pencil lead.

To create sensors using their pencil, the researchers draw a line of carbon nanotubes on a sheet of paper imprinted with small electrodes made of gold. They then apply an electrical current and measure the current as it flows through the carbon nanotube strip, which acts as a resistor. If the current is altered, it means gas has bound to the carbon nanotubes.

The researchers tested their device on several different types of paper, and found that the best response came with sensors drawn on smoother papers. They also found that the sensors give consistent results even when the marks aren’t uniform.

Two major advantages of the technique are that it is inexpensive and the “pencil lead” is extremely stable, Swager says. “You can’t imagine a more stable formulation. The molecules are immobilized,” he says.

The new sensor could prove useful for a variety of applications, says Zhenan Bao, an associate professor of chemical engineering at Stanford University. “I can already think of many ways this technique can be extended to build carbon nanotube devices,” says Bao, who was not part of the research team. “Compared to other typical techniques, such as spin coating, dip coating or inkjet printing, I am impressed with the good reproducibility of sensing response they were able to get.”

''Sensors for any gas''

In this study, the researchers focused on pure carbon nanotubes, but they are now working on tailoring the sensors to detect a wide range of gases. Selectivity can be altered by adding metal atoms to the nanotube walls, or by wrapping polymers or other materials around the tubes.

[[One gas the researchers are particularly interested in is ethylene|http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2012/fruit-spoilage-sensor-0430.html]], which would be useful for monitoring the ripeness of fruit as it is shipped and stored. The team is also pursuing sensors for sulfur compounds, which might prove helpful for detecting natural gas leaks. Source: From [[Drawing a line, with carbon nanotubes|http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2012/drawing-with-a-carbon-nanotube-pencil-1009.html]] by Anne Trafton, MIT News Office. This work is detailed in the paper ''[["Mechanical Drawing of Gas Sensors on Paper"|http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/anie.201206069/abstract]]'' by Dr. Katherine A. Mirica, Jonathan G. Weis, Dr. Jan M. Schnorr, Dr. Birgit Esser, Prof. Dr. Timothy M. Swager.

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Xinghua Shi, Annette von dem Bussche, Robert H. Hurt, Agnes B. Kane & Huajian Gao. 2011. ''Nature nanotechnology. doi:10.1038/nnano.2011.151''

//Materials with high aspect ratio, such as carbon nanotubes and asbestos fibres, have been shown to cause length-dependent toxicity in certain cells because these long materials prevent complete ingestion and this frustrates the cell. Biophysical models have been proposed to explain how spheres and elliptical nanostructures enter cells but one-dimensional nanomaterials have not been examined. Here, we show experimentally and theoretically that cylindrical one-dimensional nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes enter cells through the tip first. For nanotubes with end caps or carbon shells at their tips, uptake involves tip recognition through receptor binding, rotation that is driven by asymmetric elastic strain at the tube–bilayer interface, and near-vertical entry. The precise angle of entry is governed by the relative timescales for tube rotation and receptor diffusion. Nanotubes without caps or shells on their tips show a different mode of membrane interaction, posing an interesting question as to whether modifying the tips of tubes may help avoid frustrated uptake by cells.//
Weian Zhao, Sebastian Schafer, Jonghoon Choi, Yvonne J. Yamanaka, Maria L. Lombardi, Suman Bose, Alicia L. Carlson, Joseph A. Phillips, Weisuong Teo, Ilia A. Droujinine, Cheryl H. Cui, Rakesh K. Jain, Jan Lammerding, J. Christopher Love, Charles P. Lin, Debanjan Sarkar, Rohit Karnik & Jeffrey M. Karp. 2011. ''Nature Nanotechnology doi:10.1038/nnano.2011.101''

//The ability to explore cell signalling and cell-to-cell communication is essential for understanding cell biology and developing effective therapeutics. However, it is not yet possible to monitor the interaction of cells with their environments in real time. Here, we show that a fluorescent sensor attached to a cell membrane can detect signalling molecules in the cellular environment. The sensor is an aptamer (a short length of single-stranded DNA) that binds to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and contains a pair of fluorescent dyes. When bound to PDGF, the aptamer changes conformation and the dyes come closer to each other, producing a signal. The sensor, which is covalently attached to the membranes of mesenchymal stem cells, can quantitatively detect with high spatial and temporal resolution PDGF that is added in cell culture medium or secreted by neighbouring cells. The engineered stem cells retain their ability to find their way to the bone marrow and can be monitored in vivo at the single-cell level using intravital microscopy.//
<br>//Nanoparticles are finding utility in myriad biotechnological applications, including gene regulation, intracellular imaging, and medical diagnostics. Thus, evaluating the biocompatibility of these nanomaterials is imperative. Here we use genome-wide expression profiling to study the biological response of HeLa cells to gold nanoparticles functionalized with nucleic acids. Our study finds that the biological response to gold nanoparticles stabilized by weakly bound surface ligands is significant (cells recognize and react to the presence of the particles), yet when these same nanoparticles are stably functionalized with covalently attached nucleic acids, the cell shows no measurable response. This finding is important for researchers studying and using nanomaterials in biological settings, as it demonstrates how slight changes in surface chemistry and particle stability can lead to significant differences in cellular responses.//
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If you've ever eaten from silverware or worn copper jewelry, you've been in a perfect storm in which nanoparticles were dropped into the environment, say scientists at the University of Oregon. Since the emergence of nanotechnology, researchers, regulators and the public have been concerned that the potential toxicity of nano-sized products might threaten human health by way of environmental exposure.

Now, with the help of high-powered transmission electron microscopes, chemists captured never-before-seen views of miniscule metal nanoparticles naturally being created by silver articles such as wire, jewelry and eating utensils in contact with other surfaces. It turns out, researchers say, nanoparticles have been in contact with humans for a long, long time.

The project involved researchers in the [[UO's Materials Science Institute|http://pages.uoregon.edu/msiuo/]] and the [[Safer Nanomaterials and Nanomanufacturing Initiative (SNNI)|http://www.greennano.org/]], in collaboration with UO technology spinoff [[Dune Sciences Inc|http://www.dunesciences.com/]]. SNNI is an initiative of the [[Oregon Nanoscience and Microtechnologies Institute (ONAMI)|http://onami.us/]], a state signature research center.

The research focused on understanding the dynamic behavior of silver nanoparticles on surfaces when exposed to a variety of environmental conditions. 

Using a new approach developed at UO that allows for the ''direct observation of microscopic changes in nanoparticles over time'', researchers found that silver nanoparticles deposited on the surface of their SMART Grids electron microscope slides began to transform in size, shape and particle populations within a few hours, especially when exposed to humid air, water and light.  Similar dynamic behavior and new nanoparticle formation was observed when the study was extended to look at macro-sized silver objects such as wire or jewelry.

''"Our findings show that nanoparticle 'size' may not be static, especially when particles are on surfaces. For this reason, we believe that environmental health and safety concerns should not be defined -- or regulated -- based upon size,"'' said [[James E. Hutchison|http://chemistry.uoregon.edu/fac.html?hutchison]]. "In addition, the generation of nanoparticles from objects that humans have contacted for millennia suggests that humans have been exposed to these nanoparticles throughout time. Rather than raise concern, I think this suggests that we would have already linked exposure to these materials to health hazards if there were any."

Any potential federal regulatory policies, the research team concluded, should allow for the presence of background levels of nanoparticles and their dynamic behavior in the environment.

Because copper behaved similarly, the researchers theorize that their findings represent a general phenomenon for metals readily oxidized and reduced under certain environmental conditions. "These findings," they wrote, "challenge conventional thinking about nanoparticle reactivity and imply that the production of new nanoparticles is an intrinsic property of the material that is now strongly size dependent."

While not addressed directly, Hutchison said, the naturally occurring and spontaneous activity seen in the research suggests that exposure to toxic metal ions, for example, might not be reduced simply by using larger particles in the presence of living tissue or organisms. Source: From ''[[Nanoparticles and their size may not be big issues|http://uonews.uoregon.edu/archive/news-release/2011/10/nanoparticles-and-their-size-may-not-be-big-issues]]''. This work was detailed in the paper [["Generation of Metal Nanoparticles from Silver and Copper Objects: Nanoparticle Dynamics on Surfaces and Potential Sources of Nanoparticles in the Environment”|http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/nn2031319]]

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Catalysts made of carbon nanotubes dipped in a polymer solution equal the energy output and otherwise outperform platinum catalysts in fuel cells, a team of Case Western Reserve University engineers has found. The researchers are certain that they'll be able to boost the power output and maintain the other advantages by matching the best nanotube layout and type of polymer. But already they've proved the simple technique can knock down one of the major roadblocks to fuel cell use: cost.

''Platinum, which represents at least a quarter of the cost of fuel cells, currently sells for about $65,000 per kilogram. These researchers say their activated carbon nanotubes cost about $100 per kilogram.''

"This is a breakthrough," said Liming Dai, a professor of chemical engineering and the research team leader. Dai and research associates Shuangyin Wang and Dingshan Yu found that by simply soaking carbon nanotubes in a water solution of the polymer polydiallyldimethylammoniumn chloride for a couple of hours, the polymer coats the nanotube surface and pulls an electron partially from the carbon, creating a net positive charge.

They placed the nanotubes on the cathode of an alkaline fuel cell. There, the charged material acts as a catalyst for the oxygen-reduction reaction that produces electricity while electrochemically combining hydrogen and oxygen.

In testing, the fuel cell produced as much power as an identical cell using a platinum catalyst. But the activated nanotubes last longer and are more stable, the researchers said. Unlike platinum, the carbon-based catalyst: doesn't lose catalytic activity and, therefore, efficiency, over time; isn't fouled by carbon monooxide poising; and is free from the crossover effect with methanol. Methanol, a liquid fuel that's easier to store and transport than hydrogen, reduces activity of a platinum catalyst when the fuel crosses over from the anode to the cathode in a fuel cell.

The new process builds on the Dai lab's earlier work using nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes as a catalyst. In that process, nitrogen, which was chemically bonded to the carbon, pulled electron partially from the carbon to create a charge. Testing showed the doped tubes tripled the energy output of platinum.

Dai said the new process is far simpler and cheaper than using nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes and he's confident his lab will increase the energy output as well. "We have not optimized the system yet." Source: From [[Cheap fuel cell catalyst made easy|http://blog.case.edu/think/2011/03/22/cheap_fuel_cell_catalyst_made_easy]]. CWRU researchers aim to cut cost of alternative energy. This work is detailed in the paper [[Polyelectrolyte Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes as Efficient Metal-free Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction|http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/ja1112904]] <<slider chkSldr [[Polyelectrolyte Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes as Efficient Metal-free Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction]]  [[Abstract»]] [[read abstract of the paper]]>>

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In miniaturization, mimicking the sense of smell has been a major target. The Smell is composed of thousands integrated specific receptors, in fact, the Smell occupais about a thousand of gens and such a huge analyzing library has to be schrinked to fit in a body. With nanotehcnology success is closer. Already, using carbon nanotubes these principles have been tested and verified. Now, changing the material, using gold nanoparticles.

"A highly sensitive and fast-response array of sensors based on gold nanoparticles, in combination with pattern recognition methods, can [[distinguish|http://www.nanowerk.com/spotlight/id12382.jpg]] between the odor prints of non-small-cell lung cancer and negative controls with 100% accuracy, with no need for preconcentration techniques. Additionally, preliminary results indicate that the same array of sensors might serve as a better tool for understanding the biochemical source of volatile organic compounds that might occur in cancer cells and appear in the exhaled breath, as compared to traditional spectrometry techniques. The reported results provide a launching pad to initiate a bedside tool that might be able to screen for early stages of lung cancer and allow higher cure rates. In addition, such a tool might be used for the immediate diagnosis of fresh (frozen) tissues of lung cancer in operating rooms, where a dichotomic diagnosis is crucial to guide surgeons." From ''[[Sniffing the Unique Odor Print of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer with Gold Nanoparticles|http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/122574194/abstract]]'' by [[Orna Barash|http://lnbd.technion.ac.il/NanoChemistry/Templates/ShowPage.asp?DBID=1&TMID=139&LNGID=1&FID=502&PID=0&IID=1018]], [[Nir Peled|http://fulbright.state.gov/fulbright/regionscountries/whereare/middle-east-and-north-africa/israel/highlights/peled-story]], [[Fred R. Hirsch|http://www.uchsc.edu/sm/deptmed/oncology/faculty/hirsch.htm]], [[Hossam Haick|http://lnbd.technion.ac.il/NanoChemistry/Templates/ShowPage.asp?DBID=1&TMID=139&LNGID=1&FID=502&PID=0&IID=741]]. 

"Conventional diagnostic methods for lung cancer are unsuitable for widespread screening because they are expensive and occasionally miss tumours. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry studies have shown that several volatile organic compounds, which normally appear at levels of 1–20 ppb in healthy human breath, are elevated to levels between 10 and 100 ppb in lung cancer patients. Here we show that an array of sensors based on gold nanoparticles can rapidly distinguish the breath of lung cancer patients from the breath of healthy individuals in an atmosphere of high humidity. In combination with solid-phase microextraction, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to identify 42 volatile organic compounds that represent lung cancer biomarkers. Four of these were used to train and optimize the sensors, demonstrating good agreement between patient and simulated breath samples. Our results show that sensors based on gold nanoparticles could form the basis of an inexpensive and non-invasive diagnostic tool for lung cancer." From ''[[Diagnosing lung cancer in exhaled breath using gold nanoparticles|http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/vaop/ncurrent/abs/nnano.2009.235.html]]'' by Gang Peng, Ulrike Tisch, Orna Adams, Meggie Hakim, Nisrean Shehada, Yoav Y. Broza, Salem Billan, Roxolyana ~Abdah-Bortnyak, Abraham Kuten & Hossam Haick

''[[Related quotas|http://topics.treehugger.com/article/0ee9gT53XH1nJ/quotes?q=]]''. Background: [[Diagnosis through breath]]

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"The device I’m building will be significantly cheaper than the $15k a student level machine would cost, and will hopefully reach that range of performance.  I’m certainly not expecting to build a device that can have the accuracy to do real research for only a few hundred dollars, but I’m hopeful that we can achieve modest results.

Right now, I’m basing the design on the work of [[John Alexander|http://www.geocities.com/spm_stm/]], but [[we|http://www.chemhacker.com/about/]] (my electrical engineering and software gurus and I) will be extending and improving this design for microprocessor control and trace capture.  I’m also contacting some of the recent builders of this class of device to hear their opinions and advice. I really am standing on the shoulders of giants here, and by basing my work on that of a lot of (very) brilliant people, I hope to be able to achieve success.

My intention is to release all hardware designs as open source once the device reaches a fairly stable beta stage of completion." Source: From ''[[Project Announcement: Design/Build of an STM|http://www.chemhacker.com/2010/03/project-announcement-designbuild-of-an-stm/#more-131]]''

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<br>Choi W, Hong S, Abrahamson J, Han J, Song C, Nair N, Baik S & Strano M S.. 2011. ''Nature Materials doi:10.1038/nmat2714''

//Theoretical calculations predict that by coupling an exothermic chemical reaction with a nanotube or nanowire possessing a high axial thermal conductivity, a self-propagating reactive wave can be driven along its length. Herein, such waves are realized using a 7-nm cyclotrimethylene trinitramine annular shell around a multiwalled carbon nanotube and are amplified by more than 104 times the bulk value, propagating faster than 2 m s−1, with an effective thermal conductivity of 1.28±0.2 kW m−1 K−1 at 2,860 K. This wave produces a concomitant electrical pulse of disproportionately high specific power, as large as 7 kW kg−1, which we identify as a thermopower wave. Thermally excited carriers flow in the direction of the propagating reaction with a specific power that scales inversely with system size. The reaction also evolves an anisotropic pressure wave of high total impulse per mass (300 N s kg−1). Such waves of high power density may find uses as unique energy sources.//
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<html><img style="float:left; margin-right:10px" src="img/molecular_flask.jpg" title="A scanning electron microscope image shows a new material that self-assembles into a polyhedron using the attractive interactions associated with hydrogen bonds. The shapes then further organize into a crystal lattice that resembles a porous structure called zeolite, an absorbent material with many industrial uses. Credit: Michael D. Ward, New York University" class="photo"  width="50%"/></html>Chemists have created a molecular polyhedron, a ground-breaking assembly that has the potential to impact a range of industrial and consumer products, including magnetic and optical materials.

Researchers have sought to coerce molecules to form regular polyhedra—three-dimensional objects in which each side, or face, is a polygon—but without sustained success. Archimedean solids, discovered by the ancient Greek mathematician Archimedes, have attracted considerable attention in this regard. These 13 solids are those in which each face is a regular polygon and in which around every vertex—the corner at which its geometric shapes meet—the same polygons appear in the same sequences. For instance, in a truncated tetrahedron, the pattern forming at every vertex is hexagon-hexagon-triangle. The synthesis of such structures from molecules is an intellectual challenge.

The work by the NYU and University of Milan chemists ''forms a quasi-truncated octahedron, which also constitutes one of the 13 Archimedean solids. Moreover, as a polyhedron, the structure has the potential to serve as a cage-like framework to trap other molecular species'', which can jointly serve as building blocks for new and enhanced materials.

“We’ve demonstrated how to coerce molecules to assemble into a polyhedron by design,” explained [[Michael Ward|http://www.nyu.edu/fas/dept/chemistry/wardgroup/]], chair of NYU’s Department of Chemistry and one of the study’s co-authors. “The next step will be to expand on the work by making other polyhedra using similar design principles, which can lead to new materials with unusual properties.”

Because the structure also serves as a molecular cage, it can house, or encapsulate, other molecular components, giving future chemists a vehicle for developing a range of new compounds. Source: [[Chemists Create Molecular Polyhedron - and Potential to Enhance Industrial and Consumer Products|http://www.nyu.edu/about/news-publications/news/2011/07/21/chemists-create-molecular-polyhedronand-potential-to-enhance-industrial-and-consumer-products.html]]. This work was detailed in the paper ''[[Supramolecular Archimedean Cages Assembled with 72 Hydrogen Bonds|http://www.sciencemag.org/content/333/6041/436.abstract]]''<<slider chkSldr [[Supramolecular Archimedean Cages Assembled with 72 Hydrogen Bonds]]  [[Abstract»]] [[read abstract of the paper]]>>


The extraordinary aspect of this work, supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF), is the self-assembly of the molecular tiles into a polyhedron, a well-defined, three-dimensional, geometric solid. The individual polyhedra assemble themselves using the attractive interactions associated with hydrogen bonds. They then further organize into a crystal lattice that resembles a porous structure called zeolite, an absorbent material with many industrial uses. The new material differs from zeolite because it is constructed from organic building blocks rather than inorganic ones, which make it more versatile and easier to engineer. In general, inorganic compounds are considered mineral in origin, while organic compounds are considered biological in origin.

"By using geometric design principles and very simple chemical precursors, the Ward group has been able to construct relatively sturdy materials which contain many identically sized and shaped cavities," explained Michael Scott, program director in the Division of Materials Research at NSF. ''"The hollow space inside these materials offers many exciting opportunities for chemists to do things such as isolate unstable molecules, catalyze unknown reactions and separate important chemical compounds."'' Source: [[Chemists Create Molecular "Flasks"|http://www.nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=121087&WT.mc_id=USNSF_51&WT.mc_ev=click]]. Researchers design a self-assembling material that can house other molecules

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<br>Timothy Sanchez, David Welch, Daniela Nicastro, Zvonimir Dogic. 2011. ''Science doi:10.1126/science.1203963''

//The mechanism that drives the regular beating of individual cilia and flagella, as well as dense ciliary fields, remains unclear. We describe a minimal model system, composed of microtubules and molecular motors, which self-assemble into active bundles exhibiting beating patterns reminiscent of those found in eukaryotic cilia and flagella. These observations suggest that hundreds of molecular motors, acting within an elastic microtubule bundle, spontaneously synchronize their activity to generate large-scale oscillations. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that densely packed, actively bending bundles spontaneously synchronize their beating patterns to produce collective behavior similar to metachronal waves observed in ciliary fields. The simple in vitro system described here could provide insights into beating of isolated eukaryotic cilia and flagella, as well as their synchronization in dense ciliary fields.  //
Antineoplastic effects of <html><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cisplatin" rel="tag">Cisplatin</a></html>, a paradigm of serendipity, were discovered when applying electric fields to C.Elegans. In that case, the Pt(II) cations released from the electrodes interferred with cellular duplication and the C.Elegans growed to gigantic sizes. First was thought that the applied electrical induced organism growth however later on was found that <html><a href="http://www.nlm.nih.gov/cgi/mesh/2006/MB_cgi?mode=&term=Cisplatin" rel="tag">Cisplatin</a></html> irreversibly attaches to the N residues of the DNA impeding cell reproduction. Since then it has been one of the most used antitumoral drugs and still today is widely used in the treatment of the most prevalent tumours. In addition, <html><a href="http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=84691" rel="tag">Cisplatin</a></html> derivates as carboplatin or oxiplatin has show also benefitial therapeutic effects, indicating that modifications of cisplatin may be of medical interest. Therefore many compunts based on Pt(II) has been produced showing biological activity, however, few of them have shown medical relevance. The loose of activity in the body can be associated with deactivation of the Pt(II) cation by sulfure containing molecules (cisteines) or by a unproper biodistribution of the drug, and others. In a recent paper, Lippard and co-workers have try to overcome this complications by conjugating platine(IV) compounds to carbon nanotubes. The carbon nanotubes should act as Longboat Delivery Systems for Platium (IV). Such nanocomposites are internalized by endocitosis into a endosome where its low pH reduces Platium (IV) to Platinum (II) delivering a large amount of cisplatin(II) to the cell increasing efficiently its killer effects. In addition, circulating Platinum (IV) compounds are non toxic (it is the valence II compound the toxic one). Now it has to be observed the compund biodistribution and side effects since generally platinum chemotherapies are interrupted due to size effects of nefro toxicity or renal toxicity.

Feazell et al. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2007, 129,8438-8439

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''A citizen-based, and collaborative website on societal issues raised by nanotechnology research and developments!'' The Citizen Alliance on the ChallEnges of Nanotechnologies (CACEN) (in French “Alliance Citoyenne sur les Enjeux des Nanotechnologies”: ACEN) has just opened a new website [[nano.acen-cacen.org|http://nano.acen-cacen.org]] where citizens can find and share information, questions, and analyses about societal issues raised by nanotechnologies.
 
Information on challenges raised by nanotechnologies. Private investments and public funding for nanotechnologies have been dramatically increasing in the last decade, giving rise to the presence of nanomaterials in many products on the market. Meanwhile uncertainties and controversies have arisen about the definition, the usefulness, the purposes, and the risks of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Many stakeholders and citizens have therefore been asking for more information on societal issues raised by nanotechnologies. In response to this need, we have created this website to:

    * share information with all of you who are frustrated by the low visibility of current debates, discussions and lack of accessible information on these topics .
    * develop perspectives and analyses of challenges raised by nanotechnology, be they health, environment, economical and geopolitical, ethical or democratic ones.

All of this information will be presented in a clear and understandable way.

A global and pluralistic approach. This website will be a place where we will gather questions and concerns about nanotechnologies that citizens and civil society want to raise, and collectively debate and resolve, even while some continue to argue that no regulation or control are possible -- because of lack of data (often protected by industry trade secrets) and/or scientific debates about definitions of “nanoparticle” and ”nanomaterial,” and scientific uncertainties on how to assess their toxicity, and how to adequately detect and monitor them. ''The website offers a global approach on nanotechnologies, presenting the context in which they are developed, funded, and regulated (or not), by whom, and where. It will open up the “black box” where decisions are being made, to empower civil society by offering resources on current and forthcoming actions, consultations and decision making processes''.

Overall, the pluralistic approach of this website makes it unique and original: people involved in a range of environmental, health, and human rights NGOs are [[contributing|http://nano.acen-cacen.org/ActeursACEN]].

We would like this website to be accessible not only to French speakers but also English, Spanish, Portuguese people. We would very much appreciate financial or technical support to help us complete, update, and translate this website! If you have human, financial, or technical resources that could help us, please let us know! More information: http://nano.acen-cacen.org and contact[at]acen-cacen[dot]org. Source: [[AceNano: Communique Presse Lancement Site EN|http://nano.acen-cacen.org/CommuniquePresseLancementSiteEN]]

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[<img[individual carbon atoms (yellow) on the honeycomb lattice of graphene|http://newscenter.lbl.gov/wp-content/uploads/team-05-graphene-214x300.jpg]] Hailed as the world’s most powerful [[transmission electron microscope|http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Nanotechnology/Electron_microscopy#Transmission_electron_microscopy_.28TEM.29]], TEAM 0.5 is living up to expectations. Using TEAM 0.5 ([[TEAM|http://ncem.lbl.gov/TEAM-project/index.html]] stands for Transmission Electron Aberration-corrected Microscope), researchers with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) have produced stunning images of individual carbon atoms in graphene, the two-dimensional crystalline form of carbon that is highly prized by the electronics industry.

These first time ever images were recorded at Berkeley Lab’s National Center for Electron Microscopy ([[NCEM|http://ncem.lbl.gov/]]), a DOE national user facility that is a premier center for electron microscopy and microcharacterization. TEAM 0.5, its newest instrument, is capable of //producing images with half‑angstrom resolution, which is less than the diameter of a single hydrogen atom//.

“Simply put, //TEAM 0.5 is the best transmission electron microscope in the world, representing a quantum leap forward in instrumentation//,” said physicist [[Alex Zettl|http://www.physics.berkeley.edu/research/zettl/]] who led this research. “''Having the ability to see, basically in real time, each and every individual atom in a sample'' is unbelievably useful and the images we can now see have been jaw-dropping for even the most seasoned electron microscopists. TEAM 0.5 is pushing transmission electron microscopy to a new level.”

“Theorists are currently making all kinds of predictions about the properties of [[graphene|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphene]] for different local atomic configurations, but until TEAM 0.5, we did not have the ability to actually see and study these configurations in real time,” Zettl said.

Says NCEM principal investigator and collaborator on this study Kisielowski, “TEAM 0.5 allows for the detection of every single atom from the Periodic Table provided that the sample under investigation can stand the radiation damage (TEAM 0.5’s record-setting half-angstrom resolution was achieved with an electron beam that was 300 kilovolts (kV) in energy.)

Source: [[Closest Look Ever at Graphene: Stunning Images of Individual Carbon Atoms From TEAM 0.5 microscope|http://newscenter.lbl.gov/press-releases/2008/09/09/closest-look-ever-at-graphene-stunning-images-of-individual-carbon-atoms-from-team-05-microscope/]]. The paper, published in Nanoletters, is [[Direct imaging of lattice atoms and topological defects in graphene membranes|http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/asap.cgi/nalefd/asap/pdf/nl801386m.pdf]]

''Professor [[Andre Geim|http://onnes.ph.man.ac.uk/nano/]]  and Dr [[Kostya Noveselov|http://onnes.ph.man.ac.uk/nano/People.html]] have been awarded the prestigious [[Europhysics Prize 2008|http://www.eps.org/news/eps-europhysics-prize-2008-1]] for discovering and isolating a single free-standing atomic layer of  carbon (graphene) and elucidating its remarkable electronic properties.'' 
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''Nanometrology is the science of measurement at the nanoscale (1 nm to 100 nm)''. It has a crucial role in the production of nanomaterials and the manufacturing of nanoscale devices with a high degree of accuracy and reliability. 

Co-Nanomet - A Co-ordination of nanometrology in Europe, has recently been published and is available to download.

<html><img style="float:left; margin-right:10px" src="img/co-nanomet.jpg" title="Co-Nanomet - A Co-ordination of nanometrology in Europe" class="photo"  width="100%"/></html>

''Measurements in the nanometre range should be traceable back to internationally accepted units of measurement'' (e.g. of length, angle, quantity of matter, and force). This requires common, validated measurement methods, calibrated scientific instrumentation as well as qualified reference samples. In some areas, even a common vocabulary needs to be defined.

The field of nanotechnology covers a breadth of disciplines, each of which has specific and varying metrological needs. To this end, a set of four core technology fields or priority themes (Engineered Nanoparticles, Nanobiotechnology, Thin Films and Structured Surfaces and Modelling & Simulation) are the focus of this review.

In the next decade, nanotechnology can be expected to approach maturity, as a major enabling technological discipline with widespread application. The principal drivers for its development are likely to shift from an overarching focus on the 'joy of discovery' towards the requirement to fulfil societal needs.

''This document provides a guide to the many bodies across Europe in their activities or responsibilities in the field of nanotechnology and related measurement requirements''. It will support the commercial exploitation of nanotechnology, as it transitions through this next exciting decade. Source: From the Executive Summary by Dr Theresa Burke, on behalf of the Co-Nanomet Consortium. ''[[Co-Nanomet. Co-ordination of Nanometrology in Europe|http://www.euspen.eu/content/Co-nanomet%20protected%20documents/publications%20area/European%20Nanometrology%202020%20280911.pdf]]''. European Nanometrology 2020

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<html><img style="float:left; margin-right:10px" src="img/coiled_nanowire.jpg" title="Zhu's research team has created the first coils of silicon nanowire on a substrate that can be stretched to more than double their original length, moving us closer to developing stretchable electronic devices." class="photo"  width="50%"/></html> Researchers have created the ''first coils of silicon nanowire on a substrate that can be stretched to more than double their original length, moving us closer to incorporating stretchable electronic devices into clothing, implantable health-monitoring devices, and a host of other applications''.

“In order to create stretchable electronics, you need to put electronics on a stretchable substrate, but electronic materials themselves tend to be rigid and fragile,” says [[Dr. Yong Zhu|http://www.mae.ncsu.edu/zhu/]], one of the researchers who created the new nanowire coils and an assistant professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering  at North Carolina State University. “Our idea was to create electronic materials that can be tailored into coils to improve their stretchability without harming the electric functionality of the materials.”

Other researchers have experimented with “buckling” electronic materials into wavy shapes, which can stretch much like the bellows of an accordion. However, Zhu says, the maximum strains for wavy structures occur at localized positions – the peaks and valleys – on the waves. As soon as the failure strain is reached at one of the localized positions, the entire structure fails.

“An ideal shape to accommodate large deformation would lead to a uniform strain distribution along the entire length of the structure – a coil spring is one such ideal shape,” Zhu says. “As a result, the wavy materials cannot come close to the coils’ degree of stretchability.” Zhu notes that the coil shape is energetically favorable only for one-dimensional structures, such as wires.

Zhu’s team put a rubber substrate under strain and used very specific levels of ultraviolet radiation and ozone to change its mechanical properties, and then placed silicon nanowires on top of the substrate. The nanowires formed coils upon release of the strain. Other researchers have been able to create coils using freestanding nanowires, but have so far been unable to directly integrate those coils on a stretchable substrate.

While the new coils’ mechanical properties allow them to be stretched an additional 104 percent beyond their original length, their electric performance cannot hold reliably to such a large range, possibly due to factors like contact resistance change or electrode failure, Zhu says. “We are working to improve the reliability of the electrical performance when the coils are stretched to the limit of their mechanical stretchability, which is likely well beyond 100 percent, according to our analysis.” Source: [[Coiled nanowires may hold key to stretchable electronics|http://news.ncsu.edu/releases/wmszhunanocoils/]]. This work was detailed in the paper [[“Controlled 3D Buckling of Silicon Nanowires for Stretchable Electronics”|http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/nn103189z]] by Feng Xu, Yong Zhu & Wei Lu <<slider chkSldr [[Controlled 3D Buckling of Silicon Nanowires for Stretchable Electronics]]  [[Abstract»]] [[read abstract of the paper]]>>

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[[The College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering|http://cnse.albany.edu/]]  of the University at Albany-State University of New York is ''the first college in the world dedicated to research, development, education, and deployment in the emerging disciplines of nanoscience, nanoengineering, nanobioscience, and nanoeconomics''.

2001: Established as the School of Nanosciences and Nanoengineering at the University at Albany
2004: Accredited as the College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering of the University at Albany
December 2004: CNSE awards the world's first Ph.D. degrees in nanoscience. Source: [[About CNSE - History|http://cnse.albany.edu/about_cnse/history.html]]

College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering
University at Albany - State University of New York
255 Fuller Road
Albany, NY, United States of America
http://cnse.albany.edu/


''Related news:'' [[Creating a common research site: Albany NanoTech, Applied Materials, IBM Announce Research Partnership|http://www.albany.edu/news/releases/2005/sep2005/sweeney_nanotech.shtml]]. Firms invest $300 million in R&D initiative. "An important milestone in establishing the IBM-Albany NanoTech Center for Semiconductor Research as ''the nation's premier facility for the study of nanotechnology''."
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Commercial laser printers typically produce pin-sharp images with spots of ink about 20 micrometers apart, resulting in a resolution of 1,200 dots per inch (dpi). By shrinking the separation to just 250 nanometers — roughly 100 times smaller — a research team at A*STAR can now ''print images at an incredible 100,000 dpi, the highest possible resolution for a color image''. These images could be used as minuscule anti-counterfeit tags or to encode high-density data.

To print the image, the team coated a silicon wafer with insulating hydrogen silsesquioxane and then removed part of that layer to leave behind a series of upright posts of about 95 nanometers high. They capped these nanoposts with layers of chromium, silver and gold (1, 15 and 5 nanometers thick, respectively), and also coated the wafer with metal to act as a backreflector.

Each color pixel in the image contained four posts at most, arranged in a square. The researchers were able to produce a rainbow of colors simply by varying the spacing and diameter of the posts to between 50 nanometers and 140 nanometers.

When light hits the thin metal layer that caps the posts, it sends ripples — known as plasmons — running through the electrons in the metal. The size of the post determines which wavelengths of light are absorbed, and which are reflected (see image).

<html><img style="float:left; margin-right:10px; margin-bottom:10px" src="img/color_printing.jpg" title="Variation in post size and spacing in the metal array alters which incoming wavelength of light (red, green or blue) is reflected back. Credit: K. Kumar et al." class="photo"  width="60%"/></html>The plasmons in the metal caps also cause electrons in the backreflector to oscillate. “This coupling channels energy from the disks into the backreflector plane, thus creating strong absorption that results in certain colors being subtracted from the visible spectrum,” says Joel Yang, who led the team of researchers at the A*STAR Institute of Materials Research and Engineering and the A*STAR Institute of High Performance Computing.

Printing images in this way makes them potentially more durable than those created with conventional dyes. In addition, color images cannot be any more detailed: two adjacent dots blur into one if they are closer than half the wavelength of the light reflecting from them. Since the wavelength of visible light ranges about 380–780 nanometers, the nanoposts are as close as is physically possible to produce a reasonable range of colors.

Although the process takes several hours, Yang suggests that a template for the nanoposts could rapidly stamp many copies of the image. “We are also exploring novel methods to control the polarization of light with these nanostructures and approaches to improve the color purity of the pixels,” he adds. Source: From [[Nanotechnology: Color printing reaches new highs|http://www.research.a-star.edu.sg/research/6655]]. Color printing at the highest resolution possible is enabled by the use of arrays of metal-coated nanostructures. This work is detailed in the paper ''[["Printing colour at the optical diffraction limit"|http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/v7/n9/full/nnano.2012.128.html]]'' by Karthik Kumar, Huigao Duan, Ravi S. Hegde, Samuel C. W. Koh, Jennifer N. Wei & Joel K. W. Yang.

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<br>//Hi Josep

Thanks for the post

There are other references where we confirmed the evidence for interstellar C60+ and derived an estimate of C60+ abundance of 0.3-0.9 % of cosmic carbon.

 B. H. Foing, P. Ehrenfreund, Astron. Astrophys. 317, L59 (1997) (where we used dry observations from Hawaii and ESO to measure the bands)

G. A. Galazutdinov, J. Krelowski, F. A. Musaev, P. Ehrenfreund, B. H. Foing,
Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 317, 750 (2000).
where we observed in the lines of sight to 15 distant stars.

Note that we wrote an article in Science magazine recently on the subject "Fullerenes and Cosmic Carbon"

http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/329/5996/1159?rss=1

Best regards,
Bernard H. Foing//
<br>//Dear Josep,

Thank you for featuring my recently published article on your website.  I just wanted to make a point of clarification though.  The nanoparticles that caused large-scale changes in gene expression were not functionalized with loosely bound nucleic acids, but rather they were stabilized by loosely (electrostatically) bound citrate molecules.

Thank you,
Matt//

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Teresa Gonzalo, 33, CEO in [[Ambiox Biotech|http://ambiox.com/]], awarded by MIT among the top ten spanish young innovators, as "commercial nanotechnology developer for the prevention of HIV."

Teresa has worked since 2007 at the Hospital Gregorio Marañón as a postdoctoral researcher in search of an AIDS therapy using nanotechnology-specific dendrimers (polymeric molecules versatile, three-dimensional shape defined) - for a microbicide gel may prevent HIV infection during the sexual encounter. The most promising microbicides are currently using gels containing antiretroviral drugs that have successfully reduced HIV incidence by 54% in women with greater adherence to treatment, the study shows CAPRISA in South Africa with a tenofovir-based gel. The goal is to improve data Teresa with the development of vaginal microbicides based on dendrimers, which either alone or in combination with drugs significantly reduce the infection of HIV target cells.

''"The use of nanoparticles and dendrimers for drug appears to improve vehicular protective immune response against HIV," ''says Antonio Antelo, physician, Infectious Diseases Unit, Hospital Clinico Universitario de Santiago de Compostela and former vice president of the Spanish Society Interdisciplinary of AIDS. "This makes this area a target of interest for the application of nanotechnology, where the work of Teresa is likely to make improvements and impact on the appearance of a drug with immediate applications in public health," said Antel. 

MIT, through the Spanish-language version of the Technology Review, awarded the most brilliant and innovative people under 35 with the MIT’s TR35 Spain Awards. The awards look for people that take on important technological problems in a transformative way. The winners have been selected through an exhaustive selection process with the help of recognized experts that have been assembled into a judging panel. With their rankings of the candidates and the advice of the [[MIT Technology Review|http://www.techonologyreview.com/]] editors in Boston, who have been organizing the event for 12 years in the United States, the TR35 Spain winners represent an overview of how technology is changing.

Source: From [[MIT’s TR35 Spain Awards|http://www.emtechspain.com/en/emerging-talent-awards-tr35/]].

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A team of scientists have found that nanoparticles may have a higher degree of environmental toxicity than previously thought creating strategic implications for the planet and our ecosystem. The team from Dowling College, USA and Queens University, Canada ''discovered the ability of nanoparticles to deleteriously change the populations of microorganisms in the soil, potentially altering our globe’s environmental balance on a molecular level''.

“Millions of tonnes of nanoparticles are now manufactured every year, including silver nanoparticles which are popular as antibacterial agents,” says Virginia Walker, a professor in the Department of Biology. “We started to wonder what the impact of all these nanoparticles might be on the environment, particularly on soil.”

The team acquired a sample of soil from the Arctic as part of their involvement in the International Polar Year initiative. The soil was sourced from a remote Arctic site as they felt that this soil stood the greatest chance of being uncontaminated by any nanoparticles.

“Microorganisms play a major role in keeping our environment in a balanced state and the results of our study shows that nanoparticles could be toxic to these important populations of microbes found in soil,” says Dr. Vishal Shah, an associate professor in the Department of Biology at Dowling College.  “Absence of a common measurable indicator of environmental toxicity has been one of the hurdles preventing us thus far from quantitatively comparing the toxicity of different nanoparticles. ''Once we developed a toxicity indicator in the study thanks to our use of arctic soil, it was clear that even nanoparticles made from relatively benign silicon dioxide (found in sand) are toxic to populations of microorganisms in soil.”''

The researchers first examined the indigenous microbe communities living in the uncontaminated soil samples before adding three different kinds of nanoparticles, including silver. The soil samples were then left for six months to see how the addition of the nanoparticles affected the microbe communities. What the researchers found was both remarkable and concerning.

The original analysis of the uncontaminated soil had identified a beneficial microbe that helps fix nitrogen to plants. As plants are unable to fix nitrogen themselves and nitrogen fixation is essential for plant nutrition, the presence of these particular microbes in soil is vital for plant growth. The analysis of the soil sample six months after the addition of the silver nanoparticles showed negligible quantities of the important nitrogen-fixing species remaining and laboratory experiments showed that they were more than a million times susceptible to silver nanoparticles than other species. Source: From [[Common nanoparticles found to be highly toxic to Arctic ecosystem|http://www.queensu.ca/news/articles/common-nanoparticles-found-be-highly-toxic-arctic-ecosystem]] and Dowling College Researcher Finds that Nanoparticles Pose Danger to Arctic Ecosystem. Dowling College, USA & Queens University, Canada Investigate Environmental Consequences. This work is detailed in the paper [[Perturbation of an arctic soil microbial community by metal nanoparticles|http://bit.ly/imgoxL]] <<slider chkSldr [[Perturbation of an arctic soil microbial community by metal nanoparticles]]  [[Abstract»]] [[read abstract of the paper]]>>

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''<<matchTags popup sort:-created context>>'' <<matchTags popup sort:-created dissemination>> ''Communicating Nanotechnology''

//The European Commission has been very quick to understand just how hot nanotechnology communication is. This sharp awareness has been matched by the strong interest and real concern of EU institutions, and has steadily produced a growing range of socially engaged policy documents and dedicated projects over the past few years. Engaging a public that might have been inadequately informed so far, or perhaps outright misled because of the very complexity of the issue, is the core challenge. In these policy documents the EC observed that ‘nanotechnology is poorly understood. Since it is complex and concerns a scale that is invisible, nanotechnology may be a difficult concept for the public to grasp. While the potential applications of nanotechnology can improve our quality of life, there may be some risk associated with it, as with any new technology – this should be openly acknowledged and investigated. At the same time the public’s perception of nanotechnology and its risks should be properly assessed and addressed’. Involving Europeans in appropriate communication and dialogue is a real asset to the EC, whose aim is to align nanotechnology development with the people’s expectations and concerns, and at the same time to pave the way for a level playing field in the global market. Clearly, ‘the public trust and dialogue on nanotechnology will be crucial for its long-term development and allow us to profit from its potential benefits. It is evident that the scientific community will have to improve its communication skills.’//  From ''[[Communicating Nanotechnology. Why, to whom, saying what and how?|ftp://ftp.cordis.europa.eu/pub/nanotechnology/docs/communicating-nanotechnology_en.pdf]]'', preface by Christos Tokamanis
<br>//Multicolored imaging: A new class of molecular imaging agent has been developed based on low-molecular-weight organically soluble bismuth to detect and quantify intraluminal fibrin presented by ruptured plaque in the context of computed tomography angiograms without calcium interference.//
<br>//Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are a phylogenetically diverse group which uses intracellular membrane-enclosed magnetite crystals called magnetosomes for navigation in their aquatic habitats. Although synthesis of these prokaryotic organelles is of broad interdisciplinary interest, its genetic analysis has been restricted to a few closely related members of the Proteobacteria, in which essential functions required for magnetosome formation are encoded within a large genomic magnetosome island. However, because of the lack of cultivated representatives from other phyla, it is unknown whether the evolutionary origin of magnetotaxis is monophyletic, and it has been questioned whether homologous mechanisms and structures are present in unrelated MTB. Here, we present the analysis of the uncultivated “Candidatus Magnetobacterium bavaricum” from the deep branching Nitrospira phylum by combining micromanipulation and whole genome amplification (WGA) with metagenomics. Target-specific sequences obtained by WGA of cells, which were magnetically collected and individually sorted from sediment samples, were used for PCR screening of metagenomic libraries. This led to the identification of a genomic cluster containing several putative magnetosome genes with homology to those in Proteobacteria. A variety of advanced electron microscopic imaging tools revealed a complex cell envelope and an intricate magnetosome architecture. The presence of magnetosome membranes as well as cytoskeletal magnetosome filaments suggests a similar mechanism of magnetosome formation in “Cand. M. bavaricum” as in Proteobacteria. Altogether, our findings suggest a monophyletic origin of magnetotaxis, and relevant genes were likely transferred horizontally between Proteobacteria and representatives of the Nitrospira phylum.//
While industrial sectors involving semiconductors, memory and storage technologies, display, optical and photonic technologies, energy, biomedical, and health sectors produce the most nanomaterial-containing products, nanotechnology is also used as an environmental technology to protect the environment through pollution prevention, treatment, and cleanup. This paper focuses on environmental cleanup and provides readers with a background and overview of current practice, research findings, societal issues, potential environment, health, and safety implications, and future directions for nanoremediation. We do not present an exhaustive review of chemistry/engineering methods of the technology but rather an introduction and summary of the application of nanotechnology in remediation. Nanoscale zero valent iron is discussed in more detail. We searched Web of Science for research studies and accessed recent U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other publicly available reports that addressed the applications and implications associated with nanoremediation techniques. We also conducted personal interviews with practitioners about specific site remediations. Information from 45 sites, a representative portion of the total projects underway, was aggregated to show nanomaterials used, type of pollutants cleaned up, and organization responsible for the site.

''Nanoremediation has the potential not only to reduce the overall costs of cleaning up large scale contaminated sites, but it also can reduce cleanup time, eliminate the need for treatment and disposal of contaminated soil, reduce some contaminant concentrations to near zero—all in situ''. Proper evaluation of nanoremediation, particularly full-scale ecosystem wide studies, needs to be conducted to prevent any potential adverse environmental impacts. Source: From ''[[Nanotechnology and In situ Remediation: A review of the benefits and potential risks|http://www.ehponline.org/docs/2009/0900793/abstract.html]]'' by [[Barbara Karn|http://pewnanotechproject.us/about/leadership/senior_advisors/barbara_karn/]], [[Todd Kuiken|http://pewnanotechproject.org/about/leadership/staff/todd_kuiken/]], Martha Otto. This article has been reviewed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and approved for publication.

The Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies has produced a map - ''[[Nanoremediation map|http://www.nanotechproject.org/inventories/remediation_map/]]'' - showing the location of sites at which nanotechnology has been used as a remediation technology and providing some information about each site.

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<br>//Silicon (Si) nanowire (NW) coils were fabricated on elastomeric substrates by a controlled buckling process. Si NWs were first transferred onto prestrained and ultraviolet/ozone (UVO) treated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) substrates, and buckled upon release of the prestrain. Two buckling modes (the in-plane wavy mode and the three-dimensional coiled mode) were found; a transition between them was achieved by controlling the UVO treatment of PDMS. Structural characterization revealed that the NW coils were oval-shaped. The oval-shaped NW coils exhibited very large stretchability up to the failure strain of PDMS (~104% in our study). Such a large stretchability relies on the effectiveness of the coil shape in mitigating the maximum local strain, with a mechanics that is similar to the motion of a coil spring. Single-NW devices based on coiled NWs were demonstrated with a nearly constant electrical response in a large strain range. In addition to the wavy shape, the coil shape represents an effective architecture in accommodating large tension, compression, bending and twist, which may find important applications for stretchable electronics and other stretchable technologies.//
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<html><img title="A completely new and controlled way of building up additional layers on the surface of the molecule" src="http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/News/pressreleases/2010/November/3-D-molecular-structurepr.jpg"  width="95%"/>
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Scientists have made ''a major breakthrough that could help shape the future of nanotechnology, by demonstrating for the first time that 3-D molecular structures can be built on a surface''.

The discovery at The University of Nottingham could prove a significant step forward towards the development of new nano devices such as cutting-edge optical and electronic technologies and even molecular computers.

The team of chemists and physicists at Nottingham have shown that by introducing a ‘guest’ molecule they can build molecules upwards from a surface rather than just 2-D formations previously achieved. 

''A natural biological process known as ‘self-assembly’ meant that once the scientists introduced other molecules on to a surface their host then spontaneously arranged them into a rational 3-D structure.''

[[Professor Neil Champness|http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/chemistry/people/neil.champness#lookup-research]] said: //“It is the molecular equivalent of throwing a pile of bricks up into the air and then as they come down again they spontaneously build a house.

“Until now this has only been achievable in 2-D, so to continue the analogy the molecular ‘bricks’ would only form a path or a patio but ''our breakthrough now means that we can start to build in the third dimension. It’s a significant step forward to nanotechnology.''”//

Previously, scientists have employed a technique found in nature of using hydrogen bonds to hold DNA together to build two-dimensional molecular structure.

The new process involved introducing a guest molecule — in this case a ‘buckyball’ or C60 — on to a surface patterned by an array of tetracarboxylic acid molecules. The spherical shape of the buckyballs means they sit above the surface of the molecule and encourage other molecules to form around them. It offers scientists a completely new and controlled way of building up additional layers on the surface of the molecule.

The work is the culmination of four years’ of research led by Professors Champness and [[Peter Beton|http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/~ppzstm/]] from the School of Chemistry and the School of Physics and Astronomy, which has been funded with a total of £3.5 million from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council. Source: [[World first to provide building blocks for new nano devices|http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/news/pressreleases/2010/november/nanodevices.aspx]]. This work is detailed in the paper [[Guest-induced growth of a surface-based supramolecular bilayer|http://www.nature.com/nchem/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nchem.901.html]] by Matthew O. Blunt, James C. Russell, Maria del Carmen Gimenez-Lopez, Nassiba Taleb, Xiang Lin, Martin Schröder, Neil R. Champness & Peter H. Beton <<slider chkSldr [[Guest-induced growth of a surface-based supramolecular bilayer]]  [[Abstract»]] [[read abstract of the paper]]>>

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A new study led by nanotechnology and biotechnology experts is providing important details on how proteins in our bodies interact with nanomaterials. In their new study, the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute researchers developed a new tool to determine the orientation of proteins on different nanostructures. The discovery is ''a key step in the effort to control the orientation, structure, and function of proteins in the body using nanomaterials''.

“To date, very little is known about how proteins interact with a surface at the nanoscale,” said Jonathan Dordick, director of the Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies at Rensselaer (CBIS). “With a better understanding of how a protein interacts with a surface, we can develop custom nanoscale surfaces and design proteins that can do a variety of amazing tasks in the human body.”

Researchers seek to use nanotechnology in a variety of biological and medical applications, ranging from biosensors that can detect cancer in the body to scaffolds that help grow new tissues and organs, according to the researchers. Such technologies involve the interaction between biological cells and non-biological nanoscale materials. These interactions are controlled in part by proteins at the interface between the two materials. At such a minuscule level, the tiniest change in the structure of a material can vastly change the proteins involved and thus alter how the cells of the human body respond to the nanomaterial. In fact, proteins are among the most complex (and fickle) molecules in our bodies, rapidly changing their orientation or structure and thus their ability to interact with other molecules. Controlling their orientation and structure through their interactions with nanomaterials is essential to their reliable and safe use in new biotechnologies, according to Dordick.

“We have learned over the past decade to create nanomaterials with a wide variety of controlled structures, and we have discovered and begun to learn how these structures can positively impact cellular activity,” said Richard Siegel, the Robert W. Hunt Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at Rensselaer, director of the Rensselaer Nanotechnology Center. “By learning more about the role of the nanostructure-protein interactions that cause this impact, we will be able in the future to harness this knowledge to benefit society through improved healthcare. In addition to improved healthcare, this work will also help enable the manufacture of a wide range of new hierarchical composite materials—based upon synthetic polymers, biomolecules, and nanostructures—that will revolutionize our ability to solve many critical problems facing society worldwide.”

What the researchers found in this and their previous studies was that the size and curvature of the nanosurface greatly changed the way proteins oriented themselves on the surfaces and changed their structure, and this influenced protein stability. They found that nanostructures with smaller and more curved surfaces favored protein orientations that resulted in more stable proteins than structures with larger more flat surfaces.

<html><img style="float:left; margin-bottom:10px; margin-right:10px" src="img/protein.jpg" title="Front and back face of Cytochrome C. To reach these conclusions, the researchers investigated several well-studied proteins, including cytochrome c and monitored their adsorption on different size silica nanoparticles" class="photo"  width="50%"/></html>More information on Dordick’s research can be found at http://enzymes.che.rpi.edu/. Additional information on Siegel’s research can be found at http://www.rpi.edu/dept/nsec/. Source: From ''[[Controlling Protein Function With Nanotechnology|http://news.rpi.edu/update.do?artcenterkey=2998&setappvar=page%281%29]]''. This work is detailed in the paper [["Position-Specific Chemical Modification and Quantitative Proteomics Disclose Protein Orientation Adsorbed on Silica Nanoparticles"|http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/nl2044524]] by Siddhartha Shrivastava, Joseph H. Nuffer, Richard W. Siegel, and Jonathan S. Dordick.

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An ultimate goal in the field of carbon nanotube research is to synthesise single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with controlled chiralities. Twenty years after the discovery of SWNTs, scientists from Aalto University in Finland, A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute RAS in Russia and the Center for Electron Nanoscopy of Technical University of Denmark (DTU) have managed to control chirality in carbon nanotubes during their chemical vapor deposition synthesis

Carbon nanotube structure is defined by a pair of integers known as chiral indices (n,m), in other words, chirality.

- ''Chirality defines the optical and electronic properties of carbon nanotubes, so controlling it is a key to exploiting their practical applications'', says Professor Esko I. Kauppinen, the leader of the Nanomaterials Group in Aalto University School of Science.

Over the years, substantial progress has been made to develop various structure-controlled synthesis methods. However, precise control over the chiral structure of SWNTs has been largely hindered by a lack of practical means to direct the formation of the metal nanoparticle catalysts and their catalytic dynamics during tube growth.

- We achieved an epitaxial formation of Co nanoparticles by reducing a well-developed solid solution in CO, reveals Maoshuai He, a postdoctoral researcher at Aalto University School of Chemical Technology.

- For the first time, the new catalyst was employed for selective growth of SWNTs, adds senior staff scientist Hua Jiang from Aalto University School of Science.

By introducing the new catalysts into a conventional CVD reactor, the research team demonstrated preferential growth of semiconducting SWNTs (~90%) with an exceptionally high population of (6,5) tubes (53%) at 500 °C. Furthermore, they also showed a shift of the chiral preference from (6,5) tubes at 500 °C  to (7, 6) and (9, 4) nanotubes at 400 °C.

- These findings open new perspectives both for structural control of SWNTs and for elucidating their growth mechanisms, thus are important for the fundamental understanding of science behind nanotube growth, comments Professor Juha Lehtonen from Aalto University. 

Source: From [[Scientists reach the ultimate goal - controlling chirality in carbon nanotubes|http://t.co/igOYGCwYxR]]. This work is detailed in the paper ''[["Chiral-Selective Growth of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Lattice-Mismatched Epitaxial Cobalt Nanoparticles"|http://www.nature.com/srep/2013/130315/srep01460/full/srep01460.html]]'' by  Maoshuai He,	 Hua Jiang, Bilu Liu, Pavel V. Fedotov, Alexander I. Chernov, Elena D. Obraztsova, Filippo Cavalca, Jakob B. Wagner, Thomas W. Hansen, Ilya V. Anoshkin, Ekaterina A. Obraztsova, Alexey V. Belkin, Emma Sairanen, Albert G. Nasibulin, Juha Lehtonen & Esko I. Kauppinen.

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Using clusters of tiny magnetic particles about 1,000 times smaller than the width of a human hair, researchers from the UCLA Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science have shown that they can manipulate how thousands of cells divide, morph and develop finger-like extensions.
 
This new tool could be used in developmental biology to understand how tissues develop, or in cancer research to uncover how cancer cells move and invade surrounding tissues, the researchers said.
 
A cell can be considered a complex biological machine that receives an assortment of "inputs" and produces specific "outputs," such as growth, movement, division or the production of molecules. Beyond the type of input, cells are extremely sensitive to the location of an input, partly because cells perform "spatial multiplexing," reusing the same basic biochemical signals for different functions at different locations within the cell.
 
Understanding this localization of signals is particularly challenging because scientists lack tools with sufficient resolution and control to function inside the miniature environment of a cell. And any usable tool would have to be able to perturb many cells with similar characteristics simultaneously to achieve an accurate distribution of responses, since the responses of individual cells can vary.

To address this problem, an interdisciplinary UCLA team that included associate professor of bioengineering [[Dino Di Carlo|http://www.biomicrofluidics.com/]], postdoctoral scholar Peter Tseng and professor of electrical engineering Jack Judy developed ''a platform to precisely manipulate magnetic nanoparticles inside uniformly shaped cells''. These nanoparticles produced a local mechanical signal and yielded distinct responses from the cells.
 
<html><img style="float:left; margin-bottom:10px" src="img/dicarlo-cell-magnetic-particles.jpg" title="Cell containing magnetic nanoparticles. A cell patterned to adhere to the shape of a square with localized nanoparticles (dark blue) causing local generation of actin-rich filopodia (green). Nucleus (cyan) is also shown. The cell size is ~ 30 micrometers." class="photo"  width="100%"/></html>By determining the responses of thousands of single cells with the same shape to local nanoparticle-induced stimuli, the researchers were able to perform an automated averaging of the cells' response.
 
To achieve this platform, the team first had to overcome the challenge of moving such small particles (each measuring 100 nanometers) through the viscous interior of a cell once the cells engulfed them. Using ferromagnetic technologies, which enable magnetic materials to switch "on" and "off," the team developed an approach to embed a grid of small ferromagnetic blocks within a microfabricated glass slide and to precisely place individual cells in proximity to these blocks with a pattern of proteins that adhere to cells.
 
When an external magnetic field is applied to this system, the ferromagnetic blocks are switched "on" and can therefore pull the nanoparticles within the cells in specific directions and uniformly align them. The researchers could then shape and control the forces in thousands of cells at the same time.

Using this platform, the team showed that the cells responded to this local force in several ways, including in the way they divided. When cells go through the process of replication to create two cells, the axis of division depends on the shape of the cell and the anchoring points by which the cell holds on to the surface. The researchers found that the force induced by the nanoparticles could change the axis of cell division such that the cells instead divided along the direction of force.
 
The researchers said this sensitivity to force may shed light on the intricate forming and stretching of tissues during embryonic development. Besides directing the axis of division, they found that nanoparticle-induced local force also led to the activation of a biological program in which cells generate filopodia, which are finger-like, actin-rich extensions that cells often use to find sites to adhere to and which aid in movement.

Di Carlo, the principal investigator on the research, envisions that the technique can apply beyond the control of mechanical stimuli in cells.

"Nanoparticles can be coated with a variety of molecules that are important in cell signaling," he said. "We should now have a tool to quantitatively investigate how the precise location of molecules in a cell produces a specific behavior. This is a key missing piece in our tool-set for understanding cell programs and for engineering cells to perform useful functions." Source: From [[UCLA engineers control thousands of cells simultaneously using magnetic nanoparticles|http://newsroom.ucla.edu/portal/ucla/ucla-engineers-control-the-behavior-239600.aspx]] by Matthew Chin. This work is detailed in the paper ''[["Magnetic nanoparticle–mediated massively parallel mechanical modulation of single-cell behavior"|http://www.nature.com/nmeth/journal/vaop/ncurrent/abs/nmeth.2210.html]]'' by Peter Tseng, Jack W Judy & Dino Di Carlo.

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The [[FDA|http://www.fda.gov/ScienceResearch/SpecialTopics/Nanotechnology/default.htm]] (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) issued in June 24, 2011 a draft Guidance for Industry titled ''[[“Considering Whether an FDA-Regulated Product Involves the Application of Nanotechnology”|http://www.fda.gov/RegulatoryInformation/Guidances/ucm257698.htm]]'' and has launched a 60-day comment period on it. "This guidance is intended for manufacturers, suppliers, importers and other stakeholders.  The guidance describes FDA’s current thinking on whether FDA-regulated products contain nanomaterials or otherwise involve the application of nanotechnology. FDA’s guidance documents, including this guidance, do not establish legally enforceable responsibilities.  Instead, guidances describe the Agency’s current thinking on a topic and should be viewed only as recommendations, unless specific regulatory or statutory requirements are cited.  The use of the word should in Agency guidances means that something is suggested or recommended, but not required."

FDA released its document in coordination with the ''[[“Policy Principles for the U.S. Decision-Making Concerning Regulation and Oversight of Applications of Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials”|http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/inforeg/for-agencies/nanotechnology-regulation-and-oversight-principles.pdf]]'' issued on June 9, 2011, jointly by the Office of Science and Technology Policy, Office of Management and Budget, and the United States Trade Representative.

Prior to the FDA announcement, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency "announced it plans to obtain information on nanoscale materials in pesticide products. Under the requirements of the law, EPA will gather information on what nanoscale materials are present in pesticide products to determine whether the registration of a pesticide may cause unreasonable adverse effects on the environment and human health. The proposed policy will be open for public comment. “We want to obtain timely and accurate information on what nanoscale materials may be in pesticide products, “said Steve Owens assistant administrator for EPA’s Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention. “This information is needed for EPA to meet its requirement under the law to protect public health and the environment” (From [[EPA Proposes Policy on Nanoscale Materials in Pesticide Products|http://yosemite.epa.gov/opa/admpress.nsf/0/05ff063e9205eb3c852578aa005aa0f8?OpenDocument]]). See: ''[[Regulating Pesticides that Use Nanotechnology|http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/regulating/nanotechnology.html]]''


''Context:''
[[Don’t define nanomaterials – new commentary in Nature and an early draft|http://2020science.org/2011/07/06/dont-define-nanomaterials-new-commentary-in-nature-and-an-early-draft/]] by Andrew Maynard, director of the University of Michigan Risk Science Center. July 6, 2011
[[“Principles” Issued|http://www.newhavenindependent.org/index.php/archives/entry/small_steps_on_nano/]] by Gwyneth K. Shaw. New Haven Independent. Jul 1, 2011
[[EU Rejects Development of Separate Nanomaterials Regulation|http://www.chemweek.com/home/top_of_the_news/EU-Rejects-Development-of-Separate-Nanomaterials-Regulation_35693.html]] by Alex Scott. Chemical Week, part of IHS, Inc. June 28, 2011
[[Toward Nanotech Regulation|http://pubs.acs.org/cen/government/89/8926gov2.html]] by Britt E. Erickson. C&EN Chemical & Engineering News, published by the American Chemical Society. June 27, 2011
[[FDA Takes ‘First Step’ Toward Greater Regulatory Certainty Around Nanotechnology|http://www.internano.org/content/view/540/251/]] by Jessica Adamick. InterNano, a service of the National Nanomanufacturing Network. June 24, 2011
[[Nanotechnology is Entering a New Legal Frontier|http://www.seolawfirm.com/2011/06/nanotechnology-is-entering-a-new-legal-frontier/]] by Krystina Steffen. The SEO | Law Firm News. June 22, 2011
[[Nano regulatory frameworks are everywhere!|http://www.frogheart.ca/?p=3698]] by Maryse de la Giroday. FrogHeart Communications. June 22, 2011
[[FDA Tries to Address Some Concerns Over Nanotech in Biotech|http://www.genengnews.com/analysis-and-insight/fda-tries-to-address-some-concerns-over-nanotech-in-biotech/77899422/]] by Alex Philippidis. GEN, Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News.  June 21, 2011
[[EU: First practical guidance for assessing nano applications in food & feed]]. NanoWiki. May 11, 2011
[[EU scientific committee publishes opinion on definition of nanomaterials]]. NanoWiki. December 23, 2010


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<img src="http://www.fom.nl/live/imgnew.db?120295"  title="Smoluchowski's thought experiment with the vanes on the right, the cog on the left and in the middle a pulley with a weight. Inset: the granular demonstration experiment" width="100%"/>
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Researchers from the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter and University of Twente in the Netherlands, and the University of Patras in Greece have for the first time experimentally realised, almost a century later, an idea dating from 1912. In that year the physicist Smoluchowski devised a prototype for an engine at the molecular scale in which he thought he could ingeniously convert Brownian motion into work. The team of scientists have now successfully constructed this device at the much larger scale of a granular gas. Moreover, they have shown that an intriguing exchange takes place between the vanes of the engine and the granular gas: once the vanes have started rotating, they in turn induce a rotating motion in the gas, a so-called convection roll. This reinforces the movement of the device and allows for a virtually continuous rotation. Molecular motors, such as those responsible for tensing and relaxing your muscles, move in a strange manner: they propel themselves forwards despite - or thanks to - a continuous bombardment of the randomly moving molecules in their surroundings. ''This random movement is called [[Brownian motion|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brownian_motion]] and a well-constructed motor at the nanoscale actually makes use of this to generate a directed movement (and therefore work). The device introduced by the physicist [[Marian Smoluchowski|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marian_Smoluchowski]] in 1912, as a thought experiment, is a classical example of such a motor.'' Source: From ''[[Classical thought experiment brought to life in granular gas|http://www.fom.nl/live/english/news/artikel.pag?objectnumber=120223]]''. This work is detailed in the paper [[Experimental Realization of a Rotational Ratchet in a Granular Gas|http://prl.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v104/i24/e248001]] by Peter Eshuis, Ko van der Weele, Detlef Lohse, and Devaraj van der Meer. "We construct a [[ratchet of the Smoluchowski-Feynman type|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brownian_ratchet]], consisting of four vanes that are allowed to rotate freely in a vibrofluidized granular gas. The necessary out-of-equilibrium environment is provided by the inelastically colliding grains, and the equally crucial symmetry breaking by applying a soft coating to one side of each vane. The onset of the ratchet effect occurs at a critical shaking strength via a smooth, continuous phase transition. For very strong shaking the vanes interact actively with the gas and a convection roll develops, sustaining the rotation of the vanes."

''Movies of the experiment'':  http://stilton.tnw.utwente.nl/dryquicksand/ratchet/ratchet.html

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<img src="http://www.fom.nl/live/imgnew.db?120294"  title="The thought experiment is brought to life in a granular gas: the experimental setup (left) and the device in operation (right). " width="100%"/>
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''Professor Lee Cronin'' University of Glasgow //''For his outstanding work on the self-assembly of inorganic molecules and the engineering of complex systems.''//

[[Lee Cronin|http://www.gla.ac.uk/schools/chemistry/staff/leecronin/]] is the Gardiner Professor of Chemistry at the School of Chemistry, University of Glasgow and he runs the Cronin 'Complex Chemical Systems' Group in Glasgow.
 
Lee was an undergraduate and DPhil. student at the University of York, research fellow at the University of Edinburgh and an Alexander von Humbolt Research Fellow at the University of Bielefeld.  From 2000 to 2002 he was a lecturer at the University of Birmingham, and moved to the University of Glasgow in 2002.

In 2006 he was promoted to Professor, became a EPSRC advanced research fellow in 2007 he was awarded a Philip Leverhulme Prize. In 2009 Lee was elected to the Royal Society of Edinburgh, awarded a Royal Society / Wolfson merit award and appointed to the Gardiner Professorship of Chemistry at the University of Glasgow. In 2011 he gave the opening lecture at TED-Global in Edinburgh called [['inorganic biology'|http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/en/lee_cronin_making_matter_come_alive.html]] and was awarded the RSC Bob Hay Lectureship. 

''[[Cronin|http://www.chem.gla.ac.uk/cronin/]] is recognized for his creative studies in the field of inorganic chemistry, specifically the self-assembly and self-organization of inorganic molecules and the engineering of complex systems leading to the emergence of system-level behaviours.''  His pioneering contributions include the development of new techniques to control the assembly of nanoscale molecular metal oxide clusters, some of the largest non-biological molecules known, the development of new cryospray and variable temperature mass spectrometry (VT-MS) techniques for the elucidation of reaction mechanism and the observation of highly reactive intermediates as well as the discovery of emergent nano/micro structures such as tubules, membranes and inorganic cells. 

<html><img style="float:left; margin-bottom:15px" src="img/cronin_3d_printing.jpg" title="3D-printing has the potential to transform science and technology creating bespoke, low-cost appliances which have previously required dedicated facilities. An attractive but unexplored application is using the 3D-printer to initiate chemical reactions by printing the reagents directly into the 3D-reactionware matrix, putting reactionware design, construction and operation under digital control. Using a low-cost 3D-printer and open-source design software, we produced reactionware for organic and inorganic synthesis, including printed-in catalysts, and other architectures with printed-in components for electrochemical and spectroscopic analysis." class="photo"  width="100%"/></html>''He is currently developing a range of new reaction formats and techniques to explore chemical reactions including networked flow systems, [[3D printing|http://www.chem.gla.ac.uk/cronin/research.php?t=3D%20Printing]]'', and is developing systems, approaches and theories aiming at understanding and manipulating complex chemical systems, exploring systems chemistry, and engineering evolution in chemistry outside the confines of biology. Source: From ''[[Corday-Morgan Prize 2012 Winner|http://www.rsc.org/ScienceAndTechnology/Awards/CordayMorganPrizes/2012-Winner-Cronin.asp]]''.

''Context:''
July 5, 2012. ''[[In the Future, Your Drug Dealer Will Be a Printer|http://www.vice.com/read/in-the-future-your-drug-dealer-will-be-a-printer]]'' by Kevin Holmes, Vice beta. Interview with Lee Cronin.

June 26, 2012. ''[[A 3D printer for molecules|http://blog.ted.com/2012/06/26/lee-cronin-at-tedglobal2012/]]'': Lee Cronin at TEDGlobal 2012. //"A 3D printer that, instead of printing objects, prints molecules. “Could we make a really cool universal chemistry set? Could we ‘app’ chemistry?” The idea is to make a device that could download plans for molecules and create them, in exactly the way that 3D printers can download plans and create objects. He would have a universal set of software, hardware and inks, and he believes all of them, including the ink, could be fantastically cheap. The software would be the product; the materials would be commodities. What would this mean? It would mean that you could print your own medicine."//

April 15, 2012. ''[[Integrated 3D-printed reactionware for chemical synthesis and analysis|http://www.nature.com/nchem/journal/v4/n5/pdf/nchem.1313.pdf]]'' by Mark D. Symes, Philip J. Kitson, Jun Yan, Craig J. Richmond, Geoffrey J. T. Cooper, Richard W. Bowman, Turlif Vilbrandt & Leroy Cronin, Nature Chemistry. //"Using a low-cost 3D printer and open-source design software we produced reactionware for organic and inorganic synthesis, which included printed-in catalysts and other architectures with printed-in components for electrochemical and spectroscopic analysis"//

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// // {{groupbox small{
/***
http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/824 - OPEN
This tweak allows definition of an optional [[WindowTitle]] tiddler that, when present, provides alternative text for display in the browser window's titlebar, instead of using the combined text content from [[SiteTitle]] and [[SiteSubtitle]] (which will still be displayed as usual in the TiddlyWiki document header area).

Note: this ticket replaces http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/401 (closed), which proposed using a custom [[PageTitle]] tiddler for this purpose.  ''If you were using the previous '401 ~PageTitle' tweak, you will need to rename [[PageTitle]] to [[WindowTitle]] to continue to use your custom window title text''
***/
//{{{
config.shadowTiddlers.WindowTitle='<<tiddler SiteTitle>> - <<tiddler SiteSubtitle>>';
window.getPageTitle=function() { return wikifyPlain('WindowTitle'); }
store.addNotification('WindowTitle',refreshPageTitle); // so title stays in sync with tiddler changes
//}}}
// // }}}}}}// // {{block{
/***
!!!823 apply option values via paramifiers (e.g. #chk...and #txt...)
***/
// // {{groupbox small{
/***
http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/823 - no ticket yet
This tweak extends and ''//replaces//'' the core {{{invokeParamifier()}}} function to support use of ''option paramifiers'' that set TiddlyWiki option values on-the-fly, directly from a document URL.

If a paramifier begins with 'chk' (checkbox) or 'txt' (text field), it's value will be automatically stored in {{{config.options.*}}}, adding to or overriding any existing 'chk' or 'txt' option values that may have already been loaded from browser cookies and/or assigned by the TW core or plugin initialization functions using hard-coded default values.  Note: option values that have been overriden by paramifiers are only applied during the current document session, and are not //automatically// retained.  However, if you edit an overridden option value during that session, then the modified value is, of course, saved in a browser cookie, as usual.
***/
//{{{
function invokeParamifier(params,handler)
{
	if(!params || params.length == undefined || params.length <= 1)
		return;
	for(var t=1; t<params.length; t++) {
		var p = config.paramifiers[params[t].name];
		if(p && p[handler] instanceof Function)
			p[handler](params[t].value);
		else { // not a paramifier with handler()... check for an 'option' prefix
			var h=config.optionHandlers[params[t].name.substr(0,3)];
			if (h && h.set instanceof Function)
				h.set(params[t].name,params[t].value);
		}
	}
}
//}}}
// // }}}}}}// // {{block{
/***
!!!784 allow tiddler sections in TiddlyLinks to be used as anchor points for intra-tiddler scrolling.  
***/
// // {{groupbox small{
/***
http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/784 - OPEN
You can use the tiddler section syntax within the {{{<<tiddler>>}}} macro to //transclude// a subsection of one tiddler into another (e.g., {{{<<tiddler SomeTiddler##SomeSection>>}}}).  However, if this syntax is used in a TiddlyLink (e.g., {{{[[SomeTiddler##SomeSection]]}}}), the entire reference is treated as a link to a (non-existent) tiddler that includes the section reference in the tiddler title itself.

This tweak extends the TiddlyLink and displayTiddler() processing so that section references in links can be used to auto-scroll to the indicated heading within a tiddler (i.e., the same 'anchor' behavior as {{{<a name="foo">}}} and {{{<a href="#foo">...</a>}}} when using HTML syntax).
***/
//{{{
Story.prototype.scrollToSection = function(title,section) {
	if (!title||!section) return; var t=this.getTiddler(title); if (!t) return null;
	var elems=t.getElementsByTagName('*');
	for (var i=0; i<elems.length; i++) { var e=elems[i];
		if (!['H1','H2','H3','H4','H5'].contains(e.nodeName)) continue;
		if (getPlainText(e).indexOf(section)!=-1) {
			var delay=config.options.chkAnimate?config.animDuration+1:0; // scroll *after* tiddler animation
			setTimeout('window.scrollTo(0,'+findPosY(e)+')',delay);
			return e;
		}
	}
}
window.createTiddlyLink_sectionanchor=window.createTiddlyLink;
window.createTiddlyLink=function(place,title) {
	var t=story.findContainingTiddler(place); var tid=t?t.getAttribute('tiddler'):'';
	var parts=title.split(config.textPrimitives.sectionSeparator);
	if (!parts[0].length) parts[0]=tid;  // default to current tiddler for '##section' links
	if (parts[1]) arguments[1]=parts[0]; // trim section from tiddler title
	var btn=createTiddlyLink_sectionanchor.apply(this,arguments);
	if (parts[1]) btn.setAttribute('section',parts[1]); // save section
	return btn;
}
window.onClickTiddlerLink_sectionanchor=window.onClickTiddlerLink;
window.onClickTiddlerLink=function(ev) {
	var e=ev||window.event;	var target=resolveTarget(e); var title=null;
	while (target!=null && title==null) {
		title=target.getAttribute('tiddlyLink');
		section=target.getAttribute('section');
		target=target.parentNode;
	} 
	var t=story.findContainingTiddler(target); var tid=t?t.getAttribute('tiddler'):'';
	if (title!=tid||!section) onClickTiddlerLink_sectionanchor.apply(this,arguments); // avoid excess scrolling
	story.scrollToSection(title,section);
	return false;
}
Story.prototype.displayTiddler_sectionanchor=Story.prototype.displayTiddler;
Story.prototype.displayTiddler = function(srcElement,tiddler)
{
	var title=(tiddler instanceof Tiddler)?tiddler.title:tiddler;
	var parts=title.split(config.textPrimitives.sectionSeparator);
	if (parts[0].length && parts[1]) arguments[1]=parts[0]; // trim section from tiddler title
	this.displayTiddler_sectionanchor.apply(this,arguments);
	story.scrollToSection(parts[0],parts[1]);
}
config.formatterHelpers.isExternalLink_sectionanchor=config.formatterHelpers.isExternalLink;
config.formatterHelpers.isExternalLink=function(link) {
	if (link.indexOf(config.textPrimitives.sectionSeparator)!=-1) return false;
	return config.formatterHelpers.isExternalLink_sectionanchor.apply(this,arguments);
}
//}}}
// // }}}}}}// // {{block{
/***
!!!757 add removeCookie() function
***/
// // {{groupbox small{
/***
http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/757 - OPEN
When a TW option is reset to it's hard-coded default value, the corresponding browser cookie is usually just set to that default value, which results in an accumulation of unnecessary cookies.  Unfortunately, there is a browser-imposed limit on the number of cookies that are stored for any given domain and, when that limit is reached, the browser starts removing cookies on it's own, thereby unexpectedly discarding some TW settings.  In order to allow core and/or plugin code to 'clean up after themselves' and remove unneeded cookies, this tweak provides a new 'core' function, removeCookie() that is the inverse of the existing saveOptionCookie(), and results in the actual deletion of the browser cookie associated with the specified TW option.
***/
//{{{
if (window.removeCookie===undefined) {
	window.removeCookie=function(name) {
		document.cookie = name+'=; expires=Thu, 01-Jan-1970 00:00:01 UTC; path=/;'; 
	}
}
//}}}
// // }}}}}}// // {{block{
/***
!!!749 ieCreatePath fixup for handling / in UNC paths
***/
// // {{groupbox small{
/***
http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/749 - OPEN
***/
//{{{
// tweak ieCreatePath to add fallback check for / (in addition to current check for \)
var fn=window.ieCreatePath;
fn=fn.toString().replace(/function ieCreatePath\(path\)/,'window.ieCreatePath=function(path)');
fn=fn.toString().replace(/var pos = path.lastIndexOf\("\\\\"\);/,
	'var pos=path.lastIndexOf("\\\\"); if(pos==-1) pos=path.lastIndexOf("/");');
eval(fn);
//}}}
// // }}}}}}// // {{block{
/***
!!!741 allow """<hr>""" directly in wiki-formatted content
***/
// // {{groupbox small{
/***
http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/741 - OPEN
This tweak extends the 'horizontal rule' formatter to recognize {{{<hr>}}} (or {{{<hr />}}}) directly in tiddler content without being enclosed within an HTML block (i.e., {{{<html><hr></html>}}}).  This allows HR elements to be used within table cell content, bullet items and other ''line-mode'' syntax, where the required use of newlines surrounding the """----""" syntax would interfere with the enclosing line-mode formatting.
***/
//{{{
config.formatters[config.formatters.findByField('name','rule')].match+='|<hr ?/?>\\n?';
//}}}
// // }}}}}}// // {{block{
/***
!!!683 FireFox3 Import bug: 'browse' button replacement
***/
// // {{groupbox small{
/***
http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/683 - OPEN
The web standard 'type=file' input control that has been used as a local path/file picker for TiddlyWiki no longer works as expected in FireFox3, which has, for security reasons, limited javascript access to this control so that *no* local filesystem path information can be revealed, even when it is intentional and necessary, as it is with TiddlyWiki.  This tweak provides alternative HTML source that patches the backstage import panel.  It replaces the 'type=file' input control with a text+button combination of controls that invokes a system-native secure 'file-chooser' dialog box to provide TiddlyWiki with access to a complete path+filename so that TW functions properly locate user-selected local files.
>Note: ''This tweak also requires http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/604 - cross-platform askForFilename()''
***/
//{{{
if (window.Components) {
	var fixhtml='<input name="txtBrowse" style="width:30em"><input type="button" value="..."'
		+' onClick="window.browseForFilename(this.previousSibling,true)">';
	var cmi=config.macros.importTiddlers;
	cmi.step1Html=cmi.step1Html.replace(/<input type='file' size=50 name='txtBrowse'>/,fixhtml);
}

merge(config.messages,{selectFile:'Please enter or select a file'}); // ready for I18N translation

window.browseForFilename=function(target,mustExist) { // note: both params are optional
	var msg=config.messages.selectFile;
	if (target && target.title) msg=target.title; // use target field tooltip (if any) as dialog prompt text
	// get local path for current document
	var path=getLocalPath(document.location.href);
	var p=path.lastIndexOf('/'); if (p==-1) p=path.lastIndexOf('\\'); // Unix or Windows
	if (p!=-1) path=path.substr(0,p+1); // remove filename, leave trailing slash
	var file=''
	var result=window.askForFilename(msg,path,file,mustExist); // requires #604
	if (target && result.length) // set target field and trigger handling
		{ target.value=result; target.onchange(); }
	return result; 
}
//}}}
// // }}}}}}// // {{block{
/***
!!!604 cross-platform askForFilename()
***/
// // {{groupbox small{
/***
http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/604 - OPEN
invokes a system-native secure 'file-chooser' dialog box to provide TiddlyWiki with access to a complete path+filename so that TW functions properly locate user-selected local files.
***/
//{{{
window.askForFilename=function(msg,path,file,mustExist) {
	var r = window.mozAskForFilename(msg,path,file,mustExist);
	if(r===null || r===false)
		r = window.ieAskForFilename(msg,path,file,mustExist);
	if(r===null || r===false)
		r = window.javaAskForFilename(msg,path,file,mustExist);
	if(r===null || r===false)
		r = prompt(msg,path+file);
	return r||'';
}

window.mozAskForFilename=function(msg,path,file,mustExist) {
	if(!window.Components) return false;
	try {
		netscape.security.PrivilegeManager.enablePrivilege('UniversalXPConnect');
		var nsIFilePicker = window.Components.interfaces.nsIFilePicker;
		var picker = Components.classes['@mozilla.org/filepicker;1'].createInstance(nsIFilePicker);
		picker.init(window, msg, mustExist?nsIFilePicker.modeOpen:nsIFilePicker.modeSave);
		var thispath = Components.classes['@mozilla.org/file/local;1'].createInstance(Components.interfaces.nsILocalFile);
		thispath.initWithPath(path);
		picker.displayDirectory=thispath;
		picker.defaultExtension='html';
		picker.defaultString=file;
		picker.appendFilters(nsIFilePicker.filterAll|nsIFilePicker.filterText|nsIFilePicker.filterHTML);
		if (picker.show()!=nsIFilePicker.returnCancel)
			var result=picker.file.persistentDescriptor;
	}
	catch(ex) { displayMessage(ex.toString()); }
	return result;
}

window.ieAskForFilename=function(msg,path,file,mustExist) {
	if(!config.browser.isIE) return false;
	try {
		var s = new ActiveXObject('UserAccounts.CommonDialog');
		s.Filter='All files|*.*|Text files|*.txt|HTML files|*.htm;*.html|';
		s.FilterIndex=3; // default to HTML files;
		s.InitialDir=path;
		s.FileName=file;
		return s.showOpen()?s.FileName:'';
	}
	catch(ex) { displayMessage(ex.toString()); }
	return result;
}

window.javaAskForFilename=function(msg,path,file,mustExist) {
	if(!document.applets['TiddlySaver']) return false;
	// TBD: implement java-based askFile(...) function
	try { return document.applets['TiddlySaver'].askFile(msg,path,file,mustExist); } 
	catch(ex) { displayMessage(ex.toString()); }
}
//}}}
// // }}}}}}// // {{block{
/***
!!!676 #story:... paramifier
***/
// // {{groupbox small{
/***
http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/676 - OPEN
extends #story:... to scan the specified 'story' tiddler content for embedded links, rather than simply parsing the content as a space-separated bracketed list.  This allows links from ''any'' tiddler to be used as a story, regardless of other wiki-syntax contained in that tiddler.  If specified tiddler is a shadow, fallback to using parseParams() to extract the list of links.
***/
//{{{
config.paramifiers.story = {
	onstart: function(v) {
		var t=store.getTiddler(v); if (t) t.changed();
		var list=t?t.links:store.getTiddlerText(v,'').parseParams('open',null,false);
		story.displayTiddlers(null,list);
	}
};
//}}}
// // }}}}}}// // {{block{
/***
!!!664 Loose links (case-folded/space-folded wiki words)
***/
// // {{groupbox small{
/***
http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/664 - OPEN
This tweak matches non-WikiWord variations of mixed-case and/or added/omitted spaces within double-bracketed text with titles of //existing// tiddlers, using a 'loose' (case-folded/space-folded) comparison.  This allows text that occurs in normal prose to be more easily linked to tiddler titles by using double-brackets without the full 'pretty link' syntax.  For example:
{{{
[[CoreTweaks]], [[coreTweaks]], [[core tweaks]],
[[CORE TWEAKS]], [[CoRe TwEaKs]], [[coreTWEAKS]]
}}}
>[[CoreTweaks]], [[coreTweaks]], [[core tweaks]],
>[[CORE TWEAKS]], [[CoRe TwEaKs]], [[coreTWEAKS]]
Configuration:
><<option chkLooseLinks>> Allow case-folded and/or space-folded text to link to existing tiddler titles
>"""<<option chkLooseLinks>>"""
***/
//{{{
if (!config.options.chkLooseLinks)
	config.options.chkLooseLinks=false; // default to standard behavior
window.caseFold_createTiddlyLink = window.createTiddlyLink;
window.createTiddlyLink = function(place,title,includeText,className) {
	var btn=window.caseFold_createTiddlyLink.apply(this,arguments); // create core link
	if (!config.options.chkLooseLinks) return btn;
	if (store.getTiddlerText(title)) return btn; // matching tiddler (or shadow) exists
	var target=title.toLowerCase().replace(/\s/g,'');
	var tids=store.getTiddlers('title');
	for (var t=0; t<tids.length; t++) {
		if (tids[t].title.toLowerCase().replace(/\s/g,'')==target) {
			var i=getTiddlyLinkInfo(tids[t].title,className);
			btn.setAttribute('tiddlyLink',tids[t].title);
			btn.title=i.subTitle;
			btn.className=i.classes;
			break;
		}
	}
	return btn;
}
//}}}
// // }}}}}}// // {{block{
/***
!!!657 wrap tabs onto multiple lines
***/

// // {{groupbox small{
/***
http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/657 - OPEN
This tweak inserts an extra space element following each tab, allowing them to wrap onto multiple lines if needed.
***/
//{{{
config.macros.tabs.handler = function(place,macroName,params)
{
	var cookie = params[0];
	var numTabs = (params.length-1)/3;
	var wrapper = createTiddlyElement(null,'div',null,'tabsetWrapper ' + cookie);
	var tabset = createTiddlyElement(wrapper,'div',null,'tabset');
	tabset.setAttribute('cookie',cookie);
	var validTab = false;
	for(var t=0; t<numTabs; t++) {
		var label = params[t*3+1];
		var prompt = params[t*3+2];
		var content = params[t*3+3];
		var tab = createTiddlyButton(tabset,label,prompt,this.onClickTab,'tab tabUnselected');
		createTiddlyElement(tab,'span',null,null,' ',{style:'font-size:0pt;line-height:0px'}); // ELS
		tab.setAttribute('tab',label);
		tab.setAttribute('content',content);
		tab.title = prompt;
		if(config.options[cookie] == label)
			validTab = true;
	}
	if(!validTab)
		config.options[cookie] = params[1];
	place.appendChild(wrapper);
	this.switchTab(tabset,config.options[cookie]);
};
//}}}
// // }}}}}}// // {{block{
/***
!!!637 TiddlyLink tooltip - custom formatting
***/
// // {{groupbox small{
/***
http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/637 - OPEN
This tweak modifies the tooltip format that appears when you mouseover a link to a tiddler.  It adds an option to control the date format, as well as displaying the size of the tiddler (in bytes)

Tiddler link tooltip format:
{{stretch{<<option txtTiddlerLinkTootip>>}}}
^^where: %0=title, %1=username, %2=modification date, %3=size in bytes, %4=description slice^^
Tiddler link tooltip date format:
{{stretch{<<option txtTiddlerLinkTooltipDate>>}}}
***/
//{{{
config.messages.tiddlerLinkTooltip='%0 - %1, %2 (%3 bytes) - %4';
config.messages.tiddlerLinkTooltipDate='DDD, MMM DDth YYYY 0hh12:0mm AM';

config.options.txtTiddlerLinkTootip=
	config.options.txtTiddlerLinkTootip||config.messages.tiddlerLinkTooltip;
config.options.txtTiddlerLinkTooltipDate=
	config.options.txtTiddlerLinkTooltipDate||config.messages.tiddlerLinkTooltipDate;

Tiddler.prototype.getSubtitle = function() {
	var modifier = this.modifier;
	if(!modifier) modifier = config.messages.subtitleUnknown;
	var modified = this.modified;
	if(modified) modified = modified.formatString(config.options.txtTiddlerLinkTooltipDate);
	else modified = config.messages.subtitleUnknown;
	var descr=store.getTiddlerSlice(this.title,'Description')||'';
	return config.options.txtTiddlerLinkTootip.format([this.title,modifier,modified,this.text.length,descr]);
};
//}}}
// // }}}}}}// // {{block{
/***
!!!628 hide 'no such macro' errors
***/
// // {{groupbox small{
/***
http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/628 - OPEN
When invoking a macro that is not defined, this tweak prevents the display of the 'error in macro... no such macro' message.  This is useful when rendering tiddler content or templates that reference macros that are defined by //optional// plugins that have not been installed in the current document.

<<option chkHideMissingMacros>> hide 'no such macro' error messages
***/
//{{{
if (config.options.chkHideMissingMacros===undefined)
	config.options.chkHideMissingMacros=false;

window.coreTweaks_missingMacro_invokeMacro = window.invokeMacro;
window.invokeMacro = function(place,macro,params,wikifier,tiddler) {
	if (!config.macros[macro] || !config.macros[macro].handler)
		if (config.options.chkHideMissingMacros) return;
	window.coreTweaks_missingMacro_invokeMacro.apply(this,arguments);
}
//}}}
// // }}}}}}// // {{block{
/***
!!!609/610 toolbars - separators and transclusion
***/
// // {{groupbox small{
/***
http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/609 - OPEN (separators)
http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/610 - OPEN (wikify tiddler/slice/section content)
These tweaks extend the """<<toolbar>>""" macro to permit use of '|' as separators, as well as recognizing references to tiddlernames, slices, or sections and rendering their content inline within the toolbar
''see [[ToolbarCommands]] for examples of how these features can be used''
***/
//{{{
merge(config.macros.toolbar,{
	separator: '|'
	});
config.macros.toolbar.handler = function(place,macroName,params,wikifier,paramString,tiddler)
{
	for(var t=0; t<params.length; t++) {
		var c = params[t];
		switch(c) {
			case '|':  // ELS - SEPARATOR
			case '!':  // ELS - SEPARATOR (alternative for use in tiddler slices)
				createTiddlyText(place,this.separator); // ELS
				break; // ELS
			case '>':
				var btn = createTiddlyButton(place,this.moreLabel,this.morePrompt,config.macros.toolbar.onClickMore);
				addClass(btn,'moreCommand');
				var e = createTiddlyElement(place,'span',null,'moreCommand');
				e.style.display = 'none';
				place = e;
				break;
			default:
				var theClass = '';
				switch(c.substr(0,1)) {
					case '+':
						theClass = 'defaultCommand';
						c = c.substr(1);
						break;
					case '-':
						theClass = 'cancelCommand';
						c = c.substr(1);
						break;
				}
				if(c in config.commands)

					this.createCommand(place,c,tiddler,theClass);
				else { // ELS - WIKIFY TIDDLER/SLICE/SECTION
					if (c.substr(0,1)=='~') c=c.substr(1); // ignore leading ~
					var txt=store.getTiddlerText(c);
					if (txt) {
						txt=txt.replace(/^\n*/,'').replace(/\n*$/,''); // trim any leading/trailing newlines
						txt=txt.replace(/^\{\{\{\n/,'').replace(/\n\}\}\}$/,''); // trim PRE format wrapper if any
						wikify(txt,createTiddlyElement(place,'span'),null,tiddler);
					}
				} // ELS - end WIKIFY CONTENT
				break;
		}
	}
};
//}}}
// // }}}}}}// // {{block{
/***
!!!608 toolbar - more/less toggle
***/
// // {{groupbox small{
/***
http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/608 - OPEN
This tweak extends the """<<toolbar>>""" macro to make the '>' (more) a //toggle// between more/less with the additional toolbar commands displayed on a separate line.
***/
//{{{
merge(config.macros.toolbar,{
	moreLabel: 'more',
	morePrompt: 'Show additional commands',
	lessLabel: 'less',
	lessPrompt: 'Hide additional commands'
});
config.macros.toolbar.onClickMore = function(ev)
{
	var e = this.nextSibling;
	var showing=e.style.display=='block';
	e.style.display = showing?'none':'block';
	this.innerHTML=showing?config.macros.toolbar.moreLabel:config.macros.toolbar.lessLabel;
	this.title=showing?config.macros.toolbar.morePrompt:config.macros.toolbar.lessPrompt;
	return false;
};
//}}}
// // }}}}}}// // {{block{
/***
!!!607 add HREF link on permaview command
***/
// // {{groupbox small{
/***
http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/607 - OPEN
This tweak automatically sets the HREF for the 'permaview' sidebar command link so you can use the 'right click' context menu for faster, easier bookmarking.  Note that this does ''not'' automatically set the permaview in the browser's current location URL... it just sets the HREF on the command link.  You still have to click the link to apply the permaview.
***/
//{{{
config.macros.permaview.handler = function(place)
{
	var btn=createTiddlyButton(place,this.label,this.prompt,this.onClick);
	addEvent(btn,'mouseover',this.setHREF);
	addEvent(btn,'focus',this.setHREF);
};
config.macros.permaview.setHREF = function(event){
	var links = [];
	story.forEachTiddler(function(title,element) {
		links.push(String.encodeTiddlyLink(title));
	});
	var newURL=document.location.href;
	var hashPos=newURL.indexOf('#');
	if (hashPos!=-1) newURL=newURL.substr(0,hashPos);
	this.href=newURL+'#'+encodeURIComponent(links.join(' '));
}
//}}}
// // }}}}}}// // {{block{
/***
!!!529 IE fixup - case-sensitive element lookup of tiddler elements
***/
// // {{groupbox small{
/***
http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/529 - OPEN
This tweak hijacks the standard browser function, document.getElementById(), to work-around the case-INsensitivity error in Internet Explorer (all versions up to and including IE7) //''Note: This tweak is only applied when using IE, and only for lookups of rendered tiddler elements within the containing 'tiddlerDisplay' element.''//
***/
//{{{
if (config.browser.isIE) {
document.coreTweaks_coreGetElementById=document.getElementById;
document.getElementById=function(id) {
	var e=document.coreTweaks_coreGetElementById(id);
	if (!e || !e.parentNode || e.parentNode.id!='tiddlerDisplay') return e;
	for (var i=0; i<e.parentNode.childNodes.length; i++)
		if (id==e.parentNode.childNodes[i].id) return e.parentNode.childNodes[i];
	return null;
};
}
//}}}
// // }}}}}}// // {{block{
/***
!!!471 'creator' field for new tiddlers
***/
// // {{groupbox small{
/***
http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/471 - OPEN
This tweak HIJACKS the core's saveTiddler() function to automatically add a 'creator' field to a tiddler when it is FIRST created. You can use """<<view creator>>""" (or """<<view creator wikified>>""" if you prefer) to show this value embedded directly within the tiddler content, or {{{<span macro="view creator"></span>}}} in the ViewTemplate and/or EditTemplate to display the creator value in each tiddler.  
***/
//{{{
// hijack saveTiddler()
TiddlyWiki.prototype.CoreTweaks_creatorSaveTiddler=TiddlyWiki.prototype.saveTiddler;
TiddlyWiki.prototype.saveTiddler=function(title,newTitle,newBody,modifier,modified,tags,fields)
{
	var existing=store.tiddlerExists(title);
	var tiddler=this.CoreTweaks_creatorSaveTiddler.apply(this,arguments);
	if (!existing) store.setValue(title,'creator',config.options.txtUserName);
	return tiddler;
}
//}}}
// // }}}}}}// // {{block{
/***
!!!458 add permalink-like HREFs on internal TiddlyLinks
***/
// // {{groupbox small{
/***
http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/458 - CLOSED: WON'T FIX
This tweak assigns a permalink-like HREF to internal Tiddler links (which normally do not have any HREF defined).  This permits the link's context menu (right-click) to include 'open link in another window/tab' command.  Based on a request from Dustin Spicuzza.
***/
//{{{
window.coreTweaks_createTiddlyLink=window.createTiddlyLink;
window.createTiddlyLink=function(place,title,includeText,theClass,isStatic,linkedFromTiddler,noToggle)
{
	// create the core button, then add the HREF (to internal links only)
	var link=window.coreTweaks_createTiddlyLink.apply(this,arguments);
	if (!isStatic)
		link.href=document.location.href.split('#')[0]+'#'+encodeURIComponent(String.encodeTiddlyLink(title));
	return link;
}
//}}}
// // }}}}}}// // {{block{
/***
!!!444 'tiddler' and 'place' - global variables for use in computed macro parameters
***/
// // {{groupbox small{
/***
http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/444 - OPEN
When invoking a macro, this tweak makes the current containing tiddler object and DOM rendering location available as global variables (window.tiddler and window.place, respectively).  These globals can then be used within //computed macro parameters// to retrieve tiddler-relative and/or DOM-relative values or perform tiddler-specific side-effect functionality.
***/
//{{{
window.coreTweaks_invokeMacro = window.invokeMacro;
window.invokeMacro = function(place,macro,params,wikifier,tiddler) {
	var here=story.findContainingTiddler(place);
	window.tiddler=here?store.getTiddler(here.getAttribute('tiddler')):tiddler;
	window.place=place;
	window.coreTweaks_invokeMacro.apply(this,arguments);
}
//}}}
// // }}}}}}// // {{block{
/***
!!!067 Missing links - ignore non-wiki syntax source content
***/
// // {{groupbox small{
/***
http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/67 - OPEN
The missing links list includes items contained within quoted text (i.e., content that will not render as wiki-syntax, and so CANNOT create any tiddler links, even if the quoted text matches valid link syntax).  This tweak removes content contained between certain delimiters before scanning tiddler source for possible links.

Delimiters include:
{{{
/%...%/
{{{...}}}
"""..."""
<nowiki>...</nowiki>
<html>...</html>
<script>...</script>
}}}
***/
//{{{
Tiddler.prototype.coreTweaks_changed = Tiddler.prototype.changed;
Tiddler.prototype.changed = function()
{
	var savedtext=this.text;
	// remove 'quoted' text before scanning tiddler source
	this.text=this.text.replace(/\/%((?:.|\n)*?)%\//g,''); // /%...%/
	this.text=this.text.replace(/\{{3}((?:.|\n)*?)\}{3}/g,''); // {{{...}}}
	this.text=this.text.replace(/"{3}((?:.|\n)*?)"{3}/g,''); // """..."""
	this.text=this.text.replace(/\<nowiki\>((?:.|\n)*?)\<\/nowiki\>/g,''); // <nowiki>...</nowiki>
	this.text=this.text.replace(/\<html\>((?:.|\n)*?)\<\/html\>/g,''); // <html>...</html>
	this.text=this.text.replace(/\<script((?:.|\n)*?)\<\/script\>/g,''); // <script>...</script>
	this.coreTweaks_changed.apply(this,arguments);
	// restore quoted text to tiddler source
	this.text=savedtext;
};
//}}}
// // }}}}}}// // {{block{
/***
!!!(no ticket) """<<matchTags popup sort:-created>>""" macro - sortby parameter
***/
// // {{groupbox small{
/***
http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/TBD - TBD
This tweak adds an optional 'sortby' parameter to the """<<matchTags popup sort:-created tagname label tip sortby>>""" macro, as well as the """<<allTags excludeTag sortby>>""" macro used to generate the sidebar contents 'tags' list.  Specify the field on which the contents of each tag popup is to be sorted, with a '+' or '-' prefix to indicate ascending/descending order, respectively.

Example: """<<matchTags popup sort:-created systemConfig "plugins" "list plugins by date, most recent first" "-modified">>"""
Try it: <<matchTags popup sort:-created systemConfig "plugins" "list plugins by date, most recent first" "-modified">>

Similarly, to change the sort order used by the popups from all tags shown in the sidebar contents, edit the [[TagTags]] shadow tiddler and enter: """<<allTags excludeLists -modified>>"""
***/
//{{{
// hijack tag handler() to add 'sortby' attribute to tag button
config.macros.tag.CoreTweaksSortTags_handler=config.macros.tag.handler;
config.macros.tag.handler = function(place,macroName,params)
{
	this.CoreTweaksSortTags_handler.apply(this,arguments);
	var btn=place.lastChild;
	if (params[3]) btn.setAttribute('sortby',params[3]);
}

// tweak <<allTags>> macro to add 'sortby' attribute to each tag button
var fn=config.macros.allTags.handler;
var lines=fn.toString().split('\n');
lines.splice(lines.length-2,0,['if(params[1]) btn.setAttribute("sortby",params[1]);']);
fn=lines.join('\n');
eval('config.macros.allTags.handler='+fn);

// tweak tag event handler to:
// * use tag filtering (only if '[' is present in tag value)
// * use optional 'sortby' attribute
// * save 'sortby' value in 'open all' command (for displaying tiddlers in sorted order)
var fn=onClickTag;
fn=fn.toString().replace(
	/store.getTaggedTiddlers\(tag\);/g,
	'(tag.indexOf("[")==-1?store.getTaggedTiddlers(tag):store.filterTiddlers(tag));'
	+'var sortby=this.getAttribute("sortby");'
	+'if(sortby&&sortby.length) store.sortTiddlers(tagged,sortby);'
);
fn=fn.toString().replace(
	/openAll.setAttribute\("tag",\s*tag\);/g,
	'openAll.setAttribute("tag",tag); openAll.setAttribute("sortby",sortby);'
);
eval(fn);

// tweak 'open all' event handler to use 'sortby' attribute
var fn=onClickTagOpenAll;
fn=fn.toString().replace(
	/story.displayTiddlers\(this,\s*tiddlers\);/g,
	'var sortby=this.getAttribute("sortby");'
	+'if(sortby&&sortby.length) store.sortTiddlers(tiddlers,sortby);'
	+'story.displayTiddlers(this,tiddlers);'
);
eval(fn);
//}}}
// // }}}}}}// // {{block{
/***
!!!(no ticket) backslash-quoting for embedding newlines in 'line-mode' formats
***/
// // {{groupbox small{
/***
http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/TBD - TBD
This tweak pre-processes source content to convert 'double-backslash-newline' into {{{<br>}}} before wikify(), so that literal newlines can be embedded in line-mode wiki syntax (e.g., tables, bullets, etc.)
***/
//{{{
window.coreWikify = wikify;
window.wikify = function(source,output,highlightRegExp,tiddler)
{
	if (source) arguments[0]=source.replace(/\\\\\n/mg,'<br>');
	coreWikify.apply(this,arguments);
}
//}}}
// // }}}}}}
// // <<foldHeadings>>
{{twocolumns{
U.S Energy Secretary Steven Chu announced the largest ever awards of the Department's supercomputing time to 57 innovative research projects - ''using computer simulations to perform virtual experiments that in most cases would be impossible or impractical in the natural world''. Utilizing two world-leading supercomputers with a computational capacity roughly equal to 135,000 quad-core laptops, the research could, for example, help speed the development of more efficient solar cells, improvements in biofuel production, or more effective medications to help slow the progression of Parkinson's disease. Specifically, the Department is awarding time on two of the world's fastest and most powerful supercomputers -- the Cray XT5 ("Jaguar") at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the IBM Blue Gene/P ("Intrepid") at Argonne National Laboratory. Jaguar's computational capacity is roughly equivalent to 109,000 laptops all working together to solve the same problem. Intrepid is roughly equivalent to 26,000 laptops. Awarded under the Department's Innovative and Novel Computational Impact on Theory and Experiment (INCITE) program, many of the new and continuing INCITE projects ''aim to further renewable energy solutions and understand of the environmental impacts of energy use''. 

One award for improving battery technology is profiled below in brief summary.
''Understanding the Ultimate Battery Chemistry: Rechargeable Lithium/Air''
Principal Investigator: Jack Wells, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Utilizing both the Jaguar and Intrepid supercomputers, the research consortium will study and demonstrate a working prototype of a rechargeable Lithium/Air battery. The Lithium/Air battery can potentially store ten times the energy of a Lithium/Ion battery of the same weight. Realizing this enormous potential is a very challenging scientific problem. ''If successful, this will enable rechargeable batteries that compete directly with gasoline, making fully electric vehicles practical and widespread.'' 

Read the [[full listing of awards|http://www.energy.gov/news/documents/2011_INCITE_Fact_Sheets.pdf]] (PDF - 746 kb), with detailed technical descriptions [among others: Petascale Modeling of Nano-electronic Devices, Probing the Non-Scalable Nano Regime in Catalytic Nanoparticles with Electronic Structure Calculations, Electronic Structure Calculations for Nanostructures]. Source: [[Could 135,000 Laptops Help Solve the Energy Challenge?|http://www.energy.gov/news/9834.htm]]. Department of Energy Supercomputers to Pursue Breakthroughs in Biofuels, Nuclear Power, Medicine, Climate Change and Fundamental Research

''Related news'' list by date, most recent first: <<matchTags popup sort:-created energy>><<matchTags popup sort:-created climate>>
''Share this content on Twitter:'' <html><a href="http://twitter.com/share" class="twitter-share-button" data-count="horizontal" data-via="nanowiki">Tweet</a></html><script src="http://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" show></script>


<html><iframe class="youtube-player" type="text/html" width="100%" height="268" src="http://www.youtube.com/v/5eWkTqVVRgA" frameborder="0"></iframe></html>
}}}
<data>{"video_id":"5eWkTqVVRgA"}</data>
{{twocolumns{
<html><img style="float:left; margin-bottom:10px" src="img/image.jpg" title="X. Credit: Y" class="photo"  width="100%"/></html>
A chance discovery that sea urchins use Nickel particles to harness carbon dioxide from the sea to grow their exoskeleton could be the key to capturing tonnes of CO2 from the atmosphere.

Experts at Newcastle University, UK, have discovered that in the presence of a Nickel catalyst, CO2 can be converted rapidly and cheaply into the harmless, solid mineral, calcium carbonate.

This discovery has the potential to revolutionise the way we capture and store carbon enabling us to significantly reduce CO2 emissions – the key greenhouse gas responsible for climate change.

Dr [[Lidija Šiller|http://research.ncl.ac.uk/nanoscale/]], a physicist and Reader in Nanoscale Technology at Newcastle University, says the discovery was made completely by chance.

“We had set out to understand in detail the carbonic acid reaction – which is what happens when CO2 reacts with water – and needed a catalyst to speed up the process,” she explains.

“At the same time, I was looking at how organisms absorb CO2 into their skeletons and in particular the sea urchin which converts the CO2 to calcium carbonate.

“When we analysed the surface of the urchin larvae we found a high concentration of Nickel on their exoskeleton.  Taking Nickel nanoparticles which have a large surface area, we added them to our carbonic acid test and the result was the complete removal of CO2.”

At the moment, pilot studies for Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) systems propose the removal of CO2 by pumping it into holes deep underground.  However, this is a costly and difficult process and carries with it a long term risk of the gas leaking back out - possibly many miles away from the original downward source.

An alternative solution is to convert the CO2 into calcium or magnesium carbonate.

“One way to do this is to use an enzyme called carbonic anhydrase,” explains Gaurav Bhaduri, lead author on the paper and a PhD student in the University’s School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials.

“However, the enzyme is inactive in acid conditions and since one of the products of the reaction is carbonic acid, this means the enzyme is only effective for a very short time and also makes the process very expensive.

“The beauty of a Nickel catalyst is that it carries on working regardless of the pH and because of its magnetic properties it can be re-captured and re-used time and time again. It’s also very cheap – 1,000 times cheaper than the enzyme.  And the by-product – the carbonate – is useful and not damaging to the environment.

“What our discovery offers is a real opportunity for industries such as power stations and chemical processing plants to capture all their waste CO2 before it ever reaches the atmosphere and store it as a safe, stable and useful product.”

Each year, humans emit on average 33.4 billion metric tons of CO2 - around 45% of which remains in the atmosphere.  Typically, a petrol-driven car will produce a ton of CO2 every 4,000 miles.

Calcium carbonate, or chalk, makes up around 4% of the Earth’s crust and acts as a carbon reservoir, estimated to be equivalent to 1.5 million billion metric tons of carbon dioxide.

It is the main component of shells of marine organisms, snails, pearls, and eggshells and is a completely stable mineral, widely used in the building industry to make cement and other materials and also in hospitals to make plaster casts.

The process developed by the Newcastle team involves passing the waste gas directly from the chimney top, through a water column rich in Nickel nano-particles and recovering the solid calcium carbonate from the bottom.

Dr Šiller adds: “''The capture and removal of CO2 from our atmosphere is one of the most pressing dilemmas of our time''. Our process would not work in every situation – it couldn’t be fitted to the back of a car, for example – but it is an effective, cheap solution that could be available world-wide to some of our most polluting industries and have a significant impact on the reduction of atmospheric CO2.”

The team have patented the process and are now looking for an investor to take it forward. Source: From [[Could the humble sea urchin hold the key to carbon capture?|http://www.ncl.ac.uk/press.office/press.release/item/could-the-humble-sea-urchin-hold-the-key-to-carbon-capture#.URDChER4kQU]]. This work is detailed in the paper ''[["Nickel nanoparticles catalyse reversible hydration of carbon dioxide for mineralization carbon capture and storage"|http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2013/cy/c3cy20791a]]'' by Lidija Siller and Gaurav Ashok Bhaduri .

''Related news'' list by date, most recent first: <<matchTags popup sort:-created climate>><<matchTags popup sort:-created nanoparticles>>

<<tiddler Twitter>>
}}}toRSS toGreen climate nanoparticles
^^Permalink of this post: http://nanowiki.info/#%5B%5BCould%20the%20humble%20sea%20urchin%20hold%20the%20key%20to%20carbon%20capture%3F%5D%5D^^
^^Short link: http://goo.gl/MeUU5^^
<<tiddler [[random suggestion]]>>
Talk ''"Nanoscience at Work: Creating Energy from Sunlight" by [[Paul Alivisatos|http://www.cchem.berkeley.edu/pagrp/paulbio.html]]'', co-leader of Berkeley Lab's [[Helios Project|http://pbd.lbl.gov/energy/research.html#helios]]. Helios Project will use nanotechnology in the efficient capture of sunlight and its conversion to electricity to drive economical [[fuel|energy]] production processes. Alivisatos is an authority on artificial nanostructure synthesis and collaborated with [[Louis E. Brus|The 2008 Kavli Prize in Nanoscience]] in the invention of the [[quantum dot|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_dot]] technology.

<html><object width="620" height="500"><param name="movie" value="http://www.youtube.com/v/Jhl07psn9QA&hl=es&fs=1&rel=0"></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><embed src="http://www.youtube.com/v/Jhl07psn9QA&hl=es&fs=1&rel=0" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowfullscreen="true" width="620" height="500"></embed></object></html>

<data>{"video_id":"Jhl07psn9QA"}</data>
{{twocolumns{
Scientists have succeeded in creating light from vacuum – observing an effect first predicted over 40 years ago. In an innovative experiment, the scientists have managed to capture some of the photons that are constantly appearing and disappearing in the vacuum.

The experiment is based on one of the most counterintuitive, yet, one of the most important principles in quantum mechanics: that vacuum is by no means empty nothingness.  In fact, the vacuum is full of various particles that are continuously fluctuating in and out of existence. They appear, exist for a brief moment and then disappear again. Since their existence is so fleeting, they are usually referred to as virtual particles.
 
Chalmers scientist, Christopher Wilson and his co-workers have succeeded in getting photons to leave their virtual state and become real photons, i.e. measurable light. The physicist Moore predicted way back in 1970 that this should happen if the virtual photons are allowed to bounce off a mirror that is moving at a speed that is almost as high as the speed of light. The phenomenon, known as ''the dynamical [[Casimir effect|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Casimir_effect]], has now been observed for the first time in a brilliant experiment conducted by the Chalmers scientists''.

<html><img style="float:left; margin-right:10px; margin-bottom:10px" src="img/light_from_vacuum.jpg" title="n the Chalmers scientists’ experiments, virtual photons bounce off a “mirror” that vibrates at a speed that is almost as high as the speed of light. The round mirror in the picture is a symbol, and under that is the quantum electronic component (referred to as a SQUID), which acts as a mirror. This makes real photons appear (in pairs) in vacuum. Illustration: Philip Krantz, Chalmers" class="photo"  width="100%"/></html>“Since it’s not possible to get a mirror to move fast enough, we’ve developed another method for achieving the same effect,” explains Per Delsing, Professor of Experimental Physics at Chalmers. “Instead of varying the physical distance to a mirror, we've varied the electrical distance to an electrical short circuit that acts as a mirror for microwaves.”
 
''The main value of the experiment is that it increases our understanding of basic physical concepts, such as vacuum fluctuations'' – the constant appearance and disappearance of virtual particles in vacuum. It is believed that vacuum fluctuations may have a connection with “dark energy” which drives the accelerated expansion of the universe. The discovery of this acceleration was recognised this year with the awarding of the Nobel Prize in Physics. Source: From [[Chalmers scientists create light from vacuum|http://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/Chalmers-scientists-create-light-from-vacuum.aspx]]. This work was detailed in the paper [[“Observation of the dynamical Casimir effect in a superconducting circuit”|http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v479/n7373/full/nature10561.html]].

''Related news'' list by date, most recent first: <<matchTags popup sort:-created nanoscience>><<matchTags popup sort:-created nanomechanics>><<matchTags popup sort:-created nanophotonics>>
<<tiddler Twitter>>
}}}
{{twocolumns{
<html>
<img src="http://pubs.acs.org/cen/_img/88/i27/8827NOTWp5_group.jpg"  alt="MOF-210 and MOF-200 images" title="Made from a combination of zinc clusters and organic linkers, these materials set new records for surface area and gas uptake. MOF-210 (left): C is black, O is red, and Zn is blue. MOF-200 (right): C is purple, O is yellow, and Zn is not visible. Credit: Hiroyasu Furukawa/UCLA" width="95%"/>
</html>

Chemists from UCLA and South Korea ''report the "ultimate porosity of a nano-material," achieving world records for both porosity and carbon dioxide storage capacity'' in an important class of materials known as MOFs, or metal–organic frameworks.
 
MOFs, sometimes described as crystal sponges, have pores — openings on the nanoscale which can store gases that are usually difficult to store and transport. Porosity is crucial for compacting large amounts of gases into small volumes and is an essential property for capturing carbon dioxide.
 
The research could lead to cleaner energy and the ability to capture heat-trapping carbon dioxide emissions before they reach the atmosphere and contribute to global warming, rising sea levels and the increased acidity of oceans.

"We are reporting the ultimate porosity of a nano-material; we believe this to be the upper limit or very near the upper limit for porosity in materials," said the paper's senior author, [[Omar Yaghi|http://www.cnsi.ucla.edu/institution/personnel?personnel_id=148021]], a UCLA professor of chemistry and biochemistry and a member of both the [[California NanoSystems Institute (CNSI)|http://www.cnsi.ucla.edu/]] at UCLA and the UCLA–Department of Energy Institute of Genomics and Proteomics.

With lead author Hiroyasu (Hiro) Furukawa, co-author Jaheon Kim and colleagues, Yaghi reports on two materials that not only break the porosity record, but do so by an extremely large margin. The materials are MOF-200, made at UCLA by Furukawa, a postdoctoral scholar in Yaghi's laboratory, and MOF-210, made at Seoul's Soongsil University in South Korea by Kim, a chemistry professor and former graduate student in Yaghi's laboratory, and colleagues.

''Invented by Yaghi the early 1990s, [[MOFs|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metal-organic_framework]] are like scaffolds made of linked rods, with nanoscale pores that are the right size to trap carbon dioxide.'' The components of MOFs can be changed nearly at will, and Yaghi's laboratory has made several hundred MOFs, with a variety of properties and structures.

Since 1999, MOFs have held the record for having the highest porosity of any material. MOFs can be made from low-cost ingredients, such as zinc oxide, a common ingredient in sunscreen, and terephthalate, which is found in plastic soda bottles.''"If I take a gram of MOF-200 and unravel it, it will cover many football fields'', and that is the space you have for gases to assemble," Yaghi said. "It's like magic. Forty tons of MOFs is equal to the entire surface area of California."

Yaghi, Furukawa and Kim also report a record for carbon dioxide storage capacity. ''MOF-200 and MOF-210 take up the highest amount of hydrogen, methane and carbon dioxide, by weight, ever achieved''. Source: ''[[World records by UCLA chemists, Korean colleagues enhance ability to capture CO2|http://newsroom.ucla.edu/portal/ucla/world-records-by-ucla-chemists-163439.aspx]]'' by Stuart Wolpert. This work is detailed in the paper [[Ultra-High Porosity in Metal-Organic Frameworks|http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/sci;science.1192160v1?maxtoshow=&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=Yaghi&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&sortspec=date&resourcetype=HWCIT]] by Hiroyasu Furukawa, Nakeun Ko, Yong Bok Go, Naoki Aratani, Sang Beom Choi, Eunwoo Choi, A. Özgür Yazaydin, <html><a href="http://zeolites.cqe.northwestern.edu/" title="We are researching how nanoporous materials can (help to) save the world. Many of the projects in our group are aimed at solving environmental problems">Randall Q. Snurr</a></html>, Michael O’Keeffe, Jaheon Kim, Omar M. Yaghi

Related news list by date, most recent first: <<matchTags popup sort:-created nanomaterial>><<matchTags popup sort:-created climate>><<matchTags popup sort:-created energy>>
}}}
{{{
// Specify your account number here!
_uacct = "UA-4519803-1";

// CustomTracker as a namespace for tracking related functions
var CustomTracker = {
// store a reference to the original displayTiddler function

displayTiddler: story.displayTiddler
};

CustomTracker.track = function() {
if (readOnly) {
urchinTracker.apply(this, arguments);
}
};

CustomTracker.trackAndDisplayTiddler = function(srcElement, titles) {

// log with the tracker
CustomTracker.track('/' + titles);
// call the original displayTiddler function
CustomTracker.displayTiddler.apply(this,arguments);
};

// replace the default displayTiddler function with a tracking version

story.displayTiddler = CustomTracker.trackAndDisplayTiddler;

// Call once for the initial page load
CustomTracker.track();
}}}
{{twocolumns{
Production of silicon micro- and nanosensors with today’s technologies requires a full-scale clean-room laboratory costing millions of euros – facilities that few organisations can afford. What’s more, integrated-circuit manufacturing technologies used in sensor production are highly standardised processes, optimised for extremely large production volumes of hundreds of millions of devices per year. These sensors, known as Micro Electromechanical Systems (MEMS), are engineered from thin slices of silicon, the same material used to manufacture integrated circuits and other micro-sized electronic devices.

Researchers at KTH Microsystem Technology ''have demonstrated a manufacturing concept that could pave the way toward simple, inexpensive “printing” of 3D silicon structures''.

“It could be made very easy, flexible and cheap compared with today’s manufacturing processes. All you’ll need is a 3D printer and someone to draw the structure in a drafting programme on a computer,” says [[Frank Niklaus|http://www.kth.se/ees/omskolan/organisation/anstallda/sokanstalld/index.php?action=people_polopoly&cmd=extended&peopleid=85]], Associate Professor at KTH Microsystem Technology. 

The new manufacturing technology consists of a layer-by-layer process for defining 3D patterns in silicon, using focused ion beam writing followed by silicon deposition. The layered 3D silicon structures are defined by repeating these two steps over and over, followed by a final etching step in which the excess silicon material is dissolved away. The researchers note, however, that the system has so far only been tested manually on relatively simple structures, and that more testing lies ahead to definitively prove the concept’s viabilityand that more development lies ahead to implement the concept in a manufacturing tool known as a 3D printer.

“In a future manufacturing process, the structure would first be designed in a 3D drawing programme. The drawing is then sent to a 3D printer that recreates the structure in silicon, layer by layer from the bottom up,” explains Niklaus. 

Now the researchers are working to refine the process on a larger scale, and they plan to develop 3D printer that enables the creation of complex 3D silicon nanostructures. The next step is to commercialise the manufacturing technology in collaboration with partners from industry. 

Sensors that detect the orientation and movements of mobile phones or airbag systems in cars are just a few examples of the applications for micro and nano-scale sensors. 

“Just imagine all the new applications that people could come up with if they had an easy and cheap way to manufacture nanostructures for sensors and devices. With this tool, we want to enable smaller markets and organisations to advance sensors and other technologies in ways that we can’t even imagine today. I’d compare it to the way affordable computing opened things up for innovation in information technologies over the last 30 years or so.”

<html><img style="float:left; margin-bottom:10px" src="img/manufactured_microstructure.jpg" title="Schematic of the 3D printing process and an image of a manufactured microstructure" class="photo"  width="100%"/></html>

''A drawing programme and a 3D printer: before long, that could be all it will take to produce the micro- and nanostructures required for the millions of devices and sensors of the future''. With a new manufacturing technology, researchers at KTH Microsystem Technology hope to bring mass innovation capabilities to smaller companies and markets — just as affordable computers have dramatically increased innovation in information technology. Source: From [[Cutting the Cost of Micro- and Nanomanufacturing|http://www.kth.se/en/aktuellt/nyheter/cutting-the-cost-of-micro-and-nanomanufacturing-1.323297]] by Marie Androv. Edited by Kevin Billinghurst. This work is detailed in the paper ''[["3D Free-Form Patterning of Silicon by Ion Implantation, Silicon Deposition, and Selective Silicon Etching"|http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/adfm.201200845/abstract]]'' by Andreas C. Fischer, Lyubov M. Belova, Yuri G. M. Rikers, B. Gunnar Malm, Henry H. Radamson, Mohammadreza Kolahdouz, Kristinn B. Gylfason, Göran Stemme, Frank Niklaus.

''Related news'' list by date, most recent first: <<matchTags popup sort:-created nanomanufacturing>><<matchTags popup sort:-created nanodevice>><<matchTags popup sort:-created nanoelectronics>><<matchTags popup sort:-created detection>>

<<tiddler Twitter>>
}}}
DNA origami is folding up DNA molecules, creating complex structures from a linear molecule very much like the classic crane is made of a simple flat sheet of paper.

The ability of single-stranded DNA strands to hybridize with a strand having complementary sequence can be exploited to generate more and more complex structures: DNA folds into a stiff three-dimensional double helix, and by using synthetic DNA sequences, the length and position of double strands can be "programmed", resulting in arbitrarily designed structures yieling to DNA tiles and functional "DNA machines", a truly bottom-up synthesis of objects of severals tens to 100 nm in size.

In 2003, [[Paul WK Rothemund|http://www.dna.caltech.edu/~pwkr/]] came up with the new strategy of using a very long strand of DNA with known sequence (the "scaffold strand"), which is then folded together by means of many shorter "staple strands" that hybridize according to their sequence at positions of the template strand they were designed to. As template strand, viral DNA from bacteriophage M13 was used, natural single-stranded DNA of which the sequence of its about 7000 bases is readily known. This approach allows for building large DNA structures in an economic way since only the rather short staple strands have to be made of synthetic (and therefore costly) DNA sequences.

Paul Rothemund sketches his strategy in a [[presentation available online|http://www.ted.com/index.php/talks/paul_rothemund_details_dna_folding.html]], his original paper appeared 2006 in [[Nature|http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature04586]]. An animation of the assembly process in DNA origami can be found here: http://people.fas.harvard.edu/~sdouglas/080214stamp.mp4 .

Very recently a number of papers appeared using the same strategy, extending the scaffold-based DNA origami approach to truly 3-dimemsional structures. In one work, the scaffold was programmed by staple strands to form parallel double helices that were then rolled up to stiff bundles forming building blocks that were then interconnected to each other forming extended structures or cages, the building blocks reminding very much to those known from Lego or Tetris (http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nl901165f).

In another work, a DNA origami was used to fold the scaffold first to a compact flat sheet, which is then in turn folded up to a hollow tetrahedron of about 54 nm edge length, entirely consisting of DNA (http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nl901165f).

Another recent DNA object is a cubic box, again folded up from a flat sheet of scaffold + staple strands, with the remarkable feature of a controllable lid: Short single-stranded complementary sequences on both the lid and the bottom of the box can hybridize with each other, resulting in a box with closed lid. One of the two "lock strands" has a "sticky end", i.e. a part of its sequence not hybridized by the complementary sequence. Addition of a fully-complementary "key strand" displaces the original partner of the closed lock strands, resulting in opening of the box. This work (http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature07971) combines both static DNA origami and the concept of "fuel strands" that has been used for the actuation of "DNA machines", functional units entirely based on DNA (for a review, see e.g. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2007.104). It is only a matter of time until these structures become more complex, e.g. by bringing in other functional objects such as nanoparticles, and may eventually yield to functional (opto-)electronic circuits for real-world applications.

Related news list by date, most recent first: <<matchTags popup sort:-created [[dna nanotechnology]]>><<matchTags popup sort:-created nanomaterial>><<matchTags popup sort:-created art>>
{{twocolumns{
<html><img style="float:left; margin-right:10px" title="Figure 1 a and b display schematics for 2D nanoforms with accompanying AFM images of the resulting structures. 1-c-e represent 3D structures of hemisphere, sphere and ellipsoid, respectively, while figure 1f shows a nanoflask, (each of the structures visualized with TEM imaging)" src="img/nanoforms.png" width="60%"/></a></html>Inspired by nature, researchers have started to use the self-assembling feature of DNA to design nanotubes and other objects that have useful electrical and mechanical properties.

As a member of the National Science Foundation’s Materials World Network, [[Hao Yan and his team|http://labs.biodesign.asu.edu/yan/]] at Arizona State University recently developed a new strategy to build nanostructures using DNA as a scaffold for assembly.

Source: [[National Science Foundation (NSF) News - DNA Origami Used to Create 3-D Nanostructures|http://www.nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=119245&org=NSF&from=news]]. Read the full story from the Biodesign Institute at the University of Arizona: [[New DNA nanoforms take shape|http://www.biodesign.asu.edu/news/new-dna-nanoforms-take-shape-]] by Richard Harth. This work is detailed in the paper [[DNA Origami with Complex Curvatures in Three-Dimensional Space|http://www.sciencemag.org/content/332/6027/342.abstract]] <<slider chkSldr [[DNA Origami with Complex Curvatures in Three-Dimensional Space]]  [[Abstract»]] [[read abstract of the paper]]>>

''Related news'' list by date, most recent first: <<matchTags popup sort:-created self-assembly>><<matchTags popup sort:-created [[dna nanotechnology]]>>
''Share this content on Twitter:'' <html><a href="http://twitter.com/share" class="twitter-share-button" data-count="horizontal" data-via="nanowiki">Tweet</a></html><script src="http://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" show></script>

<html><iframe class="youtube-player" type="text/html" width="100%" height="268" src="http://player.vimeo.com/video/22349631" frameborder="0"></iframe></html>
}}}
<br>Dongran Han, Suchetan Pal, Jeanette Nangreave, Zhengtao Deng, Yan Liu & Hao Yan. 2011. ''Science. Vol. 332 no. 6027 pp. 342-346 doi: 10.1126/science.1202998''

//We present a strategy to design and construct self-assembling DNA nanostructures that define intricate curved surfaces in three-dimensional (3D) space using the DNA origami folding technique. Double-helical DNA is bent to follow the rounded contours of the target object, and potential strand crossovers are subsequently identified. Concentric rings of DNA are used to generate in-plane curvature, constrained to 2D by rationally designed geometries and crossover networks. Out-of-plane curvature is introduced by adjusting the particular position and pattern of crossovers between adjacent DNA double helices, whose conformation often deviates from the natural, B-form twist density. A series of DNA nanostructures with high curvature—such as 2D arrangements of concentric rings and 3D spherical shells, ellipsoidal shells, and a nanoflask—were assembled.//
''Researchers give a major boost to nanorobotics: Rotaxane molecules made of genetic material''. There is fresh buzz in nanomechanics. Scientists at the University of Bonn have succeeded for the first time in making, out of DNA double stands, an interlocked molecule (rotaxane) with freely moveable components. This opens up exciting possibilities for nanorobotics and synthetic biology.

Chemists have long been tinkering with rotaxanes. The name, derived from the Greek, basically means "wheel axle" – and not without reason. For a rotaxane molecule consists essentially of an axle and a ring, or hoop, threaded over it. To prevent the hoop from slipping off the axle, bulky "stoppers" are placed at each end. These, in turn, consist of intertwined rings. The whole construction looks rather like a dumbbell with a hoop around its handle. All previous DNA rotaxanes are products of organic chemistry. They are also much smaller in size and therefore exhibit shorter margins of mechanical movement at the nanoscale. Moreover, the new DNA alternative can easily be equipped with additional functions, so that sophisticated mechanical systems can be quickly developed.

Building blocks of life as machine components

To build the new rotaxanes, the research team around Dr. Damian Ackermann and Prof. Michael Famulok from the [[Life & Medical Sciences (LIMES) Institute|http://www.limes-zentrum.uni-bonn.de/]] at the University of Bonn made use of a material that is normally known for constituting the building blocks of life itself: DNA. But the researchers are not primarily interested in DNA's function as a genetic carrier. Rather, their focus of interest lies in using the principles of base-pairing of DNA double-strands for constructing sophisticated architectures at the nanoscale. The double-helix forms a very stable scaffold. Moreover, a part of one strand can be removed at any chosen position to serve as a connecting point for other components of a nanomachine. " The specificity of individual strands makes DNA highly suitable. It offers us quite a lot of possibilities," explains Damian Ackermann. ''"DNA is like a Lego brick, It's the ideal material for nano-architecture,"'' adds Professor Famulok.

Wheels for the nanomachine

The Bonn-based biochemists have created a completely new kind of rotaxane. It forms a stable mechanical unit, with a freely moving inner hoop. A great deal can be done with this wheel. "We envisage quite a few things," says Professor Famulok. "Our initial aim is to construct systems in which movement can be controlled at the nano-level. The axle and wheels are now available, and we have some ideas for how to get the wheels turning." These nanoengines might then also be combined with other biological systems, such as proteins.

The researchers now realize that, with their DNA rotaxanes, they have laid the foundations for developing all sorts of different nano-mechanical systems based on mechanically interlocked double-stranded DNA. It remains open what will finally emerge from these efforts, but the important breakthrough has been made. "What matters is that we now have a set of novel components with which we can build things that were previously impossible," says Ackermann: "The boundaries of our imagination have, in a sense, been pushed a little further." Source: ''[[DNA construction kit for nanoengines|http://www3.uni-bonn.de/Press-releases/dna-construction-kit-for-nanoengines]]''. This work is detailed in the paper ''[[A double-stranded DNA rotaxane|http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/vaop/ncurrent/pubmed/nnano.2010.65.html]]'' by Damian Ackermann , Thorsten L. Schmidt , Jeffrey S. Hannam , Chandra S. Purohit , Alexander Heckel & Michael Famulok 

Related news list by date, most recent first: <<matchTags popup sort:-created nanodevice>><<matchTags popup sort:-created nanomachinery>><<matchTags popup sort:-created [[dna nanotechnology]]>>
<br>Grigory Tikhomirov, Sjoerd Hoogland, P. E. Lee, Armin Fischer, Edward H. Sargent & Shana O. Kelley. 2011. ''Nature Nanotechnology doi:10.1038/nnano.2011.100''

//The electronic and optical properties of colloidal quantum dots, including the wavelengths of light that they can absorb and emit, depend on the size of the quantum dots. These properties have been exploited in a number of applications including optical detection, solar energy harvesting and biological research. Here, we report the self-assembly of quantum dot complexes using cadmium telluride nanocrystals capped with specific sequences of DNA. Quantum dots with between one and five DNA-based binding sites are synthesized and then used as building blocks to create a variety of rationally designed assemblies, including cross-shaped complexes containing three different types of dots. The structure of the complexes is confirmed with transmission electron microscopy, and photophysical studies are used to quantify energy transfer among the constituent components. Through changes in pH, the conformation of the complexes can also be reversibly switched, turning on and off the transfer of energy between the constituent quantum dots.//
{{twocolumns{
<html><img style="float:left; margin-right:10px" title="DaNa Knowledge Base Nanomaterials" src="img/logo_dana.jpg" width="40%"/></a></html>What exactly are nanoparticles? What is meant by “exposure”? When do toxicologists speak of a risk? This and many more questions are answered by the new internet knowledge base www.nanoobjects.info.

Many consumers miss reliable and understandable information on nanomaterials and nanotechnology. In an interdisciplinary approach of human toxicology, environmental toxicology, biology, physics, chemistry, and sociology ''the DaNa project team wishes to provide for more transparency and to process results of research on nanomaterials and their influence on humans and the environment in an understandable way.''

For this purpose, we process results of completed and current projects, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, analyse scientific publications, reports, and latest news on human and environmental toxicology, and wrap up the state of knowledge in the knowledge base. Journalists, NGOs, politicians or scientists will find links to further literature. 

The social process of opinion formation about nanotechnology is just at the beginning. A broad public discussion about nanotechnology and risks, such as the discussion about the use of nuclear energy or the use of genetic engineering has not taken place yet. Experience from this areas of science suggest that new findings and their applications take account of the risk perception of the general public. 

DaNa website ''includes links and information about [[nanotechnologies networks|http://www.nanoobjects.info/cms/lang/en/Dialog]]''. Source: From [[DaNa Knowledge Base Nanomaterials|http://www.nanoobjects.info/]]. Acquisition, evaluation and public-oriented presentation of society-relevant data and findings relating to nanomaterials.

''Related news'' list by date, most recent first: <<matchTags popup sort:-created nanomaterial>><<matchTags popup sort:-created [[national initiatives]]>><<matchTags popup sort:-created [[public opinion]]>><<matchTags popup sort:-created dissemination>><<matchTags popup sort:-created nanotoxicology>>
''Share this content on Twitter:'' <html><a href="http://twitter.com/share" class="twitter-share-button" data-count="horizontal" data-via="nanowiki">Tweet</a></html><script src="http://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" show></script>
}}}
/***
|''Name:''|DataTiddlerPlugin|
|''Version:''|1.0.6 (2006-08-26)|
|''Source:''|http://tiddlywiki.abego-software.de/#DataTiddlerPlugin|
|''Author:''|UdoBorkowski (ub [at] abego-software [dot] de)|
|''Licence:''|[[BSD open source license]]|
|''TiddlyWiki:''|1.2.38+, 2.0|
|''Browser:''|Firefox 1.0.4+; InternetExplorer 6.0|
!Description
Enhance your tiddlers with structured data (such as strings, booleans, numbers, or even arrays and compound objects) that can be easily accessed and modified through named fields (in JavaScript code).

Such tiddler data can be used in various applications. E.g. you may create tables that collect data from various tiddlers. 

''//Example: "Table with all December Expenses"//''
{{{
<<forEachTiddler
    where
        'tiddler.tags.contains("expense") && tiddler.data("month") == "Dec"'
    write
        '"|[["+tiddler.title+"]]|"+tiddler.data("descr")+"| "+tiddler.data("amount")+"|\n"'
>>
}}}
//(This assumes that expenses are stored in tiddlers tagged with "expense".)//
<<forEachTiddler
    where
        'tiddler.tags.contains("expense") && tiddler.data("month") == "Dec"'
    write
        '"|[["+tiddler.title+"]]|"+tiddler.data("descr")+"| "+tiddler.data("amount")+"|\n"'
>>
For other examples see DataTiddlerExamples.




''Access and Modify Tiddler Data''

You can "attach" data to every tiddler by assigning a JavaScript value (such as a string, boolean, number, or even arrays and compound objects) to named fields. 

These values can be accessed and modified through the following Tiddler methods:
|!Method|!Example|!Description|
|{{{data(field)}}}|{{{t.data("age")}}}|Returns the value of the given data field of the tiddler. When no such field is defined or its value is undefined {{{undefined}}} is returned.|
|{{{data(field,defaultValue)}}}|{{{t.data("isVIP",false)}}}|Returns the value of the given data field of the tiddler. When no such field is defined or its value is undefined the defaultValue is returned.|
|{{{data()}}}|{{{t.data()}}}|Returns the data object of the tiddler, with a property for every field. The properties of the returned data object may only be read and not be modified. To modify the data use DataTiddler.setData(...) or the corresponding Tiddler method.|
|{{{setData(field,value)}}}|{{{t.setData("age",42)}}}|Sets the value of the given data field of the tiddler to the value. When the value is {{{undefined}}} the field is removed.|
|{{{setData(field,value,defaultValue)}}}|{{{t.setData("isVIP",flag,false)}}}|Sets the value of the given data field of the tiddler to the value. When the value is equal to the defaultValue no value is set (and the field is removed).|

Alternatively you may use the following functions to access and modify the data. In this case the tiddler argument is either a tiddler or the name of a tiddler.
|!Method|!Description|
|{{{DataTiddler.getData(tiddler,field)}}}|Returns the value of the given data field of the tiddler. When no such field is defined or its value is undefined {{{undefined}}} is returned.|
|{{{DataTiddler.getData(tiddler,field,defaultValue)}}}|Returns the value of the given data field of the tiddler. When no such field is defined or its value is undefined the defaultValue is returned.|
|{{{DataTiddler.getDataObject(tiddler)}}}|Returns the data object of the tiddler, with a property for every field. The properties of the returned data object may only be read and not be modified. To modify the data use DataTiddler.setData(...) or the corresponding Tiddler method.|
|{{{DataTiddler.setData(tiddler,field,value)}}}|Sets the value of the given data field of the tiddler to the value. When the value is {{{undefined}}} the field is removed.|
|{{{DataTiddler.setData(tiddler,field,value,defaultValue)}}}|Sets the value of the given data field of the tiddler to the value. When the value is equal to the defaultValue no value is set (and the field is removed).|
//(For details on the various functions see the detailed comments in the source code.)//


''Data Representation in a Tiddler''

The data of a tiddler is stored as plain text in the tiddler's content/text, inside a "data" section that is framed by a {{{<data>...</data>}}} block. Inside the data section the information is stored in the [[JSON format|http://www.crockford.com/JSON/index.html]]. 

//''Data Section Example:''//
{{{
<data>{"isVIP":true,"user":"John Brown","age":34}</data>
}}}

The data section is not displayed when viewing the tiddler (see also "The showData Macro").

Beside the data section a tiddler may have all kind of other content.

Typically you will not access the data section text directly but use the methods given above. Nevertheless you may retrieve the text of the data section's content through the {{{DataTiddler.getDataText(tiddler)}}} function.


''Saving Changes''

The "setData" methods respect the "ForceMinorUpdate" and "AutoSave" configuration values. I.e. when "ForceMinorUpdate" is true changing a value using setData will not affect the "modifier" and "modified" attributes. With "AutoSave" set to true every setData will directly save the changes after a setData.


''Notifications''

No notifications are sent when a tiddler's data value is changed through the "setData" methods. 

''Escape Data Section''
In case that you want to use the text {{{<data>}}} or {{{</data>}}} in a tiddler text you must prefix the text with a tilde ('~'). Otherwise it may be wrongly considered as the data section. The tiddler text {{{~<data>}}} is displayed as {{{<data>}}}.


''The showData Macro''

By default the data of a tiddler (that is stored in the {{{<data>...</data>}}} section of the tiddler) is not displayed. If you want to display this data you may used the {{{<<showData ...>>}}} macro:

''Syntax:'' 
|>|{{{<<}}}''showData '' [''JSON''] [//tiddlerName//] {{{>>}}}|
|''JSON''|By default the data is rendered as a table with a "Name" and "Value" column. When defining ''JSON'' the data is rendered in JSON format|
|//tiddlerName//|Defines the tiddler holding the data to be displayed. When no tiddler is given the tiddler containing the showData macro is used. When the tiddler name contains spaces you must quote the name (or use the {{{[[...]]}}} syntax.)|
|>|~~Syntax formatting: Keywords in ''bold'', optional parts in [...]. 'or' means that exactly one of the two alternatives must exist.~~|


!Revision history
* v1.0.6 (2006-08-26) 
** Removed misleading comment
* v1.0.5 (2006-02-27) (Internal Release Only)
** Internal
*** Make "JSLint" conform
* v1.0.4 (2006-02-05)
** Bugfix: showData fails in TiddlyWiki 2.0
* v1.0.3 (2006-01-06)
** Support TiddlyWiki 2.0
* v1.0.2 (2005-12-22)
** Enhancements:
*** Handle texts "<data>" or "</data>" more robust when used in a tiddler text or as a field value.
*** Improved (JSON) error messages.
** Bugs fixed: 
*** References are not updated when using the DataTiddler.
*** Changes to compound objects are not always saved.
*** "~</data>" is not rendered correctly (expected "</data>")
* v1.0.1 (2005-12-13)
** Features: 
*** The showData macro supports an optional "tiddlername" argument to specify the tiddler containing the data to be displayed
** Bugs fixed: 
*** A script immediately following a data section is deleted when the data is changed. (Thanks to GeoffS for reporting.)
* v1.0.0 (2005-12-12)
** initial version

!Code
***/
//{{{
//============================================================================
//============================================================================
//                           DataTiddlerPlugin
//============================================================================
//============================================================================

// Ensure that the DataTiddler Plugin is only installed once.
//
if (!version.extensions.DataTiddlerPlugin) {



version.extensions.DataTiddlerPlugin = {
    major: 1, minor: 0, revision: 6,
    date: new Date(2006, 7, 26), 
    type: 'plugin',
    source: "http://tiddlywiki.abego-software.de/#DataTiddlerPlugin"
};

// For backward compatibility with v1.2.x
//
if (!window.story) window.story=window; 
if (!TiddlyWiki.prototype.getTiddler) {
	TiddlyWiki.prototype.getTiddler = function(title) { 
		var t = this.tiddlers[title]; 
		return (t !== undefined && t instanceof Tiddler) ? t : null; 
	};
}

//============================================================================
// DataTiddler Class
//============================================================================

// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Configurations and constants 
// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

function DataTiddler() {
}

DataTiddler = {
    // Function to stringify a JavaScript value, producing the text for the data section content.
    // (Must match the implementation of DataTiddler.parse.)
    //
    stringify : null,
    

    // Function to parse the text for the data section content, producing a JavaScript value.
    // (Must match the implementation of DataTiddler.stringify.)
    //
    parse : null
};

// Ensure access for IE
window.DataTiddler = DataTiddler;

// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Data Accessor and Mutator
// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------


// Returns the value of the given data field of the tiddler.
// When no such field is defined or its value is undefined
// the defaultValue is returned.
// 
// @param tiddler either a tiddler name or a tiddler
//
DataTiddler.getData = function(tiddler, field, defaultValue) {
    var t = (typeof tiddler == "string") ? store.getTiddler(tiddler) : tiddler;
    if (!(t instanceof Tiddler)) {
        throw "Tiddler expected. Got "+tiddler;
    }

    return DataTiddler.getTiddlerDataValue(t, field, defaultValue);
};


// Sets the value of the given data field of the tiddler to
// the value. When the value is equal to the defaultValue
// no value is set (and the field is removed)
//
// Changing data of a tiddler will not trigger notifications.
// 
// @param tiddler either a tiddler name or a tiddler
//
DataTiddler.setData = function(tiddler, field, value, defaultValue) {
    var t = (typeof tiddler == "string") ? store.getTiddler(tiddler) : tiddler;
    if (!(t instanceof Tiddler)) {
        throw "Tiddler expected. Got "+tiddler+ "("+t+")";
    }

    DataTiddler.setTiddlerDataValue(t, field, value, defaultValue);
};


// Returns the data object of the tiddler, with a property for every field.
//
// The properties of the returned data object may only be read and
// not be modified. To modify the data use DataTiddler.setData(...) 
// or the corresponding Tiddler method.
//
// If no data section is defined a new (empty) object is returned.
//
// @param tiddler either a tiddler name or a Tiddler
//
DataTiddler.getDataObject = function(tiddler) {
    var t = (typeof tiddler == "string") ? store.getTiddler(tiddler) : tiddler;
    if (!(t instanceof Tiddler)) {
        throw "Tiddler expected. Got "+tiddler;
    }

    return DataTiddler.getTiddlerDataObject(t);
};

// Returns the text of the content of the data section of the tiddler.
//
// When no data section is defined for the tiddler null is returned 
//
// @param tiddler either a tiddler name or a Tiddler
// @return [may be null]
//
DataTiddler.getDataText = function(tiddler) {
    var t = (typeof tiddler == "string") ? store.getTiddler(tiddler) : tiddler;
    if (!(t instanceof Tiddler)) {
        throw "Tiddler expected. Got "+tiddler;
    }

    return DataTiddler.readDataSectionText(t);
};


// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Internal helper methods (must not be used by code from outside this plugin)
// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

// Internal.
//
// The original JSONError is not very user friendly, 
// especially it does not define a toString() method
// Therefore we extend it here.
//
DataTiddler.extendJSONError = function(ex) {
	if (ex.name == 'JSONError') {
        ex.toString = function() {
			return ex.name + ": "+ex.message+" ("+ex.text+")";
		};
	}
	return ex;
};

// Internal.
//
// @param t a Tiddler
//
DataTiddler.getTiddlerDataObject = function(t) {
    if (t.dataObject === undefined) {
        var data = DataTiddler.readData(t);
        t.dataObject = (data) ? data : {};
    }
    
    return t.dataObject;
};


// Internal.
//
// @param tiddler a Tiddler
//
DataTiddler.getTiddlerDataValue = function(tiddler, field, defaultValue) {
    var value = DataTiddler.getTiddlerDataObject(tiddler)[field];
    return (value === undefined) ? defaultValue : value;
};


// Internal.
//
// @param tiddler a Tiddler
//
DataTiddler.setTiddlerDataValue = function(tiddler, field, value, defaultValue) {
    var data = DataTiddler.getTiddlerDataObject(tiddler);
    var oldValue = data[field];
	
    if (value == defaultValue) {
        if (oldValue !== undefined) {
            delete data[field];
            DataTiddler.save(tiddler);
        }
        return;
    }
    data[field] = value;
    DataTiddler.save(tiddler);
};

// Internal.
//
// Reads the data section from the tiddler's content and returns its text
// (as a String).
//
// Returns null when no data is defined.
//
// @param tiddler a Tiddler
// @return [may be null]
//
DataTiddler.readDataSectionText = function(tiddler) {
    var matches = DataTiddler.getDataTiddlerMatches(tiddler);
    if (matches === null || !matches[2]) {
        return null;
    }
    return matches[2];
};

// Internal.
//
// Reads the data section from the tiddler's content and returns it
// (as an internalized object).
//
// Returns null when no data is defined.
//
// @param tiddler a Tiddler
// @return [may be null]
//
DataTiddler.readData = function(tiddler) {
    var text = DataTiddler.readDataSectionText(tiddler);
	try {
	    return text ? DataTiddler.parse(text) : null;
	} catch(ex) {
		throw DataTiddler.extendJSONError(ex);
	}
};

// Internal.
// 
// Returns the serialized text of the data of the given tiddler, as it
// should be stored in the data section.
//
// @param tiddler a Tiddler
//
DataTiddler.getDataTextOfTiddler = function(tiddler) {
    var data = DataTiddler.getTiddlerDataObject(tiddler);
    return DataTiddler.stringify(data);
};


// Internal.
// 
DataTiddler.indexOfNonEscapedText = function(s, subString, startIndex) {
	var index = s.indexOf(subString, startIndex);
	while ((index > 0) && (s[index-1] == '~')) { 
		index = s.indexOf(subString, index+1);
	}
	return index;
};

// Internal.
//
DataTiddler.getDataSectionInfo = function(text) {
	// Special care must be taken to handle "<data>" and "</data>" texts inside
	// a data section. 
	// Also take care not to use an escaped <data> (i.e. "~<data>") as the start 
	// of a data section. (Same for </data>)

    // NOTE: we are explicitly searching for a data section that contains a JSON
    // string, i.e. framed with braces. This way we are little bit more robust in
    // case the tiddler contains unescaped texts "<data>" or "</data>". This must
    // be changed when using a different stringifier.

	var startTagText = "<data>{";
	var endTagText = "}</data>";

	var startPos = 0;

	// Find the first not escaped "<data>".
	var startDataTagIndex = DataTiddler.indexOfNonEscapedText(text, startTagText, 0);
	if (startDataTagIndex < 0) {
		return null;
	}

	// Find the *last* not escaped "</data>".
	var endDataTagIndex = text.indexOf(endTagText, startDataTagIndex);
	if (endDataTagIndex < 0) {
		return null;
	}
	var nextEndDataTagIndex;
	while ((nextEndDataTagIndex = text.indexOf(endTagText, endDataTagIndex+1)) >= 0) {
		endDataTagIndex = nextEndDataTagIndex;
	}

	return {
		prefixEnd: startDataTagIndex, 
		dataStart: startDataTagIndex+(startTagText.length)-1, 
		dataEnd: endDataTagIndex, 
		suffixStart: endDataTagIndex+(endTagText.length)
	};
};

// Internal.
// 
// Returns the "matches" of a content of a DataTiddler on the
// "data" regular expression. Return null when no data is defined
// in the tiddler content.
//
// Group 1: text before data section (prefix)
// Group 2: content of data section
// Group 3: text behind data section (suffix)
//
// @param tiddler a Tiddler
// @return [may be null] null when the tiddler contains no data section, otherwise see above.
//
DataTiddler.getDataTiddlerMatches = function(tiddler) {
	var text = tiddler.text;
	var info = DataTiddler.getDataSectionInfo(text);
	if (!info) {
		return null;
	}

	var prefix = text.substr(0,info.prefixEnd);
	var data = text.substr(info.dataStart, info.dataEnd-info.dataStart+1);
	var suffix = text.substr(info.suffixStart);
	
	return [text, prefix, data, suffix];
};


// Internal.
//
// Saves the data in a <data> block of the given tiddler (as a minor change). 
//
// The "chkAutoSave" and "chkForceMinorUpdate" options are respected. 
// I.e. the TiddlyWiki *file* is only saved when AutoSave is on.
//
// Notifications are not send. 
//
// This method should only be called when the data really has changed. 
//
// @param tiddler
//             the tiddler to be saved.
//
DataTiddler.save = function(tiddler) {

    var matches = DataTiddler.getDataTiddlerMatches(tiddler);

    var prefix;
    var suffix;
    if (matches === null) {
        prefix = tiddler.text;
        suffix = "";
    } else {
        prefix = matches[1];
        suffix = matches[3];
    }

    var dataText = DataTiddler.getDataTextOfTiddler(tiddler);
    var newText = 
            (dataText !== null) 
                ? prefix + "<data>" + dataText + "</data>" + suffix
                : prefix + suffix;
    if (newText != tiddler.text) {
        // make the change in the tiddlers text
        
        // ... see DataTiddler.MyTiddlerChangedFunction
        tiddler.isDataTiddlerChange = true;
        
        // ... do the action change
        tiddler.set(
                tiddler.title,
                newText,
                config.options.txtUserName, 
                config.options.chkForceMinorUpdate? undefined : new Date(),
                tiddler.tags);

        // ... see DataTiddler.MyTiddlerChangedFunction
        delete tiddler.isDataTiddlerChange;

        // Mark the store as dirty.
        store.dirty = true;
 
        // AutoSave if option is selected
        if(config.options.chkAutoSave) {
           saveChanges();
        }
    }
};

// Internal.
//
DataTiddler.MyTiddlerChangedFunction = function() {
    // Remove the data object from the tiddler when the tiddler is changed
    // by code other than DataTiddler code. 
    //
    // This is necessary since the data object is just a "cached version" 
    // of the data defined in the data section of the tiddler and the 
    // "external" change may have changed the content of the data section.
    // Thus we are not sure if the data object reflects the data section 
    // contents. 
    // 
    // By deleting the data object we ensure that the data object is 
    // reconstructed the next time it is needed, with the data defined by
    // the data section in the tiddler's text.
    
    // To indicate that a change is a "DataTiddler change" a temporary
    // property "isDataTiddlerChange" is added to the tiddler.
    if (this.dataObject && !this.isDataTiddlerChange) {
        delete this.dataObject;
    }
    
    // call the original code.
	DataTiddler.originalTiddlerChangedFunction.apply(this, arguments);
};


//============================================================================
// Formatters
//============================================================================

// This formatter ensures that "~<data>" is rendered as "<data>". This is used to 
// escape the "<data>" of a data section, just in case someone really wants to use
// "<data>" as a text in a tiddler and not start a data section.
//
// Same for </data>.
//
config.formatters.push( {
    name: "data-escape",
    match: "~<\\/?data>",

    handler: function(w) {
            w.outputText(w.output,w.matchStart + 1,w.nextMatch);
    }
} );


// This formatter ensures that <data>...</data> sections are not rendered.
//
config.formatters.push( {
    name: "data",
    match: "<data>",

    handler: function(w) {
		var info = DataTiddler.getDataSectionInfo(w.source);
		if (info && info.prefixEnd == w.matchStart) {
            w.nextMatch = info.suffixStart;
		} else {
			w.outputText(w.output,w.matchStart,w.nextMatch);
		}
    }
} );


//============================================================================
// Tiddler Class Extension
//============================================================================

// "Hijack" the changed method ---------------------------------------------------

DataTiddler.originalTiddlerChangedFunction = Tiddler.prototype.changed;
Tiddler.prototype.changed = DataTiddler.MyTiddlerChangedFunction;

// Define accessor methods -------------------------------------------------------

// Returns the value of the given data field of the tiddler. When no such field 
// is defined or its value is undefined the defaultValue is returned.
//
// When field is undefined (or null) the data object is returned. (See 
// DataTiddler.getDataObject.)
//
// @param field [may be null, undefined]
// @param defaultValue [may be null, undefined]
// @return [may be null, undefined]
//
Tiddler.prototype.data = function(field, defaultValue) {
    return (field) 
         ? DataTiddler.getTiddlerDataValue(this, field, defaultValue)
         : DataTiddler.getTiddlerDataObject(this);
};

// Sets the value of the given data field of the tiddler to the value. When the 
// value is equal to the defaultValue no value is set (and the field is removed).
//
// @param value [may be null, undefined]
// @param defaultValue [may be null, undefined]
//
Tiddler.prototype.setData = function(field, value, defaultValue) {
    DataTiddler.setTiddlerDataValue(this, field, value, defaultValue);
};


//============================================================================
// showData Macro
//============================================================================

config.macros.showData = {
     // Standard Properties
     label: "showData",
     prompt: "Display the values stored in the data section of the tiddler"
};

config.macros.showData.handler = function(place,macroName,params) {
    // --- Parsing ------------------------------------------

    var i = 0; // index running over the params
    // Parse the optional "JSON"
    var showInJSONFormat = false;
    if ((i < params.length) && params[i] == "JSON") {
        i++;
        showInJSONFormat = true;
    }
    
    var tiddlerName = story.findContainingTiddler(place).id.substr(7);
    if (i < params.length) {
        tiddlerName = params[i];
        i++;
    }

    // --- Processing ------------------------------------------
    try {
        if (showInJSONFormat) {
            this.renderDataInJSONFormat(place, tiddlerName);
        } else {
            this.renderDataAsTable(place, tiddlerName);
        }
    } catch (e) {
        this.createErrorElement(place, e);
    }
};

config.macros.showData.renderDataInJSONFormat = function(place,tiddlerName) {
    var text = DataTiddler.getDataText(tiddlerName);
    if (text) {
        createTiddlyElement(place,"pre",null,null,text);
    }
};

config.macros.showData.renderDataAsTable = function(place,tiddlerName) {
    var text = "|!Name|!Value|\n";
    var data = DataTiddler.getDataObject(tiddlerName);
    if (data) {
        for (var i in data) {
            var value = data[i];
            text += "|"+i+"|"+DataTiddler.stringify(value)+"|\n";
        }
    }
    
    wikify(text, place);
};


// Internal.
//
// Creates an element that holds an error message
// 
config.macros.showData.createErrorElement = function(place, exception) {
    var message = (exception.description) ? exception.description : exception.toString();
    return createTiddlyElement(place,"span",null,"showDataError","<<showData ...>>: "+message);
};

// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Stylesheet Extensions (may be overridden by local StyleSheet)
// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
//
setStylesheet(
    ".showDataError{color: #ffffff;background-color: #880000;}",
    "showData");


} // of "install only once"
// Used Globals (for JSLint) ==============

// ... TiddlyWiki Core
/*global 	createTiddlyElement, saveChanges, store, story, wikify */
// ... DataTiddler
/*global 	DataTiddler */
// ... JSON
/*global 	JSON */
			

/***
!JSON Code, used to serialize the data
***/
/*
Copyright (c) 2005 JSON.org

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The Software shall be used for Good, not Evil.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE
SOFTWARE.
*/

/*
    The global object JSON contains two methods.

    JSON.stringify(value) takes a JavaScript value and produces a JSON text.
    The value must not be cyclical.

    JSON.parse(text) takes a JSON text and produces a JavaScript value. It will
    throw a 'JSONError' exception if there is an error.
*/
var JSON = {
    copyright: '(c)2005 JSON.org',
    license: 'http://www.crockford.com/JSON/license.html',
/*
    Stringify a JavaScript value, producing a JSON text.
*/
    stringify: function (v) {
        var a = [];

/*
    Emit a string.
*/
        function e(s) {
            a[a.length] = s;
        }

/*
    Convert a value.
*/
        function g(x) {
            var c, i, l, v;

            switch (typeof x) {
            case 'object':
                if (x) {
                    if (x instanceof Array) {
                        e('[');
                        l = a.length;
                        for (i = 0; i < x.length; i += 1) {
                            v = x[i];
                            if (typeof v != 'undefined' &&
                                    typeof v != 'function') {
                                if (l < a.length) {
                                    e(',');
                                }
                                g(v);
                            }
                        }
                        e(']');
                        return;
                    } else if (typeof x.toString != 'undefined') {
                        e('{');
                        l = a.length;
                        for (i in x) {
                            v = x[i];
                            if (x.hasOwnProperty(i) &&
                                    typeof v != 'undefined' &&
                                    typeof v != 'function') {
                                if (l < a.length) {
                                    e(',');
                                }
                                g(i);
                                e(':');
                                g(v);
                            }
                        }
                        return e('}');
                    }
                }
                e('null');
                return;
            case 'number':
                e(isFinite(x) ? +x : 'null');
                return;
            case 'string':
                l = x.length;
                e('"');
                for (i = 0; i < l; i += 1) {
                    c = x.charAt(i);
                    if (c >= ' ') {
                        if (c == '\\' || c == '"') {
                            e('\\');
                        }
                        e(c);
                    } else {
                        switch (c) {
                            case '\b':
                                e('\\b');
                                break;
                            case '\f':
                                e('\\f');
                                break;
                            case '\n':
                                e('\\n');
                                break;
                            case '\r':
                                e('\\r');
                                break;
                            case '\t':
                                e('\\t');
                                break;
                            default:
                                c = c.charCodeAt();
                                e('\\u00' + Math.floor(c / 16).toString(16) +
                                    (c % 16).toString(16));
                        }
                    }
                }
                e('"');
                return;
            case 'boolean':
                e(String(x));
                return;
            default:
                e('null');
                return;
            }
        }
        g(v);
        return a.join('');
    },
/*
    Parse a JSON text, producing a JavaScript value.
*/
    parse: function (text) {
        var p = /^\s*(([,:{}\[\]])|"(\\.|[^\x00-\x1f"\\])*"|-?\d+(\.\d*)?([eE][+-]?\d+)?|true|false|null)\s*/,
            token,
            operator;

        function error(m, t) {
            throw {
                name: 'JSONError',
                message: m,
                text: t || operator || token
            };
        }

        function next(b) {
            if (b && b != operator) {
                error("Expected '" + b + "'");
            }
            if (text) {
                var t = p.exec(text);
                if (t) {
                    if (t[2]) {
                        token = null;
                        operator = t[2];
                    } else {
                        operator = null;
                        try {
                            token = eval(t[1]);
                        } catch (e) {
                            error("Bad token", t[1]);
                        }
                    }
                    text = text.substring(t[0].length);
                } else {
                    error("Unrecognized token", text);
                }
            } else {
                token = operator = undefined;
            }
        }


        function val() {
            var k, o;
            switch (operator) {
            case '{':
                next('{');
                o = {};
                if (operator != '}') {
                    for (;;) {
                        if (operator || typeof token != 'string') {
                            error("Missing key");
                        }
                        k = token;
                        next();
                        next(':');
                        o[k] = val();
                        if (operator != ',') {
                            break;
                        }
                        next(',');
                    }
                }
                next('}');
                return o;
            case '[':
                next('[');
                o = [];
                if (operator != ']') {
                    for (;;) {
                        o.push(val());
                        if (operator != ',') {
                            break;
                        }
                        next(',');
                    }
                }
                next(']');
                return o;
            default:
                if (operator !== null) {
                    error("Missing value");
                }
                k = token;
                next();
                return k;
            }
        }
        next();
        return val();
    }
};

/***
!Setup the data serialization
***/

DataTiddler.format = "JSON";
DataTiddler.stringify = JSON.stringify;
DataTiddler.parse = JSON.parse;

//}}}
/***
|Name|[[DatePlugin]]|
|Source|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#DatePlugin|
|Documentation|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#DatePluginInfo|
|Version|2.7.3|
|Author|Eric Shulman|
|License|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#LegalStatements|
|~CoreVersion|2.1|
|Type|plugin|
|Description|formatted dates plus popup menu with 'journal' link, changes and (optional) reminders|
This plugin provides a general approach to displaying formatted dates and/or links and popups that permit easy navigation and management of tiddlers based on their creation/modification dates.
!!!!!Documentation
>see [[DatePluginInfo]]
!!!!!Configuration
<<<
<<option chkDatePopupHideCreated>> omit 'created' section from date popups
<<option chkDatePopupHideChanged>> omit 'changed' section from date popups
<<option chkDatePopupHideTagged>> omit 'tagged' section from date popups
<<option chkDatePopupHideReminders>> omit 'reminders' section from date popups
<<option chkShowJulianDate>> display Julian day number (1-365) below current date

see [[DatePluginConfig]] for additional configuration settings, for use in calendar displays, including:
*date formats
*color-coded backgrounds
*annual fixed-date holidays
*weekends
<<<
!!!!!Revisions
<<<
2011.04.23 2.7.3 added config.macros.date.tipformat for custom mouseover tooltip and config.macros.date.leadtime for custom reminder leadtime (default=90 days)
2010.12.15 2.7.2 omit date highlighting when hiding popup items (created/changed/tagged/reminders)
|please see [[DatePluginInfo]] for additional revision details|
2005.10.30 0.9.0 pre-release
<<<
!!!!!Code
***/
//{{{
version.extensions.DatePlugin= {major: 2, minor: 7, revision: 3, date: new Date(2011,4,23)};

config.macros.date = {
	format: 'YYYY.0MM.0DD', // default date display format
	linkformat: 'YYYY.0MM.0DD', // 'dated tiddler' link format
	tipformat: 'YYYY.0MM.0DD', // 'dated tiddler' link tooltip format
	leadtime: 31, // find reminders up to 31 days from now
	linkedbg: '#babb1e',
	todaybg: '#ffab1e',
	weekendbg: '#c0c0c0',
	holidaybg: '#ffaace',
	createdbg: '#bbeeff',
	modifiedsbg: '#bbeeff',
	remindersbg: '#c0ffee',
	weekend: [ 1,0,0,0,0,0,1 ], // [ day index values: sun=0, mon=1, tue=2, wed=3, thu=4, fri=5, sat=6 ],
	holidays: [ '01/01', '07/04', '07/24', '11/24' ]
		// NewYearsDay, IndependenceDay(US), Eric's Birthday (hooray!), Thanksgiving(US)
};

config.macros.date.handler = function(place,macroName,params)
{
	// default: display current date
	var now =new Date();
	var date=now;
	var mode='display';
	if (params[0]&&['display','popup','link'].contains(params[0].toLowerCase()))
		{ mode=params[0]; params.shift(); }

	if (!params[0] || params[0]=='today')
		{ params.shift(); }
	else if (params[0]=='filedate')
		{ date=new Date(document.lastModified); params.shift(); }
	else if (params[0]=='tiddler')
		{ date=store.getTiddler(story.findContainingTiddler(place).id.substr(7)).modified; params.shift(); }
	else if (params[0].substr(0,8)=='tiddler:')
		{ var t; if ((t=store.getTiddler(params[0].substr(8)))) date=t.modified; params.shift(); }
	else {
		var y = eval(params.shift().replace(/Y/ig,(now.getYear()<1900)?now.getYear()+1900:now.getYear()));
		var m = eval(params.shift().replace(/M/ig,now.getMonth()+1));
		var d = eval(params.shift().replace(/D/ig,now.getDate()+0));
		date = new Date(y,m-1,d);
	}
	// date format with optional custom override
	var format=this.format; if (params[0]) format=params.shift();
	var linkformat=this.linkformat; if (params[0]) linkformat=params.shift();
	showDate(place,date,mode,format,linkformat);
}

window.showDate=showDate;
function showDate(place,date,mode,format,linkformat,autostyle,weekend)
{
	mode	  =mode||'display';
	format	  =format||config.macros.date.format;
	linkformat=linkformat||config.macros.date.linkformat;

	// format the date output
	var title=date.formatString(format);
	var linkto=date.formatString(linkformat);
	var tip=date.formatString(config.macros.date.tipformat);

	// just show the formatted output
	if (mode=='display') { place.appendChild(document.createTextNode(title)); return; }

	// link to a 'dated tiddler'
	var link = createTiddlyLink(place, linkto, false);
	link.appendChild(document.createTextNode(title));
	link.title = tip;
	link.date = date;
	link.format = format;
	link.linkformat = linkformat;

	// if using a popup menu, replace click handler for dated tiddler link
	// with handler for popup and make link text non-italic (i.e., an 'existing link' look)
	if (mode=='popup') {
		link.onclick = onClickDatePopup;
		link.style.fontStyle='normal';
	}
	// format the popup link to show what kind of info it contains (for use with calendar generators)
	if (autostyle) setDateStyle(place,link,weekend);
}
//}}}
//{{{
// NOTE: This function provides default logic for setting the date style when displayed in a calendar
// To customize the date style logic, please see[[DatePluginConfig]]
function setDateStyle(place,link,weekend) {
	// alias variable names for code readability
	var date=link.date;
	var fmt=link.linkformat;
	var linkto=date.formatString(fmt);
	var cmd=config.macros.date;

	var co=config.options; // abbrev

	if ((weekend!==undefined?weekend:isWeekend(date))&&(cmd.weekendbg!=''))
		{ place.style.background = cmd.weekendbg; }
	if (hasModifieds(date)||hasCreateds(date)||hasTagged(date,fmt))
		{ link.style.fontStyle='normal'; link.style.fontWeight='bold'; }
	if (hasReminders(date))
		{ link.style.textDecoration='underline'; }
	if (isToday(date))
		{ link.style.border='1px solid black'; }
	if (isHoliday(date)&&(cmd.holidaybg!=''))
		{ place.style.background = cmd.holidaybg; }
	if (hasCreateds(date)&&(cmd.createdbg!=''))
		{ place.style.background = cmd.createdbg; }
	if (hasModifieds(date)&&(cmd.modifiedsbg!=''))
		{ place.style.background = cmd.modifiedsbg; }
	if ((hasTagged(date,fmt)||store.tiddlerExists(linkto))&&(cmd.linkedbg!=''))
		{ place.style.background = cmd.linkedbg; }
	if (hasReminders(date)&&(cmd.remindersbg!=''))
		{ place.style.background = cmd.remindersbg; }
	if (isToday(date)&&(cmd.todaybg!=''))
		{ place.style.background = cmd.todaybg; }
	if (config.options.chkShowJulianDate) { // optional display of Julian date numbers
		var m=[0,31,59,90,120,151,181,212,243,273,304,334];
		var d=date.getDate()+m[date.getMonth()];
		var y=date.getFullYear();
		if (date.getMonth()>1 && (y%4==0 && y%100!=0) || y%400==0)
			d++; // after February in a leap year
		wikify('@@font-size:80%;<br>'+d+'@@',place);
	}

}
//}}}
//{{{
function isToday(date) // returns true if date is today
	{ var now=new Date(); return ((now-date>=0) && (now-date<86400000)); }
function isWeekend(date) // returns true if date is a weekend
	{ return (config.macros.date.weekend[date.getDay()]); }
function isHoliday(date) // returns true if date is a holiday
{
	var longHoliday = date.formatString('0MM/0DD/YYYY');
	var shortHoliday = date.formatString('0MM/0DD');
	for(var i = 0; i < config.macros.date.holidays.length; i++) {
		var holiday=config.macros.date.holidays[i];
		if (holiday==longHoliday||holiday==shortHoliday) return true;
	}
	return false;
}
//}}}
//{{{
// Event handler for clicking on a day popup
function onClickDatePopup(e) { e=e||window.event;
	var p=Popup.create(this); if (!p) return false;
	// always show dated tiddler link (or just date, if readOnly) at the top...
	if (!readOnly || store.tiddlerExists(this.date.formatString(this.linkformat)))
		createTiddlyLink(createTiddlyElement(p,'li'),this.date.formatString(this.linkformat),true);
	else
		createTiddlyText(createTiddlyElement(p,'li'),this.date.formatString(this.linkformat));
	addCreatedsToPopup(p,this.date,this.format);
	addModifiedsToPopup(p,this.date,this.format);
	addTaggedToPopup(p,this.date,this.linkformat);
	addRemindersToPopup(p,this.date,this.linkformat);
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{{twocolumns{
Researchers report that they ''identified, isolated and grew a new type of magnetic bacteria'' that could lead to novel biotech and nanotech uses.

Nevada, the "Silver State," is well-known for mining precious metals. But scientists Dennis Bazylinski and colleagues at the University of Nevada Las Vegas do a different type of mining. They sluice through every water body they can find, looking for new forms of microbial magnetism. In a basin named Badwater on the edge of Death Valley National Park, Bazylinski and researcher Christopher Lefèvre, from the French National Center of Scientific Research, hit pay dirt.

<html><img style="float:left; margin-right:10px" src="img/bw1_greigite_bacterium.jpg" title="Greigite-containing magnetotactic bacterium from Badwater Basin, Death Valley. Credit: Dennis Bazylinski and Christopher Lefèvre" class="photo"  width="50%"/></html>[[Magnetotactic bacteria|How bacterial magnetosomes form]] are simple, single-celled organisms that are found in almost all bodies of water. As their name suggests, they orient and navigate along magnetic fields like miniature swimming compass needles. This is due to the nano-sized crystals of the minerals magnetite or greigite they produce. The presence of these magnetic crystals makes the bacteria and their internal crystals -- called magnetosomes -- useful in drug delivery and medical imaging.

''"The finding is significant in showing that this bacterium has specific genes to synthesize magnetite and greigite, and that the proportion of these magnetosomes varies with the chemistry of the environment,"'' said Enriqueta Barrera, program director in NSF's Division of Earth Sciences.

While many magnetite-producing bacteria can be grown and easily studied, Bazylinski and his team were the first to cultivate a greigite-producing species. Greigite is an iron sulfide mineral, the equivalent of the iron oxide magnetite. "Because greigite-producing bacteria have never been isolated, the crystals haven't been tested for the types of biomedical and other applications that currently use magnetite," said Bazylinski. "Greigite is an iron sulfide that may be superior to magnetite in some applications due to its slightly different physical and magnetic properties. Now we have the opportunity to find out."

Researchers found ''the greigite-producing bacterium, called BW-1'', in water samples collected more than 280 feet below sea level in Badwater Basin. Lefèvre and Bazylinski later isolated and grew it leading to the discovery that  BW-1 produces both greigite and magnetite. A detailed look at its DNA revealed that BW-1 has two sets of magnetosome genes, unlike other such bacteria, which produce only one mineral and have only one set of magnetosome genes. This suggests that the production of magnetite and greigite in BW-1 is likely controlled by separate sets of genes. That could be important in the mass production of either mineral for specific applications. Source: ''[[Badwater Basin: Death Valley Microbe Thrives There|http://www.nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=122618&org=NSF&from=news]]''. This work was detailed in the paper [[“A Cultured Greigite-Producing Magnetotactic Bacterium in a Novel Group of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria”|http://www.sciencemag.org/content/334/6063/1720.abstract?sid=e43b0c55-523e-4ae3-9149-11869b2511ba]] by Christopher T. Lefèvre, Nicolas Menguy, Fernanda Abreu, Ulysses Lins, Mihály Pósfai, Tanya Prozorov, David Pignol, Richard B. Frankel, Dennis A. Bazylinski.

''Related news'' list by date, most recent first: <<matchTags popup sort:-created nanobiotechnology>><<matchTags popup sort:-created nanomedicine>><<matchTags popup sort:-created [[nano before nanotech]]>>
<<tiddler Twitter>>
}}}
"The report finds that ''the [[National Nanotechnology Initiative|http://www.nano.gov/]]—which has provided $12 billion in investments by 25 Federal agencies over the past decade—has had a “catalytic and substantial impact” on the growth of the U.S. nanotechnology industry and should be continued''. Further, the report finds that in large part as a result of the NNI the United States is today, by a wide range of measures, the global leader in this exciting and economically promising field of research and technological development. But the report also finds that ''U.S. leadership in nanotechnology is threatened'' by several aggressively investing competitors such as China, South Korea, and the European Union. In response to this threat, the report recommends a number of changes in Federal programs and policies, with the goal of assuring continued U.S. dominance in the decade ahead." From the ''[[Report to the President and Congress on the Third Assessment of the National Nanotechnology Initiative|http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/pcast-nano-report.pdf]]'', March, 2010

"To enhance the value of the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), Office of Science and Technology Policy is reaching out to the nanotechnology stakeholder community for specific input for ''the next NNI Strategic Plan, which will be published December, 2010''. This effort is three-fold, consisting of a [[Request for Information|http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2010/2010-16273.htm]], the [[NNI Strategic Plan Stakeholder Workshop|http://www.tvworldwide.com/events/nanotech/100713/]], and an online public comment event." From ''[[The National Nanotechnology Initiative 2010 Strategic Plan|http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/ostp/NNIStrategy/]]''

"The broader issues of commercialization, safety, environmental impact, benefits and acceptance must be approached from the context of emerging technologies, and not from perspective of one technology alone. This issue is central to ''the need to rethink nanotechnology and the role of the NNI'' within a broader social, economic and political context, ''as nanoscale science and engineering move out of the laboratory and into the marketplace''." From [[Rethinking nanotechnology – responding to a request for Information on the US Nanotechnology Strategic Plan|http://2020science.org/2010/08/30/rethinking-nanotechnology-responding-to-a-request-for-information-on-the-us-nanotechnology-strategic-plan/]] by [[Andrew Maynard|http://www.sph.umich.edu/iscr/faculty/profile.cfm?uniqname=maynarda]], August, 2010

"The US National Nanotechnology Initiative has spent billions of dollars on submicroscopic science in its first 10 years. Corie Lok finds out ''where the money went and what the initiative plans to do next''." From [[Nanotechnology: Small wonders|http://www.nature.com/news/2010/100901/full/467018a.html?s=news_rss]] by [[Corie Lok|http://network.nature.com/profile/U66E7CD1A]], Nature Nanotechnology, September, 2010

"A news article in this week’s Nature discusses the origin of the U.S. National Nanotechnology Initiative, but the story sets some of the causality in reverse"... From [[Which came first, the Nano or the NNI?|http://metamodern.com/2010/09/05/which-came-first-the-nano-or-the-nni/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+Metamodern+%28Metamodern%29]] by [[Eric Drexler|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K._Eric_Drexler]], September, 2010

"Again there are people complaining that the vision of Eric Drexler was not realized after 25 years since he wrote Engines of Creation and other research papers on molecular nanotechnology. However, almost no money was spent funding the research and development of molecular nanotechnology. Significant amounts of money were devoted to mostly relabeled chemistry starting in November, 2003." [[Eric Drexler, Ralph Merkle or Robert Freitas Are not to Blame When Billions spent on Ordinary Chemistry Was called Nanotechnology Work- You Got What You Paid For|http://nextbigfuture.com/2010/09/eric-drexler-ralph-merkle-or-robert.html]] by Brian Wang, September, 2010. Nextbigfuture, the Lifeboat Foundation Technology Research News Website

''Related news'' list by date, most recent first: <<matchTags popup sort:-created [[national initiatives]]>>
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{{twocolumns{
"''The Food Standards Agency (FSA) of United Kingdom'' wanted to understand the consumer view of nanotechnology being used in food, the sort of safeguards they expect the Agency to enforce and the information on nanotechnology they want so that they can make informed decisions.

Despite participants' views fluctuating over the course of the workshops, participants repeatedly returned to the core questions that were raised at the initial workshop: Why are we doing this? Who will benefit? Is it worth it? This can be partly explained by the complexity and uncertainties currently associated with nanotechnology. However, it also reflects a degree of cynicism about food technology more generally. This is related to assumptions that technological advances in food are developed in the interests of business rather than consumers, and that consumers ultimately bear the costs, either through increased food prices, lower quality produce, or reduced health.

In order for consumers to feel confident about nanotechnology developments it will therefore be important to anticipate and respond to these core governance questions. Specifically, this means that regulatory processes need to be seen in a wider system of food governance. While the public interest includes safety and environmental impacts, it also includes opening up the research at an earlier stage to ensure the values of consumers help to shape the direction of travel, and that wider consequences have been thought through. This will be challenging not only for the FSA, but for a range of actors involved in the development of food nanotechnologies – not least those in research, manufacturing and retail. If government‟s role is reduced to only regulating what‟s out there, it is unlikely to be sufficient to protect the consumer interest in relation to food. Greater scope for partnership working around novel foods such as nanotechnologies could help create a space for more anticipatory and effective governance." Source: From [[FSA Citizens Forums: Nanotechnology and food. TNS-BMRB Report, April 2011|http://www.food.gov.uk/multimedia/pdfs/publication/fsacfnanotechnologyfood.pdf]]

"The use of nanotechnology in food production, for example as an anti-bacterial agent, or to alter flavour or colour is growing and the ''European Parliament'' had called for further checks to be developed to adequately assess the safety of such foods. They also wanted food containing nanoingredients to be labelled.  The failure to reach agreement on the new rules means "there will continue to be no special measures regarding nanomaterials in food," the European Parliament statement said." Source: From [[EU fail agreement no special measures regarding nanomaterials in food|http://www.europarl.europa.eu/en/headlines/content/20110324STO16430/html/EU-countries-reject-EP-call-for-labelling-of-clone-derived-food]], March 29, 2011

''Follow up:''
[[Tiny Particles with Big Benefits|http://www.naturalproductsinsider.com/articles/2011/05/tiny-particles-with-big-benefits.aspx]] by Susan Brienza. May 9, 2011
[[France issues nano-risk management method|http://www.foodqualitynews.com/Public-Concerns/France-issues-nano-risk-management-method]] by Rory Harrington. May 5, 2011
[[Yes or No on Nanoparticles in Food?|http://www.triplepundit.com/2011/04/nanoparticles-food/]] by Michael Passoff. April 12, 2011
[[EU novel food regulation review at risk. Concern over nanofoods|http://www.euractiv.com/en/cap/eu-novel-food-regulation-review-risk-news-503223]]. March 21, 2011

''Context:''
[[Risk assessment for nano-foods on European market]], June 2010
[[UK Parliament on Nanotechnologies in the Food Sector]], January 2010
''[[Nanotechnology and food|http://files.nanobio-raise.org/Downloads/Nanotechnology-and-Food-fullweb.pdf]]''. NanoBio-RAISE (Nanobiotechnology: Responsible Action on Issues in Society and Ethics) Briefing Paper, September 2008

''Related news'' list by date, most recent first: <<matchTags popup sort:-created food>><<matchTags popup sort:-created concerns>><<matchTags popup sort:-created [[public opinion]]>>
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}}}
{{twocolumns{
<html><embed><object width="100%" height="268"><param name="movie" value="http://www.youtube.com/v/2AKUBwCWhiA&rel=0&color1=0xb1b1b1&color2=0xcfcfcf&feature=player_profilepage&fs=1"></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><param name="allowScriptAccess" value="always"></param><embed src="http://www.youtube.com/v/2AKUBwCWhiA&rel=0&color1=0xb1b1b1&color2=0xcfcfcf&feature=player_profilepage&fs=1" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowfullscreen="true" allowScriptAccess="always" width="100%" height="268"></embed></object></html>
A new report by a group of leading European academics, argues that ''decision-making on science - especially emerging technologies such as nanotechnology - must become more democratic''.

The report, [["Reconfiguring Responsibility"|http://www.geography.dur.ac.uk/projects/deepen/NewsandEvents/tabid/2903/Default.aspx]], was the result of a three-year research project funded by the European Commission as part of the [[DEEPEN (Deepening Ethical Engagement and Participation in Emerging Nanotechnologies) project|http://www.geography.dur.ac.uk/projects/deepen/Home/tabid/1871/Default.aspx]]. The authors strongly suggest that current governance activities are limiting public debate and may result in a repeat of the mistakes made in managing genetically modified foods.

[[Phil Macnaghten|http://www.dur.ac.uk/geography/research/researchclusters/?mode=staff&id=4323]], a Professor at Durham University, UK, and the Project Leader, argues while talk of 'responsible development' is a step in the right direction, it often hides outdated assumptions: "''Technologies are being driven forward with insufficient reflection on why they are being developed and on what this is likely to mean for future society''. The public is keen to be involved in deliberating the often far-reaching questions that science is addressing, and policymakers need to find new ways to ensure that public views are heard, treated with respect and used to inform science policy."

Professor [[Richard Jones FRS|http://www.shef.ac.uk/physics/contacts/richard-jones.html]], a leading nanoscientist who until recently was the Senior Advisor for Nanotechnology for the UK government's science funding agency, agrees:

"I believe that ''involving the public in decision making on science can lead to better outcomes – as well as being fascinating and rewarding for the scientists involved''. If we are to continue to make nanotechnology a more socially responsible science we need to build on research such as that discussed in the 'Reconfiguring Responsibility' report."

According to the report, the need for action on nanotechnology is even more pressing due to the fact that it has the potential to fundamentally change everyday life and thus raises profound social and ethical questions. Attention has recently focussed on the uncertainties surrounding its long-term effects on human health and the environment, but the 'Reconfiguring Responsibility' study indicates that public concern also focuses on the kind of society being created by such technologies.

Related news list by date, most recent first: 
<<matchTags popup sort:-created [[public opinion]]>><<matchTags popup sort:-created concerns>>
}}}
[[table of contents]]

[[edicions nanowiki issuu shelf]]

[[Nanoparticles Before Nanotechnology]]

[[The images of the ebook Nanoparticles Before Nanotechnology]]
{{twocolumns{
Researchers from FIU’s Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine describe a revolutionary technique they have developed that can deliver and fully release the anti-HIV drug AZTTP into the brain.

Madhavan Nair, professor and chair, and Sakhrat Khizroev, professor and vice chair of the HWCOM’s Department of Immunology, used ''magneto-electric nanoparticles (MENs) to cross the blood-brain barrier'' and send a significantly increased level of AZTTP—up to 97 percent more —to HIV-infected cells.

For years, the blood-brain barrier has stumped scientists and doctors who work with neurological diseases. A natural filter that allows very few substances to pass through to the brain, the blood-brain barrier keeps most medicines from reaching the brain. Currently, more than 99 percent of the antiretroviral therapies used to treat HIV, such as AZTTP, are deposited in the liver, lungs and other organs before they reach the brain.

“This allows a virus, such as AIDS, to lurk unchecked,” said Nair, an HIV/immunology researcher.

<html><img style="float:left; margin-right:10px; margin-bottom:10px" src="img/bbb_drug.jpg" title="In laboratory models, a new technique developed by researchers at FIU uses magneto-electric nanoparticles to deliver a significantly higher level of the anti-HIV drug AZTTP to the brain." class="photo"  width="60%"/></html>The patent-pending technique developed by FIU binds the drug to a MEN inserted into a monocyte/macrophage cell, which is then injected into the body and drawn to the brain. ''Once it has reached the brain, a low energy electrical current triggers a release of the drug, which is then guided to its target with magnetoelectricity''. In lab experiments, nearly all of the therapy reached its intended target. It will soon enter the next phase of testing.

Potentially, this method of delivery could help other patients who suffer from neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, epilepsy, muscular dystrophy, meningitis and chronic pain. It could also be applicable to diseases such as cancer.

''“We see this as a multifunctional therapy,”'' said Khizroev, who is an electrical engineer and physicist by training.

Multi-disciplinary efforts that combine principles of those fields with immunology enabled the project to move forward.

“The success of our nanotechnology is derived from the fact that nature likes simplicity,” Khizroev said. Source: From [[New technique to deliver life-saving drugs to the brain|http://news.fiu.edu/2013/04/new-technique-to-deliver-life-saving-drugs-to-the-brain/58592]] by Marlen Mursuli . This work is detailed in the paper ''[["Externally controlled on-demand release of anti-HIV drug using magneto-electric nanoparticles as carriers"|http://www.nature.com/ncomms/journal/v4/n4/full/ncomms2717.html]]'' by  Madhavan Nair, Rakesh Guduru, Ping Liang, Jeongmin Hong, Vidya Sagar & Sakhrat Khizroev.

''Context:''
August 18, 2012. [[Transport of drugs across the blood-brain barrier by nanoparticles|http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21872624]]

''Related news'' list by date, most recent first: <<matchTags popup sort:-created [[drug delivery]]>><<matchTags popup sort:-created nanomedicine>>

<<tiddler Twitter>>
}}}
^^Permalink of this post: http://nanowiki.info/#%5B%5BDelivering%20life-saving%20drugs%20to%20the%20brain%5D%5D^^
^^Short link: http://goo.gl/0D0gC^^
<<tiddler [[random suggestion]]>>
In 2005, a group of pioneering projects, from various contexts  and with different motivations, set off on separate voyages into this new territory. Their mission: to explore how we might ensure that future developments in nanotechnology are governed in the interests of the many, not the few. In short, to bring democracy to these new, unchartered territories. Democratic Technologies? follows the journeys of these projects, and the scientists, citizens and civil servants who joined them.

This is the report of the [[Nanotechnologies Engagement Group (NEG)|http://www.involve.org.uk/neg]], a body convened by Involve with the support of the Office of Science and Innovation’s Sciencewise scheme, and the Universities of Cambridge and Sheffield. Our role has been to observe and support the pioneers of nanotechnology public engagement and log their experiences for the benefit of future journeys into the interface between democracy and technology. 

Source: [[Democratic Technologies?|http://83.223.102.125/involvenew/mt/archives/blog_37/Democratic%20Technologies.pdf]]
{{twocolumns{
It is now possible to produce plastics without the use of petroleum, thanks to a new type of catalyst enabling efficient conversion to key components of various products including plastics, medicines and paint. The catalyst, which consists of tiny iron spheres, was developed by chemists at University Utrecht.  According to Prof Krijn de Jong, ''“The products are exactly the same, only they are made of pruning waste instead of petroleum.”'' The invention has already sparked the interest of the chemical industry. 

<html><img style="float:left; margin-right:10px" src="img/Nanodeeltjes_web.jpg" title="The catalyst viewed through an electron microscope. The tiny iron spheres (dark areas) measure only about 20 nanometres in diameter. Gas generated from biomass is converted into substances currently produced from petroleum" class="photo"  width="50%"/></html>Almost all chemical products, ranging from anti-freeze and pharmaceuticals to plastics and paint, are currently made of petroleum. However, the technology enabling the fabrication of products of the same quality largely from biomass has existed for some time. “Until recently, there were too many steps involved in the process, so the technology was not efficient or economical enough to be used on a large scale,” says University Utrecht professor [[Krijn de Jong|http://www.anorg.chem.uu.nl/people/professors/KrijndeJong/index.htm]].  

It is now possible to produce components that can be used to make plastics and other substances by means of a one-step process, once the biomass has been converted at a high temperature into gas. The new catalyst was developed by Utrecht chemists in cooperation with Dow Benelux and Delft University of Technology. According to De Jong, “''The industry will be able to utilise this technology to make bioplastics, biopaints and even biopharmaceuticals''. The properties of these products are the same, despite the fact that the raw material was biomass instead of petroleum: the bioplastics are totally identical to regular plastics.” 

The petroleum-free products are made using a recently developed catalyst consisting of iron nanoparticles measuring 0.00002 millimetres. The tiny particles were produced and stabilised by Utrecht PhD student Hirsa Torres, by affixing them to a special material, thereby making the catalyst more durable, and an efficient means for converting biogas into useful substances. 

The Utrecht researchers will continue to develop the catalyst with the help of Dow Benelux. Hopefully, the first products made with this technology will be launched within the next few years. ''“In light of the imminent oil shortage, using sustainable raw materials is an extremely attractive option for industry,”'' says De Jong. “One major advantage of the method is that the raw materials are sustainable, but do not compete with the food supply, because they consist of wood-like biomass, such as branches, plant stalks and pruning waste.” Source: From ''Sustainable products made from pruning waste using nanoparticles. [[Science publication: Plastics made without petroleum|http://www.uu.nl/EN/Current/Pages/SciencepublicatiePlasticsmakenzonderaardolie.aspx]]''. This work is detailed in the paper [["Supported iron nanoparticles as catalysts for sustainable production of lower olefins"|http://www.sciencemag.org/content/335/6070/835.abstract]] by Hirsa M. Torres Galvis, Johannes H. Bitter, Chaitanya B. Khare, Matthijs Ruitenbeek, A. Iulian Dugulan, Krijn P. de Jong.

''Context:''
February 20, 2012. [[Nanocatalyst Improves Production of Plastic Precursors from Plant Material|http://spectrum.ieee.org/nanoclast/semiconductors/nanotechnology/nanocatalyst-improves-production-of-plastic-precursors-from-plants]]. IEEE Spectrum, Dexter Johnson. //"Improves the yield for this plant-based process by 50%"//
February 17, 2012. [[Plastic from plants? Scientists may have found a way|http://www.latimes.com/news/science/la-sci-plants-to-plastic-20120217,0,27645.story]]. Los Angeles Times, Amina Khan. //"It's a useful scientific presentation. Whether it is economical would depend on a number of issues."//

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In a promising development for diabetes treatment, researchers have developed a network of nanoscale particles that can be injected into the body and release insulin when blood-sugar levels rise, maintaining normal blood sugar levels for more than a week in animal-based laboratory tests. The work was done by researchers at North Carolina State University, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Children’s Hospital Boston.

“We’ve created a ‘smart’ system that is injected into the body and responds to changes in blood sugar by releasing insulin, effectively controlling blood-sugar levels,” says Dr. [[Zhen Gu|http://www.bme.unc.edu/labs/gulab/]], lead author of a paper describing the work and an assistant professor in the joint biomedical engineering program at NC State and UNC Chapel Hill. ''“We’ve tested the technology in mice, and one injection was able to maintain blood sugar levels in the normal range for up to 10 days.”''

When a patient has type 1 diabetes, his or her body does not produce sufficient insulin, a hormone that transports glucose – or blood sugar – from the bloodstream into the body’s cells. This can cause a host of health effects. Currently, diabetes patients must take frequent blood samples to monitor their blood-sugar levels and inject insulin as needed to ensure their blood sugar levels are in the “normal” range. However, these injections can be painful, and it can be difficult to determine the accurate dose level of insulin. Administering too much or too little insulin poses its own health risks.

<html><img style="float:left; margin-right:10px; margin-bottom:5px" src="img/Zhen-Gu-nano-network.jpg" title="The nano-network releases insulin in response to changes in blood sugar. Credit: The researchers" class="photo"  width="50%"/></html>The new, injectable nano-network is composed of a mixture containing nanoparticles with a solid core of insulin, modified dextran and glucose oxidase enzymes. When the enzymes are exposed to high glucose levels they effectively convert glucose into gluconic acid, which breaks down the modified dextran and releases the insulin. The insulin then brings the glucose levels under control. The gluconic acid and dextran are fully biocompatible and dissolve in the body.

Each of these nanoparticle cores is given either a positively charged or negatively charged biocompatible coating. The positively charged coatings are made of chitosan (a material normally found in shrimp shells), while the negatively charged coatings are made of alginate (a material normally found in seaweed).

When the solution of coated nanoparticles is mixed together, the positively and negatively charged coatings are attracted to each other to form a “nano-network.” Once injected into the subcutaneous layer of the skin, the nano-network holds the nanoparticles together and prevents them from dispersing throughout the body. Both the nano-network and the coatings are porous, allowing blood – and blood sugar – to reach the nanoparticle cores.

“This technology effectively creates a ‘closed-loop’ system that mimics the activity of the pancreas in a healthy person, releasing insulin in response to glucose level changes,” Gu says. “This has the potential to improve the health and quality of life of diabetes patients.”

Gu’s research team is currently in discussions to move the technology into clinical trials for use in humans. Source: From [[Injectable Nano-Network Controls Blood Sugar in Diabetics for Days at a Time|http://news.ncsu.edu/releases/gu-insulin-2013/]]. This work is detailed in the paper ''[["Injectable Nano-Network for Glucose-Mediated Insulin Delivery"|http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/nn400630x]]'' by Zhen Gu, Alex Aimetti, Yunlong Zhang, Omid Veiseh, [[Robert Langer|http://ki.mit.edu/people/faculty/langer]], [[Daniel G. Anderson|http://ki.mit.edu/people/faculty/anderson]], Qun Wang, Tram T. Dang and Hao Cheng.

''Context:''
May 16, 2013. [[Nanotechnology could help fight diabetes|http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2013/nanotechnology-could-help-fight-diabetes-0516.html]] by Anne Trafton, MIT News Office. Injectable nanogel can monitor blood-sugar levels and secrete insulin when needed.
May 14, 2013. [[Nanoparticle Network Acts As An Artificial Pancreas|http://cen.acs.org/articles/91/web/2013/05/Nanoparticle-Network-Acts-Artificial-Pancreas.html]] by Melissae Fellet, Chemical &Engineering News. Biomedical Engineering: Material releases enough insulin to maintain normal blood sugar levels in diabetic mice for at least 10 days

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In 2006 researchers established that dogs could detect cancer by sniffing the exhaled breath of cancer patients. Now, using nanoscale arrays of detectors, two groups of investigators have shown that a compact mechanical device also can ''sniff out lung cancer in humans''. [[Hossam Haick, Ph.D.|http://lnbd.technion.ac.il/NanoChemistry/Templates/ShowPage.asp?DBID=1&TMID=139&LNGID=1&FID=502&PID=0&IID=741]], and his colleagues at the Israel Institute of Technology in Haifa, used a network of 10 sets of chemically modified carbon nanotubes to create a multicomponent sensor capable of discriminating between a healthy breath and one characteristic of lung cancer patients. Meanwhile, [[Silvano Dragonieri, M.D.|http://www.biomedexperts.com/Profile.bme/340882/Silvano_Dragonieri]], University of Bari, Italy, and his colleagues used a commercial nanoarray-based electronic “nose” to discriminate between the breath of patients with non-small cell lung cancer  and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Source: ''[[Nanosensor Arrays "Smell" Cancer|http://nano.cancer.gov/news_center/2009/april/nanotech_news_2009-04-27a.asp]]''. The results of Dr. Haick’s team’s work appear in the paper [[Detection of nonpolar molecules by means of carrier scattering in random networks of carbon nanotubes: Toward diagnosis of diseases via breath samples|http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1021/nl8030218]]. Dr. Dragnieri and his colleagues published their work in the paper [[An electronic nose in the discrimination of patients with non-small cell cancer and COPD|http://www.lungcancerjournal.info/article/S0169-5002(08)00419-4/abstract]]

"Blood tests and urinalysis are the golden standard to identify a decline in kidney filtration, wherein high levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen usually reflect renal dysfunction – however, these tests tend to be highly inaccurate and may remain within the normal range even while 65-75% of kidney function is lost." Hossam Haick tells Nanowerk. "Given the difficulties in separating healthy renal function from dysfunction, it is perhaps not too surprising that precise biochemical or clinical criteria for diagnosis of acute renal failure have been elusive. Therefore, there is an unmet need for a noninvasive method for detection of renal failure of various etiologies. Furthermore, the challenge remains to diagnose renal disorders with sufficient sensitivity and specificity to provide a large-scale screening technique, feasible for clinical practice, for people at increased risk of developing renal dysfunction." Haick, Zaid Abassi and coworkers from [[Technion|http://rbni.technion.ac.il/index.html]] used an experimental model of end stage ''renal disease'' (ESRD) in rats to identify by advanced, yet simple nanotechnology-based approach to discriminate between exhaled breath of healthy states and of ESRD states. Source: ''[[Nanotechnology breath analyzer for kidney failure |http://www.nanowerk.com/spotlight/spotid=10495.php]]''. This work is detailed in the paper [[Sniffing Chronic Renal Failure in Rat Model by an Array of Random Networks of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes|http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1021/nn9001775]]

An unlikely multidisciplinary scientific collaboration has discovered that an electronic nose developed for air quality monitoring on Space Shuttle Endeavour can also be used to detect odour differences in normal and cancerous brain cells. The results of the pilot study open up new possibilities for neurosurgeons in the fight against ''brain cancer''. The electronic nose, which is to be installed on the International Space Station in order to automatically monitor the station's air, can detect contaminants within a range of one to approximately 10,000 parts per million. In a series of experiments, the Brain Mapping Foundation used NASA's electronic nose to sniff brain cancer cells and cells in other organs. Their data demonstrates that the electronic nose can sense differences in odour from normal versus cancerous cells. These experiments will help pave the way for more sophisticated biochemical analysis and experimentation. [[Babak Kateb|http://www.ibmisps.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=50]], Chairman and Scientific Director of the Brain Mapping Foundation, is the lead author of the paper set to be published in an [[IBMISPS-NeuroImage|http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/622925/description#description]] special issue in July. Source: ''[[NASA's Electronic Nose May Provide Neurosurgeons With A New Weapon Against Brain Cancer|http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2009-04/e-nen042909.php]]''

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<html><img style="float:left; margin-right:10px" src="http://news.vanderbilt.edu/files/Nanostamp3-illustration.jpg" title="Illustration of the direct imprinting of porous substrates process. Credit: Weiss Lab" class="photo"  width="50%"/></html>A simple technique for stamping patterns invisible to the human eye onto a special class of nanomaterials provides ''a new, cost-effective way to produce novel devices'' in areas ranging from drug delivery to solar cells.

The new method works with materials that are riddled with tiny voids that give them unique optical, electrical, chemical and mechanical properties. Imagine a stiff, sponge-like material filled with holes that are too small to see without a special microscope.

For a number of years, scientists have been investigating the use of these materials – called porous nanomaterials – for a wide range of applications including drug delivery, chemical and biological sensors, solar cells and battery electrodes. There are nanoporous forms of gold, silicon, alumina, and titanium oxide, among others.

A major obstacle to using the materials has been the complexity and expense of the processing required to make them into devices.

Now, [[Sharon M. Weiss|http://eecs.vuse.vanderbilt.edu/research/vuphotonics/]] and her colleagues of Vanderbilt University have developed a rapid, low-cost imprinting process that can stamp out a variety of nanodevices from these intriguing materials.

“It’s amazing how easy it is. We made our first imprint using a regular tabletop vise,” Weiss said. “And the resolution is surprisingly good.”

The traditional strategies used for making devices out of nanoporous materials are based on the process used to make computer chips. This must be done in a special clean room and involves painting the surface with a special material called a resist, exposing it to ultraviolet light or scanning the surface with an electron beam to create the desired pattern and then applying a series of chemical treatments to either engrave the surface or lay down new material. The more complicated the pattern, the longer it takes to make.

About two years ago, Weiss got the idea of creating pre-mastered stamps using the complex process and then using the stamps to create the devices. Weiss calls the new approach direct imprinting of porous substrates (DIPS). DIPS can create a device in less than a minute, regardless of its complexity. So far, her group reports that it has used master stamps more than 20 times without any signs of deterioration. 

The smallest pattern that Weiss and her colleagues have made to date has features of only a few tens of nanometers, which is about the size of a single fatty acid molecule. They have also succeeded in imprinting the smallest pattern yet reported in nanoporous gold, one with 70-nanometer features. Source: From ''[[Stamping out low cost nanodevices|http://news.vanderbilt.edu/2011/05/stamping-out-low-cost-nanodevices/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+vanderbilt-research+%28Vanderbilt+Research+News%29]]'' by David Salisbury. This work is detailed in the paper [[Direct Imprinting of Porous Substrates: A Rapid and Low-Cost Approach for Patterning Porous Nanomaterials|http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/nl1028073]] <<slider chkSldr [[Direct Imprinting of Porous Substrates: A Rapid and Low-Cost Approach for Patterning Porous Nanomaterials]]  [[Abstract»]] [[read abstract of the paper]]>>
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<br>Judson D. Ryckman, Marco Liscidini, J. E. Sipe, and S. M. Weiss. 2011. ''Nano Letters doi:10.1021/nl1028073''

//This work describes a technique for one-step, direct patterning of porous nanomaterials, including insulators, semiconductors, and metals without the need for intermediate polymer processing or dry etching steps. Our process, which we call “direct imprinting of porous substrates (DIPS)”, utilizes reusable stamps with micro- and nanoscale features that are applied directly to a porous material to selectively compress or crush the porous network. The stamp pattern is transferred to the porous material with high fidelity, vertical resolution below 5 nm, and lateral resolution below 100 nm. The process is performed in less than one minute at room temperature and at standard atmospheric pressure. We have demonstrated structures ranging from subwavelength optical components to microparticles and present exciting avenues for applications including surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), label-free biosensors, and drug delivery.//
{{twocolumns{
''Formation of nanoparticles can now be studied molecule-by-molecule''. The study combines the cycles of sulphur, nitrogen and carbon in the ecosystem, as it shows that the molecular clusters need sulphuric acid, amines and oxygenated organics for growth. When the clusters reach a size of 1.5-2 nm, their growth increases considerably. 

The measurements were conducted at the University of Helsinki [[SMEAR II (Station for Measuring Forest Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations)|http://www.atm.helsinki.fi/SMEAR/]] measurement station in Hyytiälä, southern Finland, which is among the most comprehensive stations in the world for atmosphere and biosphere research.

During the last five years, the researchers at the University of Helsinki Physics Department have ''developed a Particle Size Magnifier (PSM), which is the first particle counter able to detect clusters and particles as small as 1 nm in diameter''. 

The instrument is commercially available through the spin-off company [[Airmodus|http://www.airmodus.com/products.html]]. The scientists have also put effort into developing mass spectrometric methods for measuring the composition of the recently born clusters. The results in this study would not have been achieved without this technical development.

Professor [[Markku Kulmala|http://www.helsinki.fi/facultyofscience/research/kulmala.html]] predicted the existence of neutral molecular clusters already in the year 2000 and their growth mechanisms in 2004. He says: "Years of systematical research are now bearing fruit. My theoretical predictions have been proven to reflect the reality."

He stresses that ''knowledge of the formation and growth mechanisms of nanoparticles is needed for understanding the interactions within the climate system''. Assessing the global impact requires an extensive data bank and a world-wide observation network. Source: From [[Formation of nanoparticles can now be studied molecule-by-molecule|http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2013-02/uoh-fon022213.php]] by Minna Meriläinen-Tenhu. This work is detailed in the paper ''[["Direct Observations of Atmospheric Aerosol Nucleation"|http://www.sciencemag.org/content/339/6122/943.abstract]]'' by Markku Kulmala, Jenni Kontkanen, Heikki Junninen, Katrianne Lehtipalo,Hanna E. Manninen, Tuomo Nieminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Mikko Sipilä, Siegfried Schobesberger, Pekka Rantala, Alessandro Franchin, Tuija Jokinen, Emma Järvinen, Mikko Äijälä, Juha Kangasluoma, Jani Hakala, Pasi P. Aalto, Pauli Paasonen, Jyri Mikkilä, Joonas Vanhanen, Juho Aalto, Hannele Hakola, Ulla Makkonen, Taina Ruuskanen, Roy L. Mauldin III, Jonathan Duplissy, Hanna Vehkamäki, Jaana Bäck, Aki Kortelainen, Ilona Riipinen, Theo Kurtén, Murray V. Johnston, James N. Smith, Mikael Ehn, Thomas F. Mentel, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, Ari Laaksonen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Douglas R. Worsnop.

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Peering through a transmission electron microscope (TEM), researchers from Germany, Spain, and the UK have observed [[graphene|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphene]] sheets transforming into spherical [[fullerenes|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fullerene]], better known as buckyballs, for the first time. The experiment could shed light on the process of ''how fullerenes are formed'', which has so far remained mysterious on the atomic scale. Source: [[For the first time, researchers observe graphene sheets becoming buckyballs (w/ Video)|http://www.physorg.com/news195468858.html]] by Lisa Zyga, PhysOrg.com. This work is detailed in the paper ''[[Direct transformation of graphene to fullerene|http://www.nature.com/nchem/journal/v2/n6/abs/nchem.644.html]]'' by [[Andrey Chuvilin|http://www.nanogune.eu/en/research/]], [[Ute Kaiser|http://www.uni-ulm.de/en/einrichtungen/materialwissenschaftliche-elektronenmikroskopie/members/kaiser.html]], [[Elena Bichoutskaia|http://bichoutskaia.chem.nottingham.ac.uk/]], [[Nicholas A. Besley|http://besley.chem.nottingham.ac.uk/]] & [[Andrei N. Khlobystov|http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/Chemistry/People/andrei.khlobystov]]. "Although fullerenes can be efficiently generated from graphite in high yield, the route to the formation of these symmetrical and aesthetically pleasing carbon cages from a flat graphene sheet remains a mystery. The most widely accepted mechanisms postulate that the graphene structure dissociates to very small clusters of carbon atoms such as C2, which subsequently coalesce to form fullerene cages through a series of intermediates. In this Article, aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy directly visualizes, in real time, a process of fullerene formation from a graphene sheet. Quantum chemical modelling explains four critical steps in a top-down mechanism of fullerene formation: (i) loss of carbon atoms at the edge of graphene, leading to (ii) the formation of pentagons, which (iii) triggers the curving of graphene into a bowl-shaped structure and which (iv) subsequently zips up its open edges to form a closed fullerene structure."

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<img src="/img/graphene2fullerene.jpg"  alt="Images from a transmission electron microscope show the formation of fullerene from graphene" title="These images from a transmission electron microscope show the formation of fullerene from graphene. In (a), the edges of the graphene sheet continuously change shape when exposed to the e-beam. (b) shows the final product, while (c)-(h) show close-ups of the sequence of a graphene flake transforming into a fullerene. Image credit: Andrey Chuvilin, et al." width="100%"/>
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UCLA researchers are now able to peer deep within the world's tiniest structures to create three-dimensional images of individual atoms and their positions. Their research presents a new method for directly measuring the atomic structure of nanomaterials. ''"This is the first experiment where we can directly see local structures in three dimensions at atomic-scale resolution — that's never been done before,"'' said [[Jianwei (John) Miao|http://www1.cnsi.ucla.edu/institution/personnel?personnel%5fid=113666]], a professor of physics and astronomy and a researcher with the [[California NanoSystems Institute (CNSI)|http://www1.cnsi.ucla.edu/index]] at UCLA.

<html><img style="float:right; margin-bottom:10px" src="img/inside_gold_nanoparticle.jpg" title="Inside a gold nanoparticle" class="photo"  width="50%"/></html>Miao and his colleagues used a scanning transmission electron microscope to sweep a narrow beam of high-energy electrons over a tiny gold particle only 10 nanometers in diameter (almost 1,000 times smaller than a red blood cell). The nanoparticle contained tens of thousands of individual gold atoms, each about a million times smaller than the width of a human hair. These atoms interact with the electrons passing through the sample, casting shadows that hold information about the nanoparticle's interior structure onto a detector below the microscope.

Miao's team discovered that by taking measurements at 69 different angles, they could combine the data gleaned from each individual shadow into a 3-D reconstruction of the interior of the nanoparticle. Using this method, which is known as electron tomography, Miao's team was able to directly see individual atoms and how they were positioned inside the specific gold nanoparticle.

"Our current technology is mainly based on crystal structures because we have ways to analyze them," Miao said. "But for non-crystalline structures, no direct experiments have seen atomic structures in three dimensions before. ''The three-dimensional atomic resolution of non-crystalline structures remains a major unresolved problem in the physical sciences''," he said.

Miao and his colleagues haven't quite cracked the non-crystalline conundrum, but they have shown they can image a structure that isn't perfectly crystalline at a resolution of 2.4 angstroms (the average size of a gold atom is 2.8 angstroms). The gold nanoparticle they measured for their paper turned out to be composed of several different crystal grains, each forming a puzzle piece with atoms aligned in subtly different patterns. A nanostructure with hidden crystalline segments and boundaries inside will behave differently from one made of a single continuous crystal — but other techniques would have been unable to visualize them in three dimensions, Miao said.

Miao's team also found that the small golden blob they studied was in fact shaped like a multi-faceted gem, though slightly squashed on one side from resting on a flat stage inside the gigantic microscope — another small detail that might have been averaged away when using more traditional methods.

This project was inspired by Miao's earlier research, which involved finding ways to minimize the radiation dose administered to patients during CT scans. During a scan, patients must be X-rayed at a variety of angles, and those measurements are combined to give doctors a picture of what's inside the body. Miao found a mathematically more efficient way to obtain similar high-resolution images while taking scans at fewer angles. He later realized that this discovery could benefit scientists probing the insides of nanostructures, not just doctors on the lookout for tumors or fractures.

Nanostructures, like patients, can be damaged if too many scans are administered. A constant bombardment of high-energy electrons can cause the atoms in nanoparticles to be rearranged and the particle itself to change shape. By bringing his medical discovery to his work in materials science and nanoscience, Miao was able to invent a new way to peer inside the field's tiniest structures.

The discovery made by Miao's team may lead to improvements in resolution and image quality for tomography research across many fields, including the study of biological samples. Source: From [[New technique lets scientists peer within nanoparticles, see atomic structure in 3-D|http://www1.cnsi.ucla.edu/news/item?item_id=2045547]]. This work is detailed in the paper ''[["Electron tomography at 2.4-ångström resolution"|http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v483/n7390/full/nature10934.html]]'' by M. C. Scott, Chien-Chun Chen, Matthew Mecklenburg, Chun Zhu, Rui Xu, Peter Ercius, Ulrich Dahmen, [[B. C. Regan|http://www1.cnsi.ucla.edu/institution/personnel?personnel%5fid=131073]] & Jianwei Miao.

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<<option chkDisableWikiLinks>> Disable ALL automatic WikiWord tiddler links
<<option chkAllowLinksFromShadowTiddlers>> ... except for WikiWords //contained in// shadow tiddlers
<<option chkDisableNonExistingWikiLinks>> Disable automatic WikiWord links for non-existing tiddlers
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2008.07.22 [1.6.0] hijack tiddler changed() method to filter disabled wiki words from internal links[] array (so they won't appear in the missing tiddlers list)
2007.06.09 [1.5.0] added configurable txtDisableWikiLinksTag (default value: "excludeWikiWords") to allows selective disabling of automatic WikiWord links for any tiddler tagged with that value.
2006.12.31 [1.4.0] in formatter, test for chkDisableNonExistingWikiLinks
2006.12.09 [1.3.0] in formatter, test for excluded wiki words specified in DisableWikiLinksList
2006.12.09 [1.2.2] fix logic in autoLinkWikiWords() (was allowing links TO shadow tiddlers, even when chkDisableWikiLinks is TRUE).  
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2006.12.08 [1.2.0] added hijack of Tiddler.prototype.autoLinkWikiWords so regular (non-bracketed) WikiWords won't be added to the missing list
2006.05.24 [1.1.0] added option to NOT bypass automatic wikiword links when displaying default shadow content (default is to auto-link shadow content)
2006.02.05 [1.0.1] wrapped wikifier hijack in init function to eliminate globals and avoid FireFox 1.5.0.1 crash bug when referencing globals
2005.12.09 [1.0.0] initial release
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if (config.options.chkDisableWikiLinks==undefined) config.options.chkDisableWikiLinks=false;
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if (config.options.chkAllowLinksFromShadowTiddlers==undefined) config.options.chkAllowLinksFromShadowTiddlers=true;
if (config.options.txtDisableWikiLinksTag==undefined) config.options.txtDisableWikiLinksTag="excludeWikiWords";

// find the formatter for wikiLink and replace handler with 'pass-thru' rendering
initDisableWikiLinksFormatter();
function initDisableWikiLinksFormatter() {
	for (var i=0; i<config.formatters.length && config.formatters[i].name!="wikiLink"; i++);
	config.formatters[i].coreHandler=config.formatters[i].handler;
	config.formatters[i].handler=function(w) {
		// supress any leading "~" (if present)
		var skip=(w.matchText.substr(0,1)==config.textPrimitives.unWikiLink)?1:0;
		var title=w.matchText.substr(skip);
		var exists=store.tiddlerExists(title);
		var inShadow=w.tiddler && store.isShadowTiddler(w.tiddler.title);
		// check for excluded Tiddler
		if (w.tiddler && w.tiddler.isTagged(config.options.txtDisableWikiLinksTag))
			{ w.outputText(w.output,w.matchStart+skip,w.nextMatch); return; }
		// check for specific excluded wiki words
		var t=store.getTiddlerText(config.options.txtDisableWikiLinksList);
		if (t && t.length && t.indexOf(w.matchText)!=-1)
			{ w.outputText(w.output,w.matchStart+skip,w.nextMatch); return; }
		// if not disabling links from shadows (default setting)
		if (config.options.chkAllowLinksFromShadowTiddlers && inShadow)
			return this.coreHandler(w);
		// check for non-existing non-shadow tiddler
		if (config.options.chkDisableNonExistingWikiLinks && !exists)
			{ w.outputText(w.output,w.matchStart+skip,w.nextMatch); return; }
		// if not enabled, just do standard WikiWord link formatting
		if (!config.options.chkDisableWikiLinks)
			return this.coreHandler(w);
		// just return text without linking
		w.outputText(w.output,w.matchStart+skip,w.nextMatch)
	}
}

Tiddler.prototype.coreAutoLinkWikiWords = Tiddler.prototype.autoLinkWikiWords;
Tiddler.prototype.autoLinkWikiWords = function()
{
	// if all automatic links are not disabled, just return results from core function
	if (!config.options.chkDisableWikiLinks)
		return this.coreAutoLinkWikiWords.apply(this,arguments);
	return false;
}

Tiddler.prototype.disableWikiLinks_changed = Tiddler.prototype.changed;
Tiddler.prototype.changed = function()
{
	this.disableWikiLinks_changed.apply(this,arguments);
	// remove excluded wiki words from links array
	var t=store.getTiddlerText(config.options.txtDisableWikiLinksList,"").readBracketedList();
	if (t.length) for (var i=0; i<t.length; i++)
		if (this.links.contains(t[i]))
			this.links.splice(this.links.indexOf(t[i]),1);
};
//}}}
{{twocolumns{
Astronomers using data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope have, for the first time, discovered buckyballs in a solid form in space. Prior to this discovery, the microscopic carbon spheres had been found only in gas form in the cosmos.

Formally named [[buckminsterfullerene|C60: Buckminsterfullerene]], buckyballs are named after their resemblance to the late architect Buckminster Fuller's geodesic domes. They are made up of 60 carbon atoms arranged into a hollow sphere, like a soccer ball. Their unusual structure makes them ideal candidates for electrical and chemical applications on Earth, including superconducting materials, medicines, water purification and armor. 

In the latest discovery, scientists using Spitzer detected tiny specks of matter, or particles, consisting of stacked buckyballs. They found the particles around a pair of stars called "XX Ophiuchi," 6,500 light-years from Earth, and detected enough to fill the equivalent in volume to 10,000 Mount Everests.

"These buckyballs are stacked together to form a solid, like oranges in a crate," said Nye Evans of Keele University in England. "The particles we detected are minuscule, far smaller than the width of a hair, but each one would contain stacks of millions of buckyballs."

[[Buckyballs were detected definitively in space for the first time by Spitzer in 2010|NASA telescope finds elusive buckyballs]]. Spitzer later identified the molecules in a host of different cosmic environments. It even found them in staggering quantities, the equivalent in mass to 15 Earth moons, in a nearby galaxy called the Small Magellanic Cloud. 

In all of those cases, the molecules were in the form of gas. The recent discovery of buckyballs particles means that large quantities of these molecules must be present in some stellar environments in order to link up and form solid particles. The research team was able to identify the solid form of buckyballs in the Spitzer data because they emit light in a unique way that differs from the gaseous form. 

"This exciting result suggests that buckyballs are even more widespread in space than the earlier Spitzer results showed," said Mike Werner, project scientist for Spitzer at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. ''"They may be an important form of carbon, [[an essential building block for life|Buckyballs from outer space provided seeds for life on Earth?]], throughout the cosmos."''

Buckyballs have been found on Earth in various forms. They form as a gas from burning candles and exist as solids in certain types of rock, such as the mineral shungite found in Russia, and fulgurite, a glassy rock from Colorado that forms when lightning strikes the ground. In a test tube, the solids take on the form of dark, brown "goo."

"The window Spitzer provides into the infrared universe has revealed beautiful structure on a cosmic scale," said Bill Danchi, Spitzer program scientist at NASA Headquarters in Washington. "In yet another surprise discovery from the mission, we're lucky enough to see elegant structure at one of the smallest scales, teaching us about the internal architecture of existence." Source: From ''[[NASA's Spitzer Finds Solid Buckyballs in Space|http://www.spitzer.caltech.edu/news/1374-ssc2012-03-NASA-s-Spitzer-Finds-Solid-Buckyballs-in-Space]]''. This work is detailed in the paper [["Solid-phase C60 in the peculiar binary XX Oph?"|http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-3933.2012.01213.x/abstract]] by A. Evans, J. Th. van Loon, C. E. Woodward, R. D. Gehrz, G. C. Clayton, L. A. Helton, M. T. Rushton, S. P. S. Eyres, J. Krautter, S. Starrfield, R. M. Wagner.

''Related news'' list by date, most recent first: <<matchTags popup sort:-created astronomy>><<matchTags popup sort:-created [[nano before nanotech]]>><<matchTags popup sort:-created fullerene>>

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{{twocolumns{
The discovery of a fundamental, previously unknown property of microbial nanowires in the bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens ''that allows electron transport across long distances could revolutionize nanotechnology and bioelectronics'', says a team of physicists and microbiologists at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. Their findings may one day lead to ''cheaper, nontoxic nanomaterials for biosensors and solid state electronics that interface with biological systems''.

Lead microbiologist Derek Lovley with physicists Mark Tuominen, Nikhil Malvankar and colleagues, say networks of bacterial filaments, known as [[microbial nanowires|nanowire]] because they conduct electrons along their length, can move charges as efficiently as synthetic organic metallic nanostructures, and they do it over remarkable distances, thousands of times the bacterium's length. Networks of microbial nanowires coursing through biofilms, which are cohesive aggregates of billions of cells, give this biological material conductivity comparable to that found in synthetic conducting polymers, which are used commonly in the electronics industry.

Lovley says, //"The ability of protein filaments to conduct electrons in this way is a paradigm shift in biology and has ramifications for our understanding of natural microbial processes as well as practical implications for environmental clean-up and the development of renewable energy sources."// The discovery represents a fundamental change in understanding of biofilms, Malvankar adds. "//In this species, the biofilm contains proteins that behave like a metal, conducting electrons over a very long distance, basically as far as you can extend the biofilm."//

Tuominen, the lead physicist, adds, //"This discovery not only puts forward an important new principle in biology but in materials science. We can now investigate a range of new conducting nanomaterials that are living, naturally occurring, nontoxic, easier to produce and less costly than man-made. ''They may even allow us to use electronics in water and moist environments''. It opens exciting opportunities for biological and energy applications that were not possible before."//

The researchers report that this is the first time metallic-like conduction of electrical charge along a protein filament has been observed. It was previously thought that such conduction would require a mechanism involving a series of other proteins known as cytochromes, with electrons making short hops from cytochrome to cytochrome. By contrast, the UMass Amherst team has demonstrated long-range conduction in the absence of cytochromes. The Geobacter filaments function like a true wire.

In nature, Geobacter use their microbial nanowires to transfer electrons onto iron oxides, natural rust-like minerals in soil, that for Geobacter serve the same function as oxygen does for humans. //"What Geobacter can do with its nanowires is akin to breathing through a snorkel that's 10 kilometers long,"// says Malvankar.

These special structures are tunable in a way not seen before, the UMass Amherst researchers found. Tuominen points out that it's well known in the nanotechnology community that artificial nanowire properties can be changed by altering their surroundings. Geobacter's natural approach is unique in allowing scientists to manipulate conducting properties by simply changing the temperature or regulating gene expression to create a new strain, for example. Malvankar adds that by introducing a third electrode, a biofilm can act like a biological transistor, able to be switched on or off by applying a voltage.

Another advantage Geobacter offers is its ability to produce natural materials that are more eco-friendly and quite a bit less expensive than man-made. Quite a few of today's nanotech materials are expensive to produce, many requiring rare elements, says Tuominen. Geobacter is a true natural alternative. //"As someone who studies materials, I see the nanowires in this biofilm as a new material, one that just happens to be made by nature. It's exciting that it might bridge the gap between solid state electronics and biological systems. It is biocompatible in a way we haven't seen before".// Lovley quips, //"We're basically making electronics out of vinegar. It can't get much cheaper or more 'green' than that."// Source: [[Research team discovers new conducting properties of bacteria-produced wires|http://phys.org/news/2011-08-team-properties-bacteria-produced-wires.html]]. This work is detailed in the paper ''[["Tunable metallic-like conductivity in microbial nanowire networks"|http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/v6/n9/full/nnano.2011.119.html]]'' by  Nikhil S. Malvankar, Madeline Vargas, Kelly P. Nevin, Ashley E. Franks, Ching Leang, Byoung-Chan Kim, Kengo Inoue, Tünde Mester, Sean F. Covalla, Jessica P. Johnson, Vincent M. Rotello, Mark T. Tuominen & Derek R. Lovley.

''Related news'' list by date, most recent first: <<matchTags popup sort:-created milestone>><<matchTags popup sort:-created [[nano before nanotech]]>><<matchTags popup sort:-created nanowire>><<matchTags popup sort:-created nanoelectronics>><<matchTags popup sort:-created energy>><<matchTags popup sort:-created detection>>

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}}}
{{twocolumns{
Grade 12 researcher wins top honours in [[Sanofi BioGENEius Challenge Canada|http://sanofibiogeneiuschallenge.ca/]] finals at National Research Council, Ottawa. Janelle Tam, a Grade 12 student at Waterloo Collegiate Institute, was awarded the $5,000 first prize by an impressed panel of eminent Canadian scientists assembled at the Ottawa headquarters of the National Research Council of Canada. The theme of the competition, “How will you change the world?” inspired hundreds of students to participate in 2012 SBCC events Canada-wide.

Sanofi Pasteur Canada President Mark Lievonen, who presented the first place prize, said: “When we founded the Sanofi BioGENEius Challenge Canada 19 years ago ''we believed then, as we do now, in the potential of our youth to develop the next big breakthrough in science''. When I see the collaboration among education, government and industry at the SBCC each year, I am increasingly optimistic about Canada’s opportunity to truly make a difference in the world.”

Each of the students worked for months conducting research and collaborating with university mentors. Janelle Tam worked alongside Dr. Zhaoling Yao from the University of Waterloo and is ''the first to show that nano-crystalline cellulose (NCC) is a powerful antioxidant'', and may be superior to Vitamin C or E because it is more stable and its effectiveness won’t diminish as quickly.

“NCC is non-toxic, stable, soluble in water and renewable, since it comes from trees. The results of my research were really exciting,” she says and especially since cellulose is already used as filler and stabilizer in many vitamin products. One day those products may be super-charged free radical neutralizers thanks to NCC, she hopes.

Working alongside a young student is not an everyday occurrence, and Dr. Yao was deeply impressed by Janelle’s hardworking, creative thinking, organization and presentation skills. “It was a pleasure to have her in my lab since Janelle is not only a task-orientated young lady, also she also gets along very well with others.” Source: From ''[[Ontario student, 16, invents disease-fighting, anti-aging compound using tree particles|http://sanofibiogeneiuschallenge.ca/2012/05/08/ontario-student-16-invents-disease-fighting-anti-aging-compound-using-tree-particles/]]''.


Canada’s next big technological and health breakthrough might come from cellulose, the woody material found in trees that enables them to stand. Cellulose is made up of tiny nanoparticles called [[nanocrystalline cellulose|http://www.frogheart.ca/?tag=nanocrystalline-cellulose]].

<html><img style="float:left; margin-right:10px; margin-bottom:10px" src="img/janelle_tam.jpg" title="Janelle Tam presenting her project before the Judging Committe and the other competitors at the Lamplighter Inn, London ON, April 18, 2012.. Credit: Sanofi BioGENEius Challenge Canada" class="photo"  width="60%"/></html>''“NCC is non-toxic, stable, soluble in water and renewable, since it comes from trees,”'' says Janelle, a Grade 12 student at Waterloo Collegiate Institute.

NCC has many unique properties: stronger than steel but flexible, durable and ultra light. Its potential uses are virtually limitless. Canada’s national forest research institute, FPInnovations, predicts a $250 million dollar market in the coming decade. The world’s first large-scale NCC production plant opened in January at a pulp and paper mill in Windsor, Quebec. NCC is extracted from cellulose using a chemical process similar to that used in pulp mills.

“NCC is really a hot field of research in Canada,” says Janelle, who notes that antioxidant have anti-aging and health promotion properties, including wound healing since they neutralize “free radicals” that damage or kill cells.

''Janelle chemically ‘paired’ NCC with a well-known nanoparticle called a buckminster [[fullerene]]''. These ‘buckyballs’ (carbon molecules that look like a soccer ball) are already used in cosmetic and anti-aging products she says. ''The new NCC-buckyball combination acted like a ‘nano-vacuum,’ sucking up free radicals and neutralizing them''.

“The results were really exciting,” she says and especially since cellulose is already used as filler and stabilizer in many vitamin products. One day those products may be super-charged free radical neutralizers thanks to NCC, she hopes. Source: From ''[[Southwestern Ontario, Student discovers powerful anti-oxidant in tree pulp|http://sanofibiogeneiuschallenge.ca/2012/04/27/southwestern-ontario-student-discovers-powerful-anti-oxidant-in-tree-pulp/]]''.

''Related news'' list by date, most recent first: <<matchTags popup sort:-created [[nano before nanotech]]>><<matchTags popup sort:-created nanofiber>><<matchTags popup sort:-created fullerene>><<matchTags popup sort:-created ageing>><<matchTags popup sort:-created nanomedicine>><<matchTags popup sort:-created educational>>

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}}}
<br>Islam Hamad, Othman Al-Hanbali, A. Christy Hunter, Kenneth J. Rutt, Thomas L. Andresen, and S. Moein Moghimi. ''ACS Nano 4 (11), pp 6629–6638 (2010). doi:10.1021/nn101990a''

//Nanoparticles with surface projected polyethyleneoxide (PEO) chains in “mushroom−brush” and “brush” configurations display stealth properties in systemic circulation and have numerous applications in site-specific targeting for controlled drug delivery and release as well as diagnostic imaging. We report on the “structure−activity” relationship pertaining to surface-immobilized PEO of various configurations on model nanoparticles, and the initiation of complement cascade, which is the most ancient component of innate human immunity, and its activation may induce clinically significant adverse reactions in some individuals. Conformational states of surface-projected PEO chains, arising from the block copolymer poloxamine 908 adsorption, on polystyrene nanoparticles trigger complement activation differently. Alteration of copolymer architecture on nanospheres from mushroom to brush configuration not only switches complement activation from C1q-dependent classical to lectin pathway but also reduces the level of generated complement activation products C4d, Bb, C5a, and SC5b-9. Also, changes in adsorbed polymer configuration trigger alternative pathway activation differently and through different initiators. Notably, the role for properdin-mediated activation of alternative pathway was only restricted to particles displaying PEO chains in a transition mushroom−brush configuration. Since nanoparticle-mediated complement activation is of clinical concern, our findings provide a rational basis for improved surface engineering and design of immunologically safer stealth and targetable nanosystems with polymers for use in clinical medicine.//
{{twocolumns{
''Scientific advances often provoke deep concern on the part of the public, especially when these advances challenge strongly held political or moral perspectives''. An American Academy of Arts and Sciences’ project on //[[Improving the Scientific Community’s Understanding of Public Concerns about Science and Technology|http://www.amacad.org/projects/sciUnderstand.aspx]]// examined the ways in which scientists engage with the public, and how their mutual understanding could be improved. Several common themes emerged:

    * ''Scientists and the public both share a responsibility for the divide. Scientists and technical experts sometimes take for granted that their work will be viewed as ultimately serving the public good. Members of the public can react viscerally and along ideological lines, but they can also raise important issues that deserve consideration.''

    * ''Scientific issues require an “anticipatory approach.”'' A diverse group of stakeholders — research scientists, social scientists, public engagement experts, and skilled communicators — should collaborate early to identify potential scientific controversies and the best method to address resulting public concerns.

    * ''Communications solutions differ significantly'' depending on whether a scientific issue has been around for a long time (e.g., how to dispose of nuclear waste) or is relatively new (e.g., the spread of personal genetic information). In the case of longstanding controversies, social scientists may have had the opportunity to conduct research on public views that can inform communication strategies. For emerging technologies, there will be less reliable analysis available of public attitudes.

In //[[Do Scientists Understand the Public?|http://www.amacad.org/publications/scientistsUnderstand.aspx]]//, a new paper based on the Academy study, science journalist Chris Mooney reviews the workshop findings and recommendations. According to Mooney, Scientists and the public often have “very different perceptions of risk, and very different ways of bestowing their trust and judging the credibility of information sources. Perhaps scientists are misunderstanding the public…due to their own quirks, assumptions, and patterns of behavior,” says Mooney. Laypeople, meanwhile, tend to “strain their responses to scientific controversies through their ethical or value systems, as well as through their political or ideological outlooks.” 

Complimenting this study, the American Academy will soon release a new volume, Science and the Media. The collection of essays will discuss the roles of scientists, journalists, and public information officers in communicating about science and technology. Source: [[Do Scientists and Engineers Understand the Public?|http://www.amacad.org/news/scientistsPublic.aspx]]

''Related news'' list by date, most recent first: <<matchTags popup sort:-created [[public opinion]]>><<matchTags popup sort:-created concerns>><<matchTags popup sort:-created city>>
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<img src="http://www.amacad.org/projects/images/sciUnderstand2.gif"  alt="Cover of Do Scientists Understand the Public? paper" title="Do Scientists Understand the Public?, a new paper based on the Academy study, by science journalist Chris Mooney. Cover image © Ikon Images/Corbis" width="50%"/>
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{{twocolumns{
This video on Science Alberta’s Wonderville.ca site won the 2011 Webby Award for Animation in the Online Film & Video Category. The Webby Awards is the leading international award honoring excellence on the Internet. Established in 1996 during the Web's infancy, the Webbys are presented by The International Academy of Digital Arts and Sciences

"An animated video explaining how small “nano” is to children has surprised everyone by being shortlisted for a huge award from the International Academy of Digital Arts and Sciences.
“Do You Know What Nano Means?” is a short animated video produced by the Science Alberta Foundation and is available on the organization’s website at http://www.wonderville.ca. The online video was designed by an Alberta artist, produced by the Foundation and funded by the Provincial Government’s Alberta Innovates – Technology Futures program.

“This really puts us on the world stage and creates an opportunity to talk about the important ''work we are doing to promote science literacy'',” says Science Alberta CEO, Arlene Ponting, PhD, who is a two-time winner of the 100 Most Powerful Women in Canada award". Source: [[Alberta not-for-profit is one of five finalists for international Webby Awards for internet excellence|http://www.sciencealberta.org/res/SAF_Webby_Release_Apr2011_FINAL.pdf]]. Homegrown video explaining “nano” to kids competes with Oscar-winners

"Science Alberta Foundation (SAF) is a non-profit organization that is committed to providing quality science learning experiences, to encouraging youth to enter science based careers and to enhancing science awareness and literacy. Since 1990, SAF has been providing engaging resources across Alberta and beyond. Our programs motivate children, youth and families to embrace lifelong science and technology learning. We are helping to create tomorrow’s knowledge workers and instill an appreciation of science in a new generation of Albertans." Source: [[Science Alberta Foundation. About Us|http://www.sciencealberta.org/about/]]

''Related news'' list by date, most recent first: <<matchTags popup sort:-created educational>><<matchTags popup sort:-created dissemination>>
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A new educational video "Does Every Silver Lining Have a Cloud?" featuring the Duke led [[Center for the Environmental Implications of NanoTechnology (CEINT)|http://ceint.duke.edu/about-ceint]]. This video focuses on CEINT researchers (among them [[Mark Wiesner|Prize to Mark Wiesner, Pioneer In Environmental Nanotechnology]]) discussing their ''integrated research initiatives which are designed to link fundamental physical and chemical properties of nano-scale materials with their observed biological and ecosystem effects''. This video was filmed by Brad Herring, Director of [[Nanoscale Informal Science Education|http://vimeo.com/nisenet]], Museum of Life and Science, Durham NC. It will be included this year as a DVD in the 2012 [[NanoDays|26 March 2011]] Kits sponsored by the NSF funded Nanoscale Informal Science Education Network (NISE Net), the largest network of museums, informal science educators and researchers in the US, dedicated to fostering public awareness, engagement, and understanding of nanoscale science engineering, and technology. Source: [[Does Every Silver Lining Have a Cloud?|http://ceint.duke.edu/content/does-every-silver-lining-have-cloud]].

Related news list by date, most recent first: <<matchTags popup sort:-created educational>><<matchTags popup sort:-created concerns>><<matchTags popup sort:-created nanosilver>><<matchTags popup sort:-created nanotoxicology>>

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''<<matchTags popup sort:-created context>>'' <<matchTags popup sort:-created nanoscience>> ''Don Eigler - Moving Atoms, one-by-one''

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//"[[Feynman|Richard Feynman and Nanotechnology]] set forth his vision of “a new field of physics” on 1959. After that, the talk slipped into relative obscurity. The fame of “Room at the Bottom” did not really take off until the 1990s. Nanoscience was well under way by then, spurred by inventions such as scanning tunneling microscopy and by the constant pressure in computing to get more and more processing and storage capacity out of less and less space. But if Feynman did not start this revolution, he foretold it in remarkably accurate detail. “Without a doubt, Feynman is regarded as not just a demigod but a fully-blown god of physics,” says [[Don Eigler|Positioning single atoms with a scanning tunnelling microscope]], the IBM researcher who in 1989 realized a key element of Feynman’s vision by spelling out the letters “IBM” with individual xenon atoms. Eigler met Feynman just once. But he says he felt a “tremendous affinity” with the physicist “as a result of going back and reading ‘There’s Plenty of Room’ at a point in my career where I could recognize that what I had done in my research was to achieve what he had laid out in goals”//  From Symposium ''[[Feynman's Vision: The Next 50 Years|http://www.kavlifoundation.org/science-spotlights/caltech/kavli-futures-symp-nanoscience-sidebr]]''.
<br>//In this work graphene sheets grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with controlled numbers of layers were used as transparent electrodes in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. It was found that for devices with pristine graphene electrodes, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) is comparable to their counterparts with indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. Nevertheless, the chances for failure in OPVs with pristine graphene electrodes are higher than for those with ITO electrodes, due to the surface wetting challenge between the hole-transporting layer and the graphene electrodes. Various alternative routes were investigated and it was found that AuCl3 doping on graphene can alter the graphene surface wetting properties such that a uniform coating of the hole-transporting layer can be achieved and device success rate can be increased. Furthermore, the doping both improves the conductivity and shifts the work function of the graphene electrode, resulting in improved overall PCE performance of the OPV devices. This work brings us one step further toward the future use of graphene transparent electrodes as a replacement for ITO. //
In 1964, Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin (1910-1994) became only the second woman to receive the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. The award was made for her pioneering work on two of the most important complex molecular structures solved up to that time using X-ray crystallographic methods: penicillin and vitamin B~~12~~. 

While Hodgkin traced her love of chemistry to growing sparkling crystals in school when she was 10 [1], she had a wide range of talents and a broad, eclectic and idiosyncratic education that could have led her into many other professions, including archaeology or the arts. The 
child of archaeologists, Hodgkin was home schooled by her mother, Molly Crowfoot, when the family was in Africa and the Middle East. Crowfoot was a talented amateur artist and botanist who became a world authority on Sudanese flowers, ancient textiles and weaving techniques [2]. Hodgkin and her younger sisters were taught to sew, weave, draw, paint and act, activities they pursued into adulthood. They learned botany, archaeology and geology in the field with their parents, and recorded their lessons in reports with pen and watercolor illustrations that show astonishing competence for 10- and 12-year-olds [3]. They learned history similarly by writing their own illustrated books [4], and Hodgkin also wrote and illustrated stories for her sisters. 

Hodgkin missed out on the usual foundations in mathematics and languages that her intellectual peers in preparatory schools received, and she only partially made up for it in her teenage years at school in England. The result was a mind later described by her coworkers as neither mathematical nor symbolic, but unusually strong in three-dimensional pattern recognition, imaging and mapping [5]. Hodgkin's talents in these areas were developed further by the technical illustrations she did for her father in her late teen years. Her specialty appears to have been mosaics, whose depictions required her to analyze and accurately record the underlying repetitions within their patterns. From this activity, Hodgkin learned the fundamental principles of two-dimensional symmetries. In a year in Jerusalem (1929) between leaving school and entering Oxford, these insights about structure began to crystallize into formal knowledge: "I began to think of the restraints imposed by two-dimensional order in a plane" [6]. The drawings she began for her father that summer were eventually completed and published (see Article Frontispiece) [7] during her years as a chemistry major at Oxford, where she began to think about the restraints imposed by 3D orders in space as well. She pursued these interests by drawing, photographing and analyzing other forms of art as well, including Celtic knots she observed at the British Museum, Byzantine decoration in Ravenna and church architecture in Spain [8]. 

Art remained an important, if subsidiary, avocation throughout Hodgkin's life. She learned new techniques for accurately recording crystal structures [9], and took joy in transforming X-ray data into structural pictures. In one letter to her parents written during her years as a graduate student at Cambridge, she remarked, "It really is a relief to have the chemical work mixed up with so much drawing" [10]. During this period, she also went on weekend painting expeditions with the biologists C.H. Waddington and Robin Hill [11]. Her son, Luke Hodgkin, reports that she continued to draw and paint on holiday throughout her life, but rarely finished anything [12]. A severe case of rheumatoid arthritis [13] undoubtedly interfered. What she finished instead were stunning images of natural structures too small for the naked eye to perceive - surely a form of art as  creative and inspiring as the mosaics, Celtic knots and architectural innovations she recorded in her earlier years. 

{{twocolumns{
''References''

^^1. E. Ferry, //Dorothy Hodgkin: A Life// (Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Press, 1998) p. 8. 
2. Ferry [1] pp. 15-35. 
3. Hodgkin supplementary material, shelfmarks A16-18, Bodleian Library, University of Oxford. 
4. Hodgkin [3] shelfmarks A12-15. 
5. Ferry [1] pp. 244, 254, 310, 312. 
6. Ferry [1] p. 39. 
7. J.W. Crowfoot, //Churches at Jerash// 
(London: British School of Archeology in Jerusalem, Supplementary Papers 3, 1931). 
8. Ferry [1] pp. 69, 80, 118. 
9. Ferry [1] p. 68. 
10. Ferry [1] p. 66. 
11. Ferry [1] pp. 98-99. 
12. Luke Hodgkin, personal communication, 23 November 2005. 
13. Ferry [1] pp. 177-179. 
14. Crowfoot [7]^^ 
}}}

ROBERT ROOT-BERNSTEIN 
Department of Physiology 
Michigan State University 
East Lansing, MI 48824 
U.S.A. 

E-mail: <rootbern@msu.edu>

''Source:'' [[DOROTHY CROWFOOT HODGKIN: STRUCTURE AS ART|http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1162/leon.2007.40.3.259?prevSearch=allfield%253A%2528nano%2529&searchHistoryKey=]]. June 2007, Vol. 40, No. 3, Pages 259-261 © 2007 Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Post by permision of Roger Malina
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<html><img style="float:left; margin-bottom:10px" src="img/drag_n_drop1_f.jpg" title="A collection of pharmaceutical molecules is shown after self-assembly.  The detail shows a single molecule, made up of strands of DNA, a therapeutic agent and other components that improve its ability to target cancer. Credit: Parabon NanoLabs" class="photo"  width="100%"/></html>

Using a simple "drag-and-drop" computer interface and DNA self-assembly techniques, researchers have developed ''a new approach for drug development'' that could drastically reduce the time required to create and test medications.

In work supported by a National Science Foundation (NSF) Small Business Innovation Research grant, researchers from [[Parabon® NanoLabs|http://www.parabon-nanolabs.com/]] of Reston, Va., recently developed and began evaluating a drug for combating the lethal brain cancer glioblastoma multiforme.

Now, with the support of an NSF Technology Enhancement for Commercial Partnerships (TECP) grant, Parabon has partnered with Janssen Research & Development, LLC, part of the Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson, to use the technology to create and test the efficacy of a new prostate cancer drug.

''"We can now 'print,' molecule by molecule, exactly the compound that we want,"'' says Steven Armentrout, the principal investigator on the NSF grants and co-developer of Parabon's technology. "What differentiates our nanotechnology from others is our ability to rapidly, and precisely, specify the placement of every atom in a compound that we design."

The new technology is called the [[Parabon Essemblix™|http://www.parabon-nanolabs.com/nanolabs/methods.html]] Drug Development Platform, and it combines their computer-aided design (CAD) software called [[inSçquio™|http://www.parabon.com/frontier-powered-apps/insequio.html]] with nanoscale fabrication technology. 

"Currently, most drugs are developed using a screening technique where you try a lot of candidate compounds against targets to 'see what sticks'," says Armentrout. "Instead, we're designing very specific drugs based on their molecular structure, with target molecules that bind to receptors on specific types of cancer cells. In plug-and-play fashion, we can swap in or swap out any of the functional components, as needed, for a range of treatment approaches."

Concurrently, Parabon is developing other applications for the technology, including synthetic vaccines for biodefense and gene therapies that can target disease, based on information from an individual's genome. The technology also has applications outside of medicine, and Parabon's co-founders Chris Dwyer and Michael Norton are building upon the initial NSF-supported work to develop processes to create nanoscale logic gates, devices critical for computing, and molecular nanosensors. Source: From [[Drag-and-Drop DNA|http://www.nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=125990&WT.mc_id=USNSF_51]].

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[[DragonflyTV|http://www.pbs.org/parents/dragonflytv/about_program.html?anchor=1]] is a PBS science series for children, broadcast nationwide and on the internet. 

[[DragonflyTV|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DragonflyTV]] models authentic science inquiry through its unique approach: In each episode, ordinary kids conduct their own inquiry-based investigations, modeling the inquiry process and communicating the infectious enthusiasm that comes with making their own discoveries. The new season of six half hours focused entirely on nanoscience and nanotechnology. 

''[[“DragonflyTV Nano”|http://pbskids.org/dragonflytv/nano/]] is the first television science series to explore this challenging subject area''. Based in recent research into how to teach basic concepts in nanoscience at the middle-school level, the series follows a designed scope and sequence.

The seminar present previews of the new series and describe the production process, as well as the companion educational materials.

Presenters include Dr. Richard Hudson, Executive Producer; Dr. Lisa Regalla, Science Editor, and Joan Freese, Editor of Publications. More information, including a list of partners and the subjects covered in the series, can be found at: http://www.dftvpress.org.

[[A selection of videos can be viewed online|http://www.tpt.org/dragonflytv/nano/nano_video_promo.php]]. Source: ''[[DragonflyTV Nano – Using the Power of Television to Introduce Middle School Children to Nanotechnology|http://nanohub.org/resources/6123]]''

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<html><img style="float:left; margin-right:10px" src="img/nanopodium.png" title="Screenshot of Nanopodium"  width="95%" class="photo"/></html>The Committee Societal Dialogue Nanotechnology (CieMDN) recently offered its final report: “Responsibly onwards with nanotechnology; findings March 2009-January 2011,” to the Dutch government. State secretary Atsma (Infrastructure and Environment) promised to discuss it with the Second Chamber of Parliament on 17 February and that the government would give a public reaction in due course. 

Thematic conclusions are:
1) For the application domains of nanotechnology that interest Dutch citizens – health, food, personal care, security and privacy, it is important that citizens remain well-informed about the latest state of the art. Citizens are more in favour of sound information than avoiding risks.
2) Openness about the risks of nanotechnology is an important element of holding a sensible dialogue on nanotechnology, whether or not it is inspired by certain events or interest groups. The better the process of information, the more confident citizens are.
3) In the dialogue the potential contribution of nanotechnology to realising the UN millennium goals has not been discussed sufficiently and needs more attention.
4) Developing educational packages made by experienced organisations and teachers is suitable for informing groups of young people about nanotechnology.

Conclusions regarding the types of activities: informing, awareness raising and dialogue:
1) Up-to-date information on nanotechnology should continue to get attention. Complex issues can also be treated in this information supply (a.o. by Kennislink www.kennislink.nl ). Young people are eager to learn about nanotechnology.
2) Information supply on nanotechnology should be combined with activities for forming and exchanging opinions.
3) Art projects are suitable for stimulating awareness on nanotechnology, but especially to stimulate thinking about nanotechnology in a broad audience.
4) Dialogues should be held in small scale meetings like focus groups or workshops and not in internet forums or panels.

Preconditions for a successful dialogue:
1) In the dialogue discussion of concrete nanoproducts should be highlighted (rather than nanotechnology in general). Concrete products give best rise to personal and societal questions among participants.
2) “Vignetten” (short scenarios) are a good means for raising “soft impacts” of nanotechnology.
3) It is important that groups with different value-orientations are engaged in the dialogue. These different backgrounds enrich the dialogue in views and opinions and contribute to more nuanced formation of opinions.
4) It is important that all stakeholders are engaged in the development of and dialogue on nanotechnology. The different interests should be balanced to ensure exchange and further deepening of views and opinions. Source: [[Nanoforum - Dutch Nanodialogue concluded|http://www.nanoforum.org/nf06~modul~showmore~folder~99999~scc~news~scid~4190~.html?action=longview]]. More information: http://www.nanopodium.nl
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''The purpose of this review was to determine how effectively the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is managing the human health and environmental risks of nanomaterials.''

Nanomaterials are currently used in a wide variety of applications, including consumer products, health care, transportation, energy, and agriculture. The Agency considers nanomaterials as chemical substances that are controlled at the scale of approximately one-billionth of a meter. EPA has the authority, through several environmental statutes, to regulate nanomaterials. Although the development of nanomaterials and nanomaterial-enhanced products is expanding rapidly, the health implications of nanomaterials have not yet been determined.

''We found that EPA does not currently have sufficient information or processes to effectively manage the human health and environmental risks of nanomaterials''. EPA has the statutory authority to regulate nanomaterials but currently lacks the environmental and human health exposure and toxicological data to do so effectively. [[The Agency proposed a policy|Controversial regulation?]] under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act to identify new pesticides being registered with nanoscale materials. After minimal industry participation in a voluntary data collection program, the Agency has proposed mandatory reporting rules for nanomaterials under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, and is also developing proposed rules under the Toxic Substances Control Act.

However, even if mandatory reporting rules are approved, the effectiveness of EPA’s management of nanomaterials remains in question for a number of reasons:
* Program offices do not have a formal process to coordinate the dissemination and utilization of the potentially mandated information.
* EPA is not communicating an overall message to external stakeholders regarding policy changes and the risks of nanomaterials.
* EPA proposes to regulate nanomaterials as chemicals and its success in managing nanomaterials will be linked to the existing limitations of those applicable statutes.
* EPA’s management of nanomaterials is limited by lack of risk information and reliance on industry-submitted data.

These issues present significant barriers to effective nanomaterial management when combined with existing resource challenges. If EPA does not improve its internal processes and develop a clear and consistent stakeholder communication process, the Agency will not be able to assure that it is effectively managing nanomaterial risks.

''What We Recommend:'' We recommend that the Assistant Administrator for Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention develop a process to assure effective dissemination and coordination of nanomaterial information across relevant program offices. The Agency agreed with our recommendation and provided a corrective action plan with milestone dates. This recommendation is open with agreed-to actions pending. Source: [[EPA Needs to Manage Nanomaterial Risks More Effectively|http://www.epa.gov/oig/reports/2012/20121229-12-P-0162_glance.pdf]]. At a Glance. The review is detailed in the report [[EPA Needs to Manage Nanomaterials More Effectively|http://www.epa.gov/oig/reports/2012/20121229-12-P-0162.pdf]] by the Office of Inspector General, December 29, 2011

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With the expected increase in the applications of nanotechnology, there is an urgent need to identify what can be considered as a nanomaterial by clear unequivocal descriptions. This need to identify a nanomaterial comes from the uncertainty regarding safety evaluation and the risk assessment of nanomaterials. As a result, the SCENIHR (Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks) was invited to provide advice on the essential scientific elements of an overarching working definition for the term “nanomaterial” for regulatory purposes. The scientific opinion concluded that:

- Whereas physical and chemical properties of materials may change with size, there is no scientific justification for a single upper and lower size limit associated with these changes that can be applied to adequately define all nanomaterials.

- There is scientific evidence that no single methodology (or group of tests) can be applied to all nanomaterials.

- Size is universally applicable to define all nanomaterials and is the most suitable measurand. Moreover, an understanding of the size distribution of a nanomaterial is essential and the number size distribution is the most relevant consideration.

In order to define an enforceable definition of “nanomaterial” for regulatory use it is proposed to set an upper limit for nanomaterial size and to add to the proposed limit additional guidance (requirements) specific for the intended regulation. Crucial in the guidance that needs to be provided is the extended description of relevant criteria to characterise the nanoscale. Merely defining single upper and lower cut-off limits is not sufficient in view of the size distributions occurring in manufactured nanomaterials. Alternatively, a tiered approach may be required depending on the amount of information known for any specifically manufactured nanomaterial and its proposed use.

The scientific opinion recognises however that specific circumstances regarding risk assessment for regulatory purposes for certain areas and applications may require the adaptation of any overarching definition.

It should be stressed that '''nanomaterial' is a categorization of a material by the size of its constituent parts''. It neither implies a specific risk, nor does it necessarily mean that this material actually has new hazard properties compared to its constituent parts or larger sized counterparts. Source: From [[Opinion on the scientific basis for the definition of the term “nanomaterial”|http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/emerging/docs/scenihr_o_032.pdf]]. SCENIHR

See also [[About the definition of nanomaterials]]

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The European Food Safety Authority has published a guidance document for the risk assessment of engineered nanomaterial (ENM) applications in food and feed. The guidance is the work of the Authority’s Scientific Committee and is the first of its kind ''to give practical guidance for addressing potential risks arising from applications of nanoscience and nanotechnologies in the food and feed chain''. The guidance covers risk assessments for food and feed applications including food additives, enzymes, flavourings, food contact materials, novel foods, feed additives and pesticides.

The EFSA guidance, prepared in response to a request from the European Commission, sets out the considerations for risk assessment of ENM that may arise from their specific characteristics and properties. Importantly, the ENM guidance complements existing guidance documents for substances and products submitted for risk assessment in view of their possible authorisation in food and feed. It stipulates the additional data needed for the physical and chemical characterisation of ENM in comparison with conventional applications and outlines different toxicity testing approaches to be followed by applicants.

Commenting on the publication of the EFSA guidance, Professor Vittorio Silano, Chair of EFSA’s Scientific Committee explained, “A thorough characterisation of the engineered nanomaterials followed by adequate toxicity testing is essential for the risk assessment of these applications. Yet we recognise uncertainties related to the suitability of certain existing test methodologies and the availability of data for ENM applications in food and feed. The guidance makes recommendations about how risk assessments should reflect these uncertainties for food and feed applications.”

To assist with the practical use of the guidance, six scenarios are presented which outline different toxicity testing approaches. For each scenario, the guidance indicates the type of testing required.

EFSA conducted a public consultation on its preparatory work, acknowledging the importance of developing risk assessment methodologies in this field to support innovation whilst ensuring the safety of food and feed. In total 256 comments were received from 36 organisations spanning from academia, NGOs, industry to Member State and international authorities. All of these contributions were considered and incorporated into the guidance document where appropriate.

''Risk assessment of engineered nanomaterials is under fast development'' and consequently, in keeping with EFSA’s commitment to review its guidance for risk assessment on an ongoing basis, this work will be revised as appropriate.

-   ''[[Guidance on the risk assessment of the application of nanoscience and nanotechnologies in the food and feed chain|http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/2140.htm]]''

-   [[Outcome of the public consultation on the draft scientific opinion on Guidance on risk assessment concerning potential risks arising from applications of nanoscience and nanotechnologies to food and feed|http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/supporting/pub/126e.htm]]

Source: [[EFSA publishes first practical guidance for assessing nano applications in food & feed|http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/press/news/sc110510.htm]]

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[[Early Warning|http://www.earlywarninginc.com]] displayed its Biohazard Water Analyzer which offers the ''next generation in microbial testing''. Using a unique combination of advanced technologies, the Analyzer ''goes beyond lab culturing of indicator coliforms and directly measures individual species of pathogenic bacteria, protozoa and viruses in the same test.''

The Analyzer employs a revolutionary nanotechnology-based biosensor exclusively [[licensed from NASA|http://www.nasa.gov/centers/ames/news/releases/2008/08_45AR.html]]'s Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, Calif., and an on-board concentrator that processes a 10-liter water sample. The sample-to-report time is between 2 and 3 hours, and it allows rapid prevention measures to be enacted. There is no need for time-intensive processes like transporting a water sample to the lab or Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The Analyzer can be used as a transportable testing device or as a sensor node in a fully automated field sensor network.

"Biohazard outbreaks from pathogens and infectious diseases are responsible for the bulk of the 18.4 million deaths worldwide from communicable diseases estimated by the World Health Organization," said [[Neil Gordon, Early Warning's CEO|http://www.earlywarninginc.com/management.php]]. "Outbreaks occur every day in the U.S. and throughout the world from E.coli bacteria, Giardia and Cryptosporidium protozoan parasites, Vibrio cholerae bacteria (cholera), Plasmodium parasites (malaria), Salmonella bacteria, Avian Influenza virus, HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis viruses, Norovirus (Norwalk virus), Mycobacterim tubercolosis bacteria, MRSA superbugs, and hundreds of other microorganisms that can take days, weeks or months to properly identify and find the source. The key to preventing major outbreaks is frequent and comprehensive testing for each suspected pathogen, as most occurrences of pathogens are not detected until after people get sick or die."

[[Early Warning's Biohazard Water Analyzer|http://www.earlywarninginc.com/technologies.php]] was designed to meet the needs of water security professionals. An ultrafiltration concentrator condenses pathogens for each test from a 10-liter water sample instead of using a conventional 100-milliliter grab sample. Not only will a bigger sample size provide a better composite of pathogens in the water, it also has a much greater chance of capturing highly infectious protozoa and viruses typically found in very low concentrations. Magnetic beads coated with antibodies are used to separate target pathogens from harmless heterotrophic bacteria that can interfere with detection.

The concentrate is divided into two parts with the first sample being lysed and prepared to feed single strand of RNA to the biosensors for detection. The biosensors contain probes of single strands of nucleic acid for each pathogen type to be detected. If an exact match exists, double helixes are formed and give off electrical signals when voltage is applied to indicate the presence specific pathogens. The second sample is fed nutrients and heat to allow viable cells to begin reproducing. This allows the Analyzer to also detect increased signals from the presence of viable cells. The test results are then transmitted to operators through wired or wireless communications systems.

"NASA initially developed the [[biosensor technology|http://www.technologyreview.com/biomedicine/20860/]] to find a better way to detect specific bacteria and viruses in space missions without using a full scale laboratory and time-consuming amplification techniques," said [[Dr. Meyya Meyyappan|http://www.nasa.gov/centers/ames/research/2009/Meyya_Meyyappan.html]], chief scientist for exploration technology and former director of the [[Center for Nanotechnology|http://www.ipt.arc.nasa.gov/]] at Ames. "I am very impressed with the fully automated detection system that Early Warning has built around NASA's carbon nanotube-based technology, by employing a concentrator, microfluidics and other technologies that delivery a complete solution ready to be used by industry. "Our continued work with Early Warning has transitioned into a new generation of low cost biosensors to form a front line of defense against the transmission of deadly pathogens to safeguard our citizens in the U.S. and others around the world," added Meyyappan.

The Biohazard Water Analyzer will be released in the second half of 2009. Pre-release Beta systems are currently undergoing field testing in various sites and water systems. Early Warning and NASA have also entered into a Space Act Agreement to develop sensor applications for food and human safety. Source: [[Early Warning's Biohazard Water Analyzer Employs NASA's Nanotechnology-based Biosensor|http://eworldwire.com/pressreleases/19504]]. Transportable testing device cuts sample-to-report time to less than a handful of hours

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Atherosclerosis is characterized by hardening and thickening of artery walls, with serious health consequences. Researchers at TU/e have ''imaged the stages in the calcification at a nanometer scale. The growth of hardening follows almost the same process as bone or tooth formation.'' 

The images made by researcher [[Nico Sommerdijk|http://w3.chem.tue.nl/nl/people_pages/?script=showemp.php&pid=2826]] (Laboratory of Materials and Interface Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry) and his team resolve a long-standing dispute. As long ago as 1965, Aaron S. Posner suggested how the calcification - the formation of calcium phosphate – in a biological environment takes place, although this met with considerable resistance at the time, Sommerdijk explains.

However, his observations now confirm Posner’s 45-year-old idea. Calcium and phosphate ions dissolved in the blood are not deposited directly as crystalline material on the artery wall, but first pass through an intermediate phase. In this phase they first form prenucleation clusters, followed by amorphous nanoparticles measuring approximately 50 nanometers (1 nanometer is a millionth of a millimeter). Only then does crystallization occur, causing hardening of the artery wall. The researchers hope that this understanding will be used to develop new forms of treatment for atherosclerosis.

Sommerdijk has already showed that the process of shell growth and bone formation takes place in the same way as atherosclerosis. //“It seems that all mineralization systems in living beings take place in the same way. And there are increasing indications that it works similarly everywhere”//, says Sommerdijk. Source: [[Early phase of atherosclerosis imaged|http://w3.tue.nl/en/news/news_article/?tx_ttnews[tt_news]=10159&tx_ttnews[backPid]=361&cHash=227b254dc7]]. This work is detailed in the paper [[The role of prenucleation clusters in surface-induced calcium phosphate crystallization|http://www.nature.com/nmat/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nmat2900.html#a1]] by Archan Dey, Paul H. H. Bomans, Frank A. Müller, Julia Will, Peter M. Frederik, Gijsbertus de With & Nico A. J. M. Sommerdijk<<slider chkSldr [[The role of prenucleation clusters in surface-induced calcium phosphate crystallization]]  [[Abstract»]] [[read abstract of the paper]]>>

See also: [[Human-derived nanoparticles are causal to arterial disease processes]]

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<br>//We describe monocrystalline graphitic films, which are a few atoms thick but are nonetheless stable under ambient conditions, metallic, and of remarkably high quality. The films are found to be a two-dimensional semimetal with a tiny overlap between valence and conductance bands, and they exhibit a strong ambipolar electric field effect such that electrons and holes in concentrations up to 1013 per square centimeter and with room-temperature mobilities of 10,000 square centimeters per volt-second can be induced by applying gate voltage.//
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Super-strong wires made from carbon nanotubes, which could significantly improve the efficiency with which electricity is supplied across the UK have been developed in a usable form for the first time.

The wires are one tenth the weight of copper, and, if used in conventional systems, would also make vehicles more fuel efficient. The wires, developed by researchers at the University of Cambridge can also be joined to conventional metal wires, which until now has not been possible, raising the prospect of hybrid energy networks. 

Now, researchers at the University of Cambridge have achieved an unprecedented level of control over the properties of CNTs on a large scale, resulting in nanotubes which can be used in electrical systems. 
The catalytic continuous synthesis process of CNTs was originally developed by Professor Alan Windle from the same department. It uses chemical vapour deposition (CVD) to spin out the nanotubes in long threads, one-tenth of the width of a human hair, from what resembles a high-tech candy floss machine.

The spinning process has been further developed by Professor Windle and Dr Koziol for electrical applications, by achieving very selective synthesis, and producing highly pure material consisting exclusively of single-, double- or multi-wall nanotubes. Recently the process was pushed to the next level, where highly controlled metallic single wall CNTs were produced with a very high level of purity. While most CNTs are grown in ‘forests’ on a substrate with the use of a catalyst, the Cambridge team grows them by injecting the precursor materials (usually methane) and the catalyst in the gas phase into the reactor.

By controlling the diameter of the CNTs, the Cambridge team can indirectly control the chirality. The nano-size catalyst particles, in this case iron, act as a template for growing the nanotubes. The addition of sulphur or selective carbon species results in a cloud of nanotube fibres with enough mechanical integrity to be pulled out of the reactor in continuous strands at a rate of roughly 20 metres per minute.

Once the CNT threads are pulled out of the reactor, they are twisted together to form ultra-light, super-strong wires one millimetre thick, which can be insulated and used as electrical wiring. Source: From [[Carbon ‘candy floss’ could help prevent energy blackouts|http://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/carbon-candy-floss-could-help-prevent-energy-blackouts]].

''Context:''
January 15, 2013. [[First pure carbon nanotube fibers with good properties]]

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<br>Q. He, Y. -H. Chu, J. T. Heron, S. Y. Yang, W. I. Liang, C.Y. Kuo, H. J. Lin, P. Yu, C. W. Liang, R. J. Zeches, W. C. Kuo, J. Y. Juang, C. T. Chen, E. Arenholz, A. Scholl & R. Ramesh.  ''Nature Communications (2011) Volume: 2, Article number: 225 doi:10.1038/ncomms1221''

//Magnetoelectrics and multiferroics present exciting opportunities for electric-field control of magnetism. However, there are few room-temperature ferromagnetic-ferroelectrics. Among the various types of multiferroics the bismuth ferrite system has received much attention primarily because both the ferroelectric and the antiferromagnetic orders are quite robust at room temperature. Here we demonstrate the emergence of an enhanced spontaneous magnetization in a strain-driven rhombohedral and super-tetragonal mixed phase of BiFeO3. Using X-ray magnetic circular dichroism-based photoemission electron microscopy coupled with macroscopic magnetic measurements, we find that the spontaneous magnetization of the rhombohedral phase is significantly enhanced above the canted antiferromagnetic moment in the bulk phase, as a consequence of a piezomagnetic coupling to the adjacent tetragonal-like phase and the epitaxial constraint. Reversible electric-field control and manipulation of this magnetic moment at room temperature is also shown.//
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A team from the Cardiff University’s Schools of Biosciences and Physics and Astronomy have made ''a breakthrough in our understanding of proteins - the workhorse molecules of the cell and nature’s very own nano machines''.

The group has successfully detected electric current through a single molecule of a protein, measuring just 5 nanometres long (a nanometer is one-millionth of a millimetre). Electric current is key in many natural processes including detection of light in the eye, photosynthesis and respiration.

The team showed that the protein could carry large currents, equivalent to a human hair carrying one amp. The team also discovered that current flow could be regulated in much the same way as transistors, the tiny devices driving computers and smartphones, work but on a smaller scale: the proteins are only a quarter of the size of current silicon based transistors.

<html><img style="float:left; margin-bottom:10px" src="img/cardiff.jpg" title="Single molecule of electron transfer protein cytochrome b562 bound between two gold electrode surfaces. Credit: Cardiff University Schools of Biosciences and Physics and Astronomy" class="photo"  width="50%"/></html>To access this molecular information, the team has pioneered the use of synthetic biology with a technique called STM (Scanning Tunneling Microscopy) so that electrical current flowing through a protein can be measured right down to the single individual molecule.

Prior to this work, measurement of millions, if not billions of proteins was only possible, so losing crucial details of how an individual molecule functions.

Dr [[Jones|http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/biosi/contactsandpeople/stafflist/i-l/jones-dafydd-dr-overview_new.html]], School of Biosciences, said: "If you step back and listen to the sound of a large crowd, this sound is an accumulation of many individual voices and conversations. What we have done is the molecular equivalent to listening to individual voices in the crowd.

"By marrying our knowledge and ability to manipulate proteins at the molecular level with advanced approaches developed in the School of Physics and Astronomy and DTU Denmark we can examine the individual complex molecules fundamental to all life. The transistor behavior is particularly interesting but in time, it may be possible to integrate proteins with electronic components."

Collaborators Dr [[Martin Elliott|http://www.astro.cardiff.ac.uk/contactsandpeople/?page=full&id=127]] and Dr [[Emyr Macdonald|http://www.astro.cardiff.ac.uk/contactsandpeople/?page=full&id=242]], School of Physics and Astronomy added: "The highly conducting nature of this protein was a surprise and the result raises questions about the fundamental nature of electron transfer in proteins.

''"This gives a new powerful tool for studying enzymes and other important biological molecules"''. Source: From [[Electronics of nature's nano machines|http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/news/articles/electroneg-nanobeiriannau-natur-9803.html]]. The team’s findings have been published as a series of papers in the journals <html><a href="http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/nl103334q" title="Single-Molecule Mapping of Long-range Electron Transport for a Cytochrome b562 Variant">Nano Letters</a></html>, <html><a href="http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/nn2036818" title="Orientation-Dependent Electron Transport in a Single Redox Protein">ACS Nano</a></html>, <html><a href="http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/smll.201102416/abstract" title="Direct Binding of a Redox Protein for Single-Molecule Electron Transfer Measurements">Small</a></html> and <html><a href="http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2012/NR/c2nr32131a" title="Fast electron transfer through a single molecule natively structured redox protein ">Nanoscale</a></html>. 

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Bombarding DNA nucleotides and mammalian meat with ‘femto-neutrons’ has opened up the path to femtomedicine, an entirely new cancer diagnostics, it was reported at [[First Global Congress on NanoEngineering for Medicine and Biology|http://www.asmeconferences.org/nemb2010/]]. ''Femto-neutrons or ‘f